Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach
May 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Taking the reader through how the body’s demand for nutrients continues to change across the many stages of life, such an approach allows full consideration of how diet relates to health, wellbeing and disease and provides an excellent vehicle to illustrate the key concepts in nutrition science. Carefully structured with the student’s needs in mind, each chapter includes:
- Learning objectives
- Research highlights, clearly displayed in boxes
- Suggested further reading
- Summary boxes
- Brief self-assessment tests
- Additional resources are published on the book’s website: www.wiley.com/go/langleyevans
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach will provide the undergraduate student of nutrition with an excellent learning resource. The book will also be a valuable tool for those studying areas such as human biology, health studies and sports science, where an understanding of human nutrition is required. Professionals working in nutrition, dietetics and related health sciences will also find much of value within this book. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where nutrition, dietetics, health and medical sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this book available on their shelves.
1. Introduction to Lifespan Nutrition.
1.1 The lifespan approach to nutrition.
1.2 The concept of balance.
1.2.1 A supply and demand model.
184.108.40.206 Increased demand.
220.127.116.11 The metabolic response to trauma.
18.104.22.168 Compromised supply and deficiency.
1.2.4 Classical balance studies.
1.2.5 Overall nutritional status.
1.3 Nutrition requirements change across the lifespan.
1.4 Assessment of nutritional status.
1.4.1 Anthropometric measures.
1.4.2 Estimating dietary intakes.
22.214.171.124 Indirect measures.
126.96.36.199 Direct measures.
1.4.3 Biomarkers of nutritional status.
1.4.4 Clinical examination.
1.5 Dietary reference values.
1.5.1 The UK dietary reference value system.
1.5.2 Dietary reference values in other countries.
2. Before Life Begins.
2.2 Nutrition and female fertility.
2.2.1 Determinants of fertility and infertility.
188.8.131.52 The endocrine control of female reproduction.
184.108.40.206 Disordered reproductive cycling.
220.127.116.11 Polycystic ovary syndrome.
18.104.22.168 Assisted reproductive technologies.
2.2.2 Importance of body fat.
2.2.3 Role of leptin.
2.2.4 Antioxidant nutrients.
2.2.5 Caffeine and alcohol.
2.3 Nutrition and male fertility.
2.3.1 Determinants of fertility and infertility.
2.3.6 Antioxidant nutrients.
2.3.8 Phytoestrogens and environmental estrogens.
2.4 Preparation for pregnancy.
2.4.1 Why prepare for pregnancy?
2.4.2 Vitamin A and liver.
2.4.3 Folic acid and neural tube defects.
22.214.171.124 Supplementation with folic acid.
126.96.36.199 Fortification with folic acid.
3.2 Physiological demands of pregnancy.
3.2.1 Maternal weight gain and body composition changes.
3.2.2 Blood volume expansion and cardiovascular changes.
3.2.3 Renal changes.
3.2.4 Respiratory changes.
3.2.5 Gastrointestinal changes.
3.2.6 Metabolic adaptations.
3.3 Nutrient requirements in pregnancy.
3.3.1 Energy, protein, and lipids.
188.8.131.52 Calcium and other minerals.
184.108.40.206 Vitamin D.
3.4 Diet in relation to pregnancy outcomes.
3.4.1 Miscarriage and stillbirth.
3.4.2 Premature labor.
220.127.116.11 Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain.
18.104.22.168 Alcohol and caffeine consumption.
22.214.171.124 Oral health.
3.4.3 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
126.96.36.199 The etiology of PE.
188.8.131.52 Nutrition-related factors and PE.
3.4.4 Abnormal labor.
3.5 Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP).
