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A Textbook of Neuroanatomy

ISBN: 978-1-118-68774-1
464 pages
May 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
A Textbook of Neuroanatomy (1118687744) cover image


This complete, yet concise text is designed to help students easily master the anatomy and basic physiology of the nervous system. Accessible and clear, the text highlights interrelationships between systems, structures and the rest of the body as it moves through various regions of the brain. The first nine chapters introduce the main principles and terms in neuroanatomy, and the remaining chapters then use this information to describe the anatomy and function of the various pathways and discrete systems.
  • Navigates students through the general principles and integrative components of the Nervous System
  • Highlights interrelationships between systems, structures, and the rest of the body
  • Emphasizes clinical relevance through clinical cases, questions, and follow-up discussions in each chapter
  • Indicates medical conditions relevant to each chapter in the Clinical Considerations
  • Features an accompanying website, www.blackwellpublishing.com/patestas, which includes all the illustrations, along with animations of key processes; also available on CD-ROM. Please contact our Higher Education team at HigherEducation@wiley.com for more information.
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Table of Contents

Preface viii

Part 1 General Principles of the Nervous System 1

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Nervous System 3

Cells of the nervous system 3

Central nervous system 5

Peripheral nervous system 7

Questions to ponder 9

Chapter 2 Development of the Nervous System 10

Clinical case 10

Early development 11

Neurulation 12

Early development of the spinal cord and brain 18

Development of the spinal cord 19

Development of the brain 21

Clinical considerations 26

Synonyms and eponyms 27

Follow-up to clinical case 27

Questions to ponder 27

Chapter 3 Histophysiology of the Nervous System 28

Clinical case 28

Neurons 29

Neuroglia 35

Generation and conduction of nerve impulses 38

Clinical considerations 42

Synonyms and eponyms 43

Follow-up to clinical case 43

Questions to ponder 43

Chapter 4 Neurotransmitter Substances 44

Clinical case 44

Classification of neurotransmitter substances 47

Clinical considerations 52

Follow-up to clinical case 53

Questions to ponder 53

Chapter 5 Spinal Cord 54

Clinical case 54

Morphology of the spinal cord 55

Internal morphology of the spinal cord 60

Vascular supply of the spinal cord 63

Clinical considerations 66

Synonyms and eponyms 67

Follow-up to clinical case 67

Questions to ponder 67

Chapter 6 Gross Anatomy of the Brain 68

Clinical case 68

Cerebrum 69

Diencephalon 77

Cerebellum 77

Brainstem 80

Clinical considerations 82

Synonyms and eponyms 82

Follow-up to clinical case 82

Questions to ponder 83

Chapter 7 Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid 84

Clinical case 84

Cranial meninges 85

Spinal meninges 92

Venous sinuses of the cranial dura mater 93

Cerebrospinal fluid 95

Ventricles of the brain 95

Clinical considerations 97

Synonyms and eponyms 97

Follow-up to clinical case 97

Questions to ponder 98

Chapter 8 Vascular Supply of the Central Nervous System 99

Clinical case 99

Vascular supply of the spinal cord 100

Arterial supply of the brain 101

Venous drainage of the brain 112

Clinical considerations 116

Synonyms and eponyms 117

Follow-up to clinical case 117

Questions to ponder 117

Chapter 9 Autonomic Nervous System 118

Clinical case 118

Sympathetic nervous system 119

Parasympathetic nervous system 126

Enteric nervous system 129

Neurotransmitters and receptors of the autonomic nervous system 130

Pelvic autonomic functions 131

Clinical considerations 132

Synonyms and eponyms 133

Follow-up to clinical case 133

Questions to ponder 133

Part 2 Integrative Components of the Nervous System 135

Chapter 10 Ascending Sensory Pathways 137

Clinical case 137

Sensory receptors 138

Anterolateral system 146

Tactile sensation and proprioception 154

Sensory pathways to the cerebellum 157

Clinical considerations 161

Modulation of nociception 166

Neuroplasticity 168

Synonyms and eponyms 169

Follow-up to clinical case 170

Questions to ponder 170

Chapter 11 Motor Cortex and Descending Motor Pathways 171

Clinical case 171

Cortical areas controlling motor activity 172

Descending motor pathways 174

Clinical considerations 187

Synonyms and eponyms 188

Follow-up to clinical case 189

Questions to ponder 189

Chapter 12 Basal Ganglia 190

Clinical case 190

Components of the basal ganglia 191

Nuclei associated with the basal ganglia 196

Input, intrinsic, and output nuclei of the basal ganglia 196

Connections of the basal ganglia 198

Circuits connecting the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebral cortex 205

