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Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries

ISBN: 978-1-118-73175-8
348 pages
December 2013
Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries (1118731751) cover image

Description

The global chemical and petroleum industries have always had the challenge of disposing of chemical wastes, by-products, and residuals, but with traditional techniques such as deep well injection and incineration proving flawed, the need for disposal by legal, safe and economically effective means has never been greater. Increasingly, the need to produce without pollution is the preferred model for industry, and the strategy of waste minimization is seen as the best way forward. This is particularly relevant in the petrochemical and chemical industries, where large quantities of hazardous and toxic wastes are produced which can pose formidable disposal problems.

Covering the essentials of treatment, recovery and disposal of waste, as well as the requirements for process design and engineering of equipment and facilities in the chemical and petroleum industries, this book includes chapters on: 

  • Wastewater Treatment
  • Physical Unit Operations
  • Chemical Treatment
  • Biological Treatment
  • Wastewater Treatment in Unconventional Oil and Gas Industries
  • Wastewater Sewer Systems
  • Sewage Treatment
  • Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal
Primarily aimed at researchers and advanced students in chemical, petroleum, and environmental fields as well as those in civil engineering, this book should also provide a unique reference for industry practitioners and anyone interested in chemical and petroleum waste treatment and disposal.
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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xix

Biography xxi

1 Wastewater Treatment 1

1.1 Characteristics of Wastewaters 1

1.1.1 Suspended Solids 2

1.1.2 Heavy Metals 2

1.1.3 Dissolved Inorganic Solids 4

1.1.4 Toxic Organic Compounds 4

1.1.5 Surfactants 6

1.1.6 Priority Pollutants 6

1.1.7 Volatile Organic Compounds 6

1.2 Treatment Stages 7

1.2.1 Sources of Wastewater 8

1.2.2 Discharge Options and Quality Requirements 8

1.2.3 Preliminary Wastewater Treatment 9

1.2.4 Primary Wastewater Treatment 9

1.2.5 Conventional Secondary Wastewater Treatment 9

1.2.6 Nutrient Removal or Control 9

1.2.7 Advanced Wastewater Treatment/Wastewater Reclamation 10

1.2.8 Toxic Waste Treatment/Specific Contaminant Removal 10

1.2.9 Sludge Processing 10

1.3 Treatment Processes 11

1.3.1 Selection of Treatment Processes 14

1.4 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in Wastewater Systems 22

