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Microbiology of Drinking Water Production and Distribution

ISBN: 978-1-118-74392-8
312 pages
October 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Microbiology of Drinking Water Production and Distribution (111874392X) cover image

Description

Microbiology of Drinking Water Production and Distribution addresses the public health aspects of drinking water treatment and distribution. It explains the different water treatment processes, such as pretreatment, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and their impacts on waterborne microbial pathogens and parasites.

Drinking water quality may be degraded in water distribution systems—microorganisms form biofilms within distribution systems that allow them to flourish. Various methodologies have been proposed to assess the bacterial growth potential in water distribution systems. 

Microbiology of Drinking Water Production and Distribution also places drinking water quality and public health issues in context; it addresses the effect of bioterrorism on drinking water safety, particularly safeguards that are in place to protect consumers against the microbial agents involved. In addition, the text delves into research on drinking water quality in developing countries and the low-cost treatment technologies that could save lives. The text also examines the microbiological water quality of bottled water, often misunderstood by the public at large.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

1 MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Transmission Routes of Pathogens and Parasites 1

1.3 Major Pathogens and Parasites of Health Concern in Drinking Water 6

Web Resources 27

Further Reading 27

2 MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Worldwide Concern Over Drinking Water Safety 30

2.3 Microbiological Quality of Source Water 33

2.4 Overview of Processes Involved in Drinking Water Treatment Plants 35

2.5 Process Microbiology and Fate of Pathogens and Parasites in Water Treatment Plants 36

2.6 Waste Residuals from Water Treatment Plants 55

2.7 Drinking Water Quality at the Consumer’s Tap 55

Web Resources 62

Further Reading 63

3 DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION 65

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Chlorine 66

3.3 Chlorine Dioxide 72

3.4 Ozone 74

3.5 Ultraviolet Light 76

3.6 Use of Photocatalists in Water Disinfection 85

3.7 Physical Removal/Inactivation of Microbial Pathogens 86

Web Resources 89

Further Reading 89

4 DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: BIOFILM MICROBIOLOGY 91

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 Biofilm Development in WDSs 93

4.3 Growh of Pathogens and Other Microorganisms in WDSs 105

4.4 Some Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofilms in Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution 109

4.5 Biofilm Control and Prevention 112

Web Resources 114

Further Reading 115

5 ESTHETIC AND OTHER CONCERNS ASSOCIATED WITH DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION 117

5.1 Introduction 117

5.2 Taste and Odor Problems in Drinking Water Treatment Plants 117

5.3 Algae and Cyanobacteria 121

5.4 Fungi 127

5.5 Actinomycetes 129

5.6 Protozoa 130

5.7 Invertebrates 132

5.8 Endotoxins 134

5.9 Iron, Manganese, and Sulfur Bacteria 134

5.10 Nitrifying Bacteria in Water Distribution Systems 135

Web Resources 137

Further Reading 138

6 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT AND BIOSTABILITY OF DRINKING WATER 141

6.1 Introduction 141

6.2 Biological Treatment of Drinking Water 141

6.3 Assessment of Biostability of Drinking Water 143

Web Resources 151

Further Reading 151

7 BIOTERRORISM AND DRINKING WATER SAFETY 153

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Early History of Biological Warfare 153

7.3 BW Microbial Agents and Biotoxins 154

7.4 Deliberate Contamination ofWater Supplies with BW Agents or Biotoxins 161

7.5 Early Warning Systems for Assessing the Contamination of Source Waters or Water Distribution Systems 165

7.6 Protection of Drinking Water Supplies 168

7.7 Disinfection of BW-Contaminated Drinking Water 169

Web Resources 170

Further Reading 171

8 WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 173

8.1 Introduction: Water for a Thirsty Planet 173

8.2 Some Statistics ofWaterborne Diseases in Developing Countries 174

8.3 Some HWT Methods or Technologies in Use in Developing Countries 175

8.4 Personal Portable Water Treatment Systems for Travelers and Hikers 189

Web Resources 193

Further Reading 194

9 BOTTLED WATER MICROBIOLOGY 195

9.1 Introduction 195

9.2 Sources and Categories of Bottled Water 197

9.3 Bottled Water Microorganisms 199

9.4 Regulations Concerning Bottled Water 203

Web Resources 204

Further Reading 205

10 INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING WATER 207

10.1 Health-Based Targets for Drinking Water 207

10.2 Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) 208

10.3 Some Examples of Use of Risk Assessment to Assess the Risk of Infection or Disease From Exposure to Microbial Pathogens 212

Web Resources 216

Further Reading 216

REFERENCES 217

INDEX 289

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