3.5.1 NVP as a normal physiological process.
3.5.2 Hyperemesis gravidarum.
3.6 Cravings and aversions.
3.7 Gastrointestinal disturbances in pregnancy.
3.8 High-risk pregnancies.
3.8.1 Gestational diabetes.
3.8.2 Multiple pregnancies.
3.8.3 Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
4. Fetal Nutrition and Disease in Later Life.
4.2 The developmental origins of adult disease.
4.2.1 The concept of programming.
4.2.2 Fetal programming and human disease.
4.3 Evidence linking maternal nutrition to disease in later life.
4.3.2 Criticisms of the programming hypothesis.
4.3.3 Experimental studies.
184.108.40.206 Global undernutrition.
4.4 Mechanistic basis of fetal programming.
4.4.1 Thrifty phenotypes and genotypes.
4.4.2 Predictive adaptive responses.
4.4.3 Tissue remodeling.
4.4.4 Endocrine imbalance.
4.4.5 Nutrient–gene interactions.
4.4.6 Epigenetic regulation
4.5 Implications of the programming hypothesis.
4.5.1 Public health interventions.
4.5.2 Trans-generational transmission of disease risk.
5. Lactation and Infant Feeding.
5.2 The physiology of lactation.
5.2.1 Anatomy of the breast.
220.127.116.11 The nipple and areola.
18.104.22.168 The lactiferous ducts.
22.214.171.124 The lactiferous sinuses.
126.96.36.199 The alveolar cells.
188.8.131.52 The rooting reflex.
5.2.2 Synthesis of milk.
184.108.40.206 Foremilk and hindmilk.
220.127.116.11 Time of day.
18.104.22.168 Course of lactation.
22.214.171.124 Synthesis of carbohydrates.
126.96.36.199 Origins of milk fats.
188.8.131.52 Milk proteins.
5.2.3 Endocrine control of lactation.
184.108.40.206 The breast during pregnancy.
220.127.116.11 Established lactation.
18.104.22.168 The breast after weaning.
5.2.4 Maintenance of lactation.
5.2.5 Nutritional demands of lactation.
5.3 The advantages of breast-feeding.
5.3.1 Advantages for the mother.
5.3.2 Advantages for the infant.
5.3.3 Recommendation to feed to 6 months.
5.4 Trends in breast-feeding behavior.
5.4.1 Reasons why women do not breast-feed.
5.4.2 Promoting breast-feeding.
5.5 Situations in which breast-feeding is not advised.
5.6 Alternatives to breast-feeding.
5.6.1 Cows milk formulas.
22.214.171.124 Milk stages and follow-on milk.
5.6.2 Preterm formulas.
5.6.3 Soy formulas.
5.6.4 Hydrolyzed protein and amino-acid-based formulas.
5.6.5 Other formulas.
6. Nutrition and Childhood.
6.2 Infancy (birth to five).
6.2.1 The key developmental milestones.
6.2.2 Nutrient requirements.
126.96.36.199 Macronutrients and energy.
6.2.3 Nutrient intakes and infants.
6.2.4 Transition to an adult pattern of food intake.
188.8.131.52 Nutrition-related problems.
184.108.40.206 Barriers to healthy nutrition.
6.3 Childhood (five to thirteen).
6.3.1 Nutrient requirements of the older child.
6.3.2 School meals and the promotion of healthy eating.
6.3.3 The importance of breakfast.
6.4 Obesity in children.
6.4.1 The rising prevalence of obesity.
6.4.2 The causes of obesity in childhood.
220.127.116.11 Physical activity.
18.104.22.168 Food intake.
22.214.171.124 Genetic disorders.
6.4.3 The consequences of childhood obesity.
126.96.36.199 Immediate health consequences.
188.8.131.52 Tracking of obesity: consequences for the future.
6.4.4 Treatment of childhood obesity.
6.4.5 Prevention of childhood obesity.
7. Nutrition and Adolescence.
7.2 Physical development.
7.2.1 Growth rate.
7.2.2 Body composition.
7.2.3 Puberty and sexual maturation.
7.2.4 Bone growth.
7.3 Psychosocial development.
7.4 Nutritional requirements in adolescence.
7.4.1 Macronutrients and energy.
7.5 Nutritional intakes in adolescence.
7.5.1 Factors that influence food choice.
