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Power System Relaying, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-70151-5
400 pages
October 2013
Power System Relaying, 4th Edition (1118701518) cover image

Description

With emphasis on power system protection from the network operator perspective, this classic textbook explains the fundamentals of relaying and power system phenomena including stability, protection and reliability. The fourth edition brings coverage up-to-date with important advancements in protective relaying due to significant changes in the conventional electric power system that will integrate renewable forms of energy and, in some countries, adoption of the Smart Grid initiative.

New features of the Fourth Edition include:

  • an entirely new chapter on protection considerations for renewable energy sources, looking at grid interconnection techniques, codes, protection considerations and practices. 
  • new concepts in power system protection such as Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) and system integrity protection (SIPS) -how to use WAMS for protection, and SIPS and control with WAMS.
  • phasor measurement units (PMU), transmission line current differential, high voltage dead tank circuit breakers, and relays for multi-terminal lines.
  • revisions to the Bus Protection Guide IEEE C37.234 (2009) and to the sections on additional protective requirements and restoration.

Used by universities and industry courses throughout the world, Power System Relaying is an essential text for graduate students in electric power engineering and a reference for practising relay and protection engineers who want to be kept up to date with the latest advances in the industry.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition xi

Preface to the Third Edition xii

Preface to the Second Edition xiii

Preface to the First Edition xiv

1 Introduction to Protective Relaying 1

1.1 What is Relaying? 1

1.2 Power System Structural Considerations 2

1.3 Power System Bus Configurations 4

1.4 The Nature of Relaying 8

1.5 Elements of a Protection System 14

1.6 International Practices 18

1.7 Summary 19

Problems 19

References 23

2 Relay Operating Principles 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Detection of Faults 26

2.3 Relay Designs 30

2.4 Electromechanical Relays 31

2.5 Solid-State Relays 40

2.6 Computer Relays 44

2.7 Other Relay Design Considerations 45

2.8 Control Circuits: A Beginning 48

2.9 Summary 49

Problems 49

References 51

3 Current and Voltage Transformers 53

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Steady-State Performance of Current Transformers 54

3.3 Transient Performance of Current Transformers 61

3.4 Special Connections of Current Transformers 64

3.5 Linear Couplers and Electronic Current Transformers 67

3.6 Voltage Transformers 68

3.7 Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformers 69

3.8 Transient Performance of CCVTs 72

3.9 Electronic Voltage Transformers 75

3.10 Summary 76

Problems 76

References 78

4 Nonpilot Overcurrent Protection of Transmission Lines 79

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Fuses, Sectionalizers, and Reclosers 81

4.3 Inverse, Time-Delay Overcurrent Relays 84

4.4 Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays 94

4.5 Directional Overcurrent Relays 96

4.6 Polarizing 98

4.7 Summary 102

Problems 102

References 105

5 Nonpilot Distance Protection of Transmission Lines 107

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 Stepped Distance Protection 107