1.4.1 Determination of the COD 23

1.4.2 Calculation of Theoretical Oxygen Demand 23

2 Physical Unit Operations 25

2.1 Flow Measurement 25

2.2 Screening 25

2.3 Comminution 28

2.4 Grit Removal 28

2.5 Gravity Separation 29

2.5.1 General 29

2.5.2 Application 30

2.5.3 Oil–Water Separator General Design Considerations 30

2.5.4 Conventional Rectangular Channel (API) Separators 31

2.5.5 Parallel-Plate Separators 43

2.5.6 Oil Traps 45

2.5.7 Oil Holding Basins 46

2.6 Flow Equalization 46

2.6.1 Application and Location 46

2.6.2 Volume Requirements 48

2.7 Mixing 48

2.7.1 Description and Type 48

2.7.2 Application 48

2.8 Sedimentation 49

2.8.1 Sedimentation Theory 49

2.8.2 Application and Type 51

2.8.3 Design Considerations 53

2.8.4 Number of Basins 53

2.8.5 Inlet Arrangements 54

2.8.6 Short-Circuiting 54

2.8.7 Outlet Arrangements 54

2.8.8 Detention Time 54

2.8.9 Surface Loading Rate 54

2.8.10 Factors Affecting Sedimentation 55

2.9 Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) 56

2.9.1 General 56

2.9.2 System Configuration 57

2.9.3 Variables Affecting DAF Efficiency 58

2.9.4 Treatability Testing 59

2.9.5 Design Considerations 59

2.9.6 Instruments and Control 64

2.9.7 Piping 65

2.9.8 Chemical Facilities 65

2.9.9 Material 65

2.9.10 Estimation of Air Concentration in Dissolved Air Flotation

(DAF) Systems 66

2.10 Granular-Media Filters 71

2.10.1 General 71

2.10.2 Filter Types and Applications 72

2.10.3 System Design Parameters 74

2.10.4 Cycle Time 76

2.10.5 Vessels and Appurtenances 77

2.10.6 Instrumentation and Controls 78

3 Chemical Treatment 81

3.1 Introduction 81

3.1.1 Chemical Precipitation 81

3.1.2 Chemical Coagulation 81

3.1.3 Chemical Oxidation and Advanced Oxidation 82

3.1.4 Ion Exchange 82

3.1.5 Chemical Stabilization 84

3.2 Definition and Application 84

3.2.1 Activated Carbon Adsorption 85

3.3 Chemical Precipitation 87

3.4 Chemical Flocculation 87

3.4.1 Definition and Applications 88

3.4.2 Design Considerations 90

3.4.3 Clarifier 90

3.4.4 Chemical Addition Systems 93

3.5 Disinfection 94

3.5.1 Chemical Agents 95

3.5.2 Mechanical Means 95

3.6 Chlorination 95

3.6.1 Application 96

3.6.2 Chlorine Dosages 96

3.6.3 Design Considerations 96

4 Biological Treatment 99

4.1 Theory 99

4.1.1 Biological Activated Carbon Process 101

4.1.2 Biokinetic Theoretical Model 102

4.2 Biological Treatment Processes 104

4.2.1 Major Differences in Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment 106

4.2.2 Aerobic Processes 107

4.2.3 Anaerobic Waste Treatment 112

4.2.4 Aerobic, Anaerobic (Facultative) Waste Treatment 112

4.3 Activated-Sludge Units 112

4.3.1 Applications 113

4.3.2 Effects of Activated-Sludge 114

4.3.3 Feed Composition 115

4.3.4 Process Design 120

4.3.5 Design Considerations 120

4.4 Trickling-Filters 123

4.4.1 Trickling-Filter Process Design 124

4.5 Rotating Biological Contactor System 126

4.6 Sewage Oxidation Ponds 126

5 Wastewater Treatment in Unconventional Oil and Gas Industries 129

5.1 Background 129

5.1.1 Dissolved and Dispersed Hydrocarbon Components 131

5.1.2 Dissolved Mineral 131

5.1.3 Production Chemicals 131

5.1.4 Produced Solids 132

5.1.5 Dissolved Gases 132

5.2 Toxicity Limitations of Coal Bed Water 132

5.3 Shale Gas and Coal Seam Gas Produced Water, Treatment and Disposal 135

5.3.1 Evaporation Pond 136

5.3.2 Surface Stream Disposal 136

5.3.3 Ion Exchange 138

5.3.4 Membrane Filtration Technology 138

5.3.5 Freeze–Thaw Evaporation 140

5.3.6 Adsorption 140

5.3.7 Chemical Oxidation 140

5.3.8 Filtration 141

5.3.9 Constructed Wetlands 141

5.3.10 Electrodialysis/Electrodialysis Reversal 141

5.3.11 Deep Well Injection at Dedicated Onshore Sites 141

5.3.12 Biological Aerated Filters 142

5.3.13 Macro-Porous Polymer Extraction Technology 143

5.3.14 Thermal Technologies 143

5.4 Re-Thinking Technologies for Safer Facing 147

5.5 Water Treatment for Oil Sands Mining 153

5.5.1 Recycling and Water Treatment Options 153

5.5.2 Oily Water Treatment in Oil Sands Mining 155

6 Wastewater Sewer Systems 161

6.1 Stormwater Sewer System 162

6.2 Oily Water Sewer System 162

6.3 Non-Oily Water Sewer System 163

6.4 Chemical Sewer System(s) 164

6.4.1 Disposal of Chemical Sewers 164

6.4.2 Neutralization Systems 164

6.4.3 Type of Chemical Wastes 164

6.5 Sanitary Sewer System 165

6.6 Special Sewer Systems 165

6.7 Effluent Sources and Disposals 165

6.8 Particular Effluents in Refinery and Petrochemical Plants 167

6.8.1 Caustic Scrubs (Heavy Oils) 167

6.8.2 Desalter Wastewater 168

6.8.3 Foul or Sour Waters 168

6.8.4 Spent Caustic Solutions 168

6.8.5 MTBE or Leaded Contaminated Streams 170

6.8.6 Benzene Contaminated Streams 171

6.8.7 Spent Sulfuric Acid Products 171

6.8.8 Nitrogen Base Components 172

6.8.9 Cyanides 172

6.8.10 Aluminum Chloride 173

6.8.11 Polyelectrolyte 173

6.8.12 Ferric Chloride 173

6.8.13 Phosphoric Acid 173

6.8.14 Hydrofluoric Acid 173

6.8.15 Other Spent Catalysts 173

6.8.16 Chemical Cleaning Wastes 174