7.5.2 Food consumed out of the home.
7.5.3 Meal skipping and snacking.
7.6 Potential problems with nutrition.
7.6.1 Dieting and weight control.
7.6.2 The vegetarian teenager.
7.6.3 Sport and physical activity.
7.6.4 Eating disorders.
184.108.40.206 Anorexia nervosa.
220.127.116.11 Bulimia nervosa.
7.6.5 The pregnant teenager.
7.6.7 Tobacco smoking.
7.6.8 Drug abuse.
8. The Adult Years.
8.2 Changing needs for nutrients.
8.3 Guidelines for healthy nutrition.
8.4 Disease states associated with unhealthy nutrition and lifestyle.
18.104.22.168 Classification of overweight and obesity.
22.214.171.124 Prevalence and trends in obesity.
126.96.36.199 Causes of obesity in adulthood.
188.8.131.52 Treatment of obesity.
8.4.2 Type-2 diabetes.
8.4.3 The metabolic syndrome.
8.4.4 Cardiovascular disease.
184.108.40.206 What is cardiovascular disease?
220.127.116.11 Risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
18.104.22.168 Nutrition-related factors and risk of cardiovascular disease.
22.214.171.124 What is cancer?
126.96.36.199 Diet is the main determinant of cancer risk.
188.8.131.52 Nutritional epidemiology and cancer.
184.108.40.206 Dietary factors that may promote cancer.
220.127.116.11 Dietary factors that may reduce cancer risk.
9. Nutrition, Aging, and the Elderly.
9.2 The aging population.
9.3 The aging process.
9.3.1 Impact on physiological systems.
9.3.2 Mechanisms of cellular senescence.
18.104.22.168 Oxidative senescence.
22.214.171.124 The role of p53 activation.
126.96.36.199 Telomere shortening.
188.8.131.52 The INK4a/ARF axis.
9.3.3 Nutritional modulation of the aging process.
184.108.40.206 Caloric restriction and lifespan.
220.127.116.11 Fetal programming of lifespan.
18.104.22.168 Supplementary antioxidants.
9.4 Nutrient requirements of the elderly.
9.4.1 Macronutrients and energy.
9.4.3 Specific guidelines for the elderly.
9.5 Barriers to healthy nutrition in the elderly.
9.5.1 Malnutrition and the elderly.
9.5.3 Social isolation.
9.5.5 Physical changes.
9.5.6 Combating malnutrition in the elderly.
9.6 Common nutrition-related health problems.
9.6.1 Bone disorders.
22.214.171.124 Bone mineralization and remodeling.
126.96.36.199 Osteoporosis pathology and prevalence.
188.8.131.52 Risk factors for osteoporosis.
184.108.40.206 Dietary interventions for osteoporosis prevention.
220.127.116.11 Pagets disease of bone.
9.6.2 Immunity and infection.
9.6.3 Digestive tract disorders.
18.104.22.168 Mouth and esophagus.
22.214.171.124 Small intestine.
126.96.36.199 Large intestine.
188.8.131.52 Iron deficiency anemia.
184.108.40.206 Vitamin B12 deficiency.
220.127.116.11 Folic acid deficiency.
18.104.22.168 Cognitive impairment and anemia.
10. Personalized Nutrition.
10.2 The individual response to variation in food intake.
10.2.1 Genes may determine food intake.
10.2.1.1 Regulation of food intake.
10.2.1.2 Regulation of macronutrient intake.
10.2.1.3 Regulation of taste.
10.2.2 Genes may determine nutrient bioavailability and utilization.
10.2.3 Nutritional regulation of gene expression.
10.3 Identifying disease risk biomarkers.
10.4 Genetic influences on response to nutrients and disease risk.
10.4.2 Cardiovascular disease.
10.5 Nutrient–gene interactions—a lifespan approach.
10.6 The future of nutritional advice?
Glossary of Terms.
Additional resources are published on the book’s web site
- Looks at the key concepts of nutrition science through a lifespan approach
- Clearly laid out with learning objectives, summary boxes and research highlights
- Includes self-assessment tests to facilitate student learning
- Provides students with a international perspective