5.3 R–X Diagram 110

5.4 Three-Phase Distance Relays 114

5.5 Distance Relay Types 123

5.6 Relay Operation with Zero Voltage 124

5.7 Polyphase Relays 125

5.8 Relays for Multiterminal Lines 126

5.9 Protection of Parallel Lines 129

5.10 Effect of Transmission Line Compensation Devices 132

5.11 Loadability of Relays 134

5.12 Summary 136

Problems 136

References 138

6 Pilot Protection of Transmission Lines 139

6.1 Introduction 139

6.2 Communication Channels 140

6.3 Tripping Versus Blocking 144

6.4 Directional Comparison Blocking 145

6.5 Directional Comparison Unblocking 149

6.6 Underreaching Transfer Trip 150

6.7 Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip 153

6.8 Permissive Underreaching Transfer Trip 154

6.9 Phase Comparison Relaying 155

6.10 Current Differential 158

6.11 Pilot Wire Relaying 159

6.12 Multiterminal Lines 160

6.13 The Smart Grid 163

6.14 Summary 163

Problems 164

References 165

7 Rotating Machinery Protection 167

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Stator Faults 168

7.3 Rotor Faults 183

7.4 Unbalanced Currents 184

7.5 Overload 184

7.6 Overspeed 186

7.7 Abnormal Voltages and Frequencies 187

7.8 Loss of Excitation 188

7.9 Loss of Synchronism 189

7.10 Power Plant Auxiliary System 190

7.11 Winding Connections 196

7.12 Startup and Motoring 196

7.13 Inadvertent Energization 198

7.14 Torsional Vibration 200

7.15 Sequential Tripping 200

7.16 Summary 201

Problems 202

References 204

8 Transformer Protection 207

8.1 Introduction 207

8.2 Overcurrent Protection 208

8.3 Percentage Differential Protection 210

8.4 Causes of False Differential Currents 213

8.5 Supervised Differential Relays 219

8.6 Three-Phase Transformer Protection 221

8.7 Volts-per-Hertz Protection 226

8.8 Nonelectrical Protection 227

8.9 Protection Systems for Transformers 228

8.10 Summary 234

Problems 234

References 236

9 Bus, Reactor, and Capacitor Protection 237

9.1 Introduction to Bus Protection 237

9.2 Overcurrent Relays 238

9.3 Percentage Differential Relays 238

9.4 High-Impedance Voltage Relays 239

9.5 Moderately High-Impedance Relay 241

9.6 Linear Couplers 241

9.7 Directional Comparison 242

9.8 Partial Differential Protection 243

9.9 Introduction to Shunt Reactor Protection 244

9.10 Dry-Type Reactors 245

9.11 Oil-Immersed Reactors 247

9.12 Introduction to Shunt Capacitor Bank Protection 248

9.13 Static Var Compensator Protection 250

9.14 Static Compensator 252

9.15 Summary 252

Problems 253

References 254

10 Power System Phenomena and Relaying Considerations 255

10.1 Introduction 255

10.2 Power System Stability 255

10.3 Steady-State Stability 256

10.4 Transient Stability 261

10.5 Voltage Stability 266

10.6 Dynamics of System Frequency 267

10.7 Series Capacitors and Reactors 270

10.8 Independent Power Producers 271

10.9 Islanding 272

10.10 Blackouts and Restoration 272

10.11 Summary 275

Problems 275

References 276

11 Relaying for System Performance 277

11.1 Introduction 277

11.2 System Integrity Protection Schemes 277

11.3 Underfrequency Load Shedding 278

11.4 Undervoltage Load Shedding 280

11.5 Out-of-Step Relaying 281

11.6 Loss-of-Field Relaying 285

11.7 Adaptive relaying 285

11.8 Hidden Failures 288

11.9 Distance Relay Polarizing 289

11.10 Summary 292

Problems 292

References 292

12 Switching Schemes and Procedures 293

12.1 Introduction 293

12.2 Relay Testing 293

12.3 Computer Programs for Relay Setting 295

12.4 Breaker Failure Relaying 296

12.5 Reclosing 299

12.6 Single-Phase Operation 300

12.7 Summary 300

References 300

13 Monitoring Performance of Power Systems 301

13.1 Introduction 301

13.2 Oscillograph Analysis 302

13.3 Synchronized Sampling 309

13.4 Fault Location 311

13.5 Alarms 316

13.6 COMTRADE and SYNCHROPHASOR Standards 318

13.7 Summary 319

Problems 320

References 322

14 Improved Protection with Wide Area Measurements (WAMS) 323

14.1 Introduction 323

14.2 WAMS Organization 323

14.3 Using WAMS for Protection 324

14.4 Supervising Backup Protection 326

14.5 Impedance Excursions into Relay Settings 327

14.6 Stability-Related Protections 328

14.7 SIPS and Control with WAMS 333

14.8 Summary and Future Prospects 334

References 334

15 Protection Considerations for Renewable Resources 337
James K. Niemira, P.E.

15.1 Introduction 337

15.2 Types of Renewable Generation 337

15.3 Connections to the Power Grid and Protection Considerations 344

15.4 Grid Codes for Connection of Renewables 351

15.5 Summary 355

References 355

Appendix A: IEEE Device Numbers and Functions 357

Appendix B: Symmetrical Components 359

Appendix C: Power Equipment Parameters 365

Appendix D: Inverse Time Overcurrent Relay Characteristics 369

Index 373

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