6.8.17 Sulfur Solidification and Crushing Facilities and Loading

Systems Drainage 174

6.8.18 Water Containing Solids, Emulsifying Agents, etc. 174

6.8.19 Heavy Viscous Oils Drainage 174

6.8.20 Toxic Metal Contaminated Streams 174

6.8.21 Solvent Processes Drainage 174

6.8.22 Treating Processes Drainage 175

6.9 Petrochemical Plants’ Special Effluents 175

6.9.1 Summary of Disposal/Treatment Methods 175

6.10 NGL, LNG, and LPG Area Effluents 178

6.10.1 Liquefied Gas Spill 178

6.11 Gas Treatment Facilities’ Effluents 178

6.12 Effluents from Terminals, Depots, and Product Handling Areas 178

6.13 General Considerations and Conditions for Release of Wastes 178

6.13.1 Characteristics and Composition of Waste 179

6.13.2 Characteristics of the Discharge Site and Receiving

Environment 179

6.13.3 Availability of Waste Technologies 180

6.14 Effluent Wastewater Characteristics 180

6.14.1 Flow 180

6.14.2 Temperature 181

6.14.3 pH 181

6.14.4 Oxygen Demand 181

6.14.5 Phenol Content 182

6.14.6 Sulfide Content 182

6.14.7 Oil Content 182

6.14.8 Light Hydrocarbon Solubility in Water 182

6.14.9 Predicting Water–Hydrocarbon System Mutual Solubility 185

6.15 Wastewater Emissions 189

6.15.1 Point Source Discharge 189

6.15.2 Effluent Permissible Concentrations 193

7 Sewage Treatment 195

7.1 Sewage Effluents 196

7.1.1 Receiving Water 196

7.1.2 Final Effluents of Domestic Wastewater Plants 197

7.2 Methods of Sewage Treatment: General 197

7.2.1 Conventional Methods 197

7.3 Choice of System: General 197

7.4 Design of Sewage Treatment Plants: General Guidances 198

7.5 Design of Small Sewage Treatment Plants 198

7.5.1 Collection of Information 198

7.6 Preliminary Treatment 200

7.7 Primary and Secondary Settlement Tanks 200

7.7.1 Capacities of Primary Settlement Tanks 201

7.8 Sludge Digesters 202

7.9 Drying Beds 202

7.9.1 Secondary Settlement Tanks 203

7.10 Biological Filters 204

7.10.1 Distribution 205

7.10.2 Volume of Filter 205

7.10.3 Mineral Filter Media 206

7.11 Activated-Sludge Units 207

7.12 Tertiary Treatment (Polishing) Processes 207

7.13 Disposal of Final Effluent 207

7.14 Advanced Wastewater Treatment 208

7.14.1 Effects of Chemical Constituents in Wastewater 208

7.14.2 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Operations and Processes 209

7.15 Effluent Disposal and Reuse 212

7.15.1 Direct and Indirect Reuse of Wastewater 212

8 Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal 215

8.1 Basic Considerations 215

8.1.1 Classification 215

8.1.2 Methodology 215

8.1.3 Sources 216

8.1.4 Characteristics 219

8.1.5 Quantities 223

8.2 Sludge Handling, Treatment, and Reuse 223

8.2.1 General 223

8.2.2 Sludge and Scum Pumping 223

8.2.3 Sludge Piping 226

8.2.4 Preliminary Operation Facilities 229

8.2.5 Thickening (Concentration) 230

8.3 Stabilization 233

8.3.1 Design Considerations 233

8.3.2 Lime Stabilization 233

8.3.3 Heat Treatment 234

8.3.4 Anaerobic Sludge Digestion 235

8.3.5 Composting 236

8.4 Conditioning 237

8.5 Disinfection 237

8.6 Dewatering 237

8.6.1 Sludge Dewatering Methods 238

8.6.2 Vacuum Filtration 238

8.6.3 Centrifugation 238

8.6.4 Belt Filter Press 238

8.6.5 Sludge Drying Beds 241

8.6.6 Lagoons 241

8.7 Heat Drying 242

8.8 Thermal Reduction 242

8.8.1 Thermal Reduction Process Applications 243

8.9 Land Application of Sludge 243

8.10 Chemical Fixation 245

8.11 Final Sludge and Solids Conveyance, Storage, and Disposal 245

8.11.1 Conveyance Methods 245

8.11.2 Environmental Considerations in Sludge Transportation 246

8.11.3 Sludge Storage 246

8.11.4 Final Disposal 246

8.11.5 Incineration 247

8.11.6 Ash Handling and Disposal 248

8.12 Disposal of Solid Waste 248

8.12.1 Types of Waste 248

8.12.2 Siting of Hazardous Waste Facilities 250

8.12.3 Non-Hazardous Waste 251

8.12.4 Sources, Segregation, Quantities, and Characteristics of Solid

Waste in Refineries 251

8.12.5 Source Reduction Methods 253

8.12.6 Resource Recovery and Waste Minimization 255

8.12.7 Hazardous Waste Reduction 258

8.12.8 Treatment Prior to Ultimate Disposal 260

8.12.9 Disposal of Waste Generated in Drilling Wells 266

8.12.10 General Sampling Considerations 267

8.12.11 Air Monitoring of Waste for Employee Protection 272

8.12.12 Procedures 273

8.12.13 Hazards 275

8.12.14 Quality Assurance Consideration 275

Definitions and Terminology 277

Bibliography and Further Reading 307

Index 323

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Author Information

Alireza Bahadori,
School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Australia
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Reviews

“This is a well-timed valuable book that will be a worthwhile addition to the bookshelves of scientists and engineers working in the area of waste management and will assist in the development of solutions to relevant environmental issues.”  (Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, 1 March 2014)

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