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Rocket Propulsion Elements, 9th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-75365-1
792 pages
December 2016
Rocket Propulsion Elements, 9th Edition (1118753658) cover image

Description

THE DEFINITIVE INTRODUCTION TO ROCKET PROPULSION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

The recent upsurge in global government and private spending and in space flight events has resulted in many novel applications of rocket propulsion technology. Rocket Propulsion Elements remains the definitive guide to the field, providing a comprehensive introduction to essential concepts and applications. Led by industry veteran George P. Sutton and by Professor Oscar Biblarz, this book provides interdisciplinary coverage including thermodynamics, aerodynamics, flight performance, propellant chemistry and more.

This thoroughly revised ninth edition includes discussion and analysis of recent advances in the field, representing an authoritative reference for students and working engineers alike. In any engineering field, theory is only as useful as it is practical; this book emphasizes relevant real-world applications of fundamental concepts to link "thinking" and "doing". This book will help readers:

  • Understand the physics of flight and the chemistry of propulsion
  • Analyze liquid, solid, gas, and hybrid propellants, and the engines they fuel
  • Consider high-temperature combustion, stability, and the principles of electric and chemical propulsion
  • Dissect the workings of systems in common use around the world today
  • Delve into the latest advances in materials, systems, propellants, and more

Broad in scope, rich in detail, and clear in explanation, this seminal work provides an unparalleled foundation in aerospace engineering topics. Learning through the lens of modern applications untangles complex topics and helps students fully grasp the intricacies on a more intuitive level. Rocket Propulsion Elements, Ninth Edition merges information and utility building a solid foundation for innovation.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xvii

1 Classification 1

1.1. Duct Jet Propulsion / 2

1.2. Rocket Propulsion / 4

1.3. Applications of Rocket Propulsion / 14

References / 24

2 Definitions and Fundamentals 26

2.1. Definitions / 26

2.2. Thrust / 31

2.3. Exhaust Velocity / 33

2.4. Energy and Efficiencies / 35

2.5. Multiple Propulsion Systems / 38

2.6. Typical Performance Values / 39

2.7. Variable Thrust / 40

Symbols / 41

Greek Letters / 42

Problems / 42

References / 44

3 Nozzle Theory and Thermodynamic Relations 45

3.1. Ideal Rocket