Other circuits of the basal ganglia 207

Neurotransmitters of the basal ganglia 208

“Direct” and “indirect” loops (pathways) of the basal ganglia 209

Circuits that modulate activity of the basal ganglia 210

Clinical considerations 212

Synonyms and eponyms 217

Follow-up to clinical case 218

Questions to ponder 218

Chapter 13 Cerebellum 219

Clinical case 219

Morphology of the cerebellum 220

Cerebellar peduncles 227

Deep cerebellar nuclei 229

Afferents (input) to the cerebellum 231

Efferents (output) from the cerebellum 235

Functional organization of the cerebellum: intrinsic circuitry 236

Clinical considerations 238

Synonyms and eponyms 240

Follow-up to clinical case 240

Questions to ponder 240

Chapter 14 Reticular Formation 241

Clinical case 241

Morphology of the reticular formation 241

Zones of the reticular formation 242

Nuclei associated with the reticular formation 245

Input to and output from the reticular formation 245

Functions of the reticular formation 245

Clinical considerations 250

Synonyms and eponyms 251

Follow-up to clinical case 251

Questions to ponder 252

Chapter 15 Cranial Nerves 253

Clinical case 253

Olfactory nerve (CN I) 256

Optic nerve (CN II) 256

Oculomotor nerve (CN III) 258

Trochlear nerve (CN IV) 260

Trigeminal nerve (CN V) 261

Abducent nerve (CN VI) 266

Facial nerve (CN VII) 268

Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) 272

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) 272

Vagus nerve (CN X) 274

Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) 277

Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) 277

Synonyms and eponyms 280

Follow-up to clinical case 280

Questions to ponder 281

Chapter 16 Visual System 282

Clinical case 282

Eye 282

Central visual pathways 287

Visual reflexes 291

Clinical considerations 298

Synonyms and eponyms 302

Follow-up to clinical case 302

Questions to ponder 303

Chapter 17 Auditory System 304

Clinical case 304

Ear 304

Auditory transmission 308

Central auditory pathways 309

Clinical considerations 315

Synonyms and eponyms 316

Follow-up to clinical case 316

Questions to ponder 317

Chapter 18 Vestibular System 318

Clinical case 318

Vestibular apparatus 319

Vestibular nerve (CN VIII) 325

Central pathways of the vestibular system 326

Control of ocular movements 329

Vestibular nystagmus 332

Caloric nystagmus 334

Synonyms and eponyms 334

Follow-up to clinical case 334

Questions to ponder 335

Chapter 19 Olfactory System 336

Clinical case 336

Olfactory receptor cells 336

Olfactory transduction 338

Olfactory nerve (CN I) 338

Central connections of the olfactory system 339

Clinical considerations 342

Synonyms and eponyms 342

Follow-up to clinical case 342

Questions to ponder 343

Chapter 20 Limbic System 344

Clinical case 344

Limbic lobe 345

Brainstem centers associated with limbic system function 355

Pathways of the limbic system 356

Clinical considerations 358

Synonyms and eponyms 359

Follow-up to clinical case 359

Questions to ponder 360

Chapter 21 Hypothalamus 361

Clinical case 361

Borders 362

Hypothalamic zones and component nuclei 362

Hypothalamic regions (areas) and component nuclei 368

Connections of the hypothalamus 370

Pathways of the hypothalamus 370

Functions of the hypothalamus 374

Hypothalamohypophyseal connections 376

Clinical considerations 382

Synonyms and eponyms 383

Follow-up to clinical case 383

Questions to ponder 384

Chapter 22 Thalamus 385

Clinical case 385

Borders 385

Anatomy 385

Internal and external medullary laminae 388

Thalamic nuclei 389

Clinical considerations 395

Synonyms and eponyms 396

Follow-up to clinical case 396

Questions to ponder 397

Chapter 23 Cerebral Cortex 398

Clinical case 398

Cells of the cerebral cortex 400

Types of cortex 402

Cell layers of the neocortex 402

Vertical columnar organization of the cerebral cortex 404

Afferents (input) to the cerebral cortex 404

Efferents (output) from the cerebral cortex 404

Internal capsule and corona radiata 406

Lobes of the cerebral cortex 408

Functional areas of the cerebral cortex 408

Cerebral dominance 417

Clinical considerations 417

Synonyms and eponyms 421

Follow-up to clinical case 422

Questions to ponder 423

Questions to ponder: answers to odd questions 425

Index 435

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Author Information

Maria A. Patestas is Associate Professor of Anatomy at Des Moines University. She has taught gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, embryology, and histology in various programs, and served as the chief coordinator of the physical therapy program neuroanatomy course from 1995 to 2001. In 2000, Dr Patestas received the Outstanding Teacher Award from the Physical Therapy Program Class.

Leslie P. Gartner is Professor of Anatomy in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the Dental School of the University of Maryland. He has received numerous teaching awards and is the author of Essentials of Oral Histology and Embryology, 3rd Edition (1999), Oral Histology and Embryology, 2nd Edition (1999) as well as the coauthor of the well-respected Textbook of Head and Neck Anatomy, 3rd Edition, with James L. Hiatt (2001), and coauthor of the Color Textbook of Histology, 2nd Edition (2001) and the Color Atlas of Histology, 4th Edition (2005) also with James L. Hiatt. The atlas, which is used by almost half the US medical schools, has been translated into eight languages. He also coauthored Cell Biology and Histology, 4th Edition (2003) with James L. Hiatt and Judy M. Strum and is the Histology consultant to Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, 28th Edition (2006).

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The Wiley Advantage

  • Navigates students through the general principles and integrative components of the Nervous System
  • Highlights interrelationships between systems, structures, and the rest of the body
  • Emphasizes clinical relevance through clinical cases, questions, and follow-up discussions in each chapter
  • Indicates medical conditions relevant to each chapter in the Clinical Considerations
  • Features an accompanying website which includes all the illustrations, along with animations of key processes; also available on CD-ROM
See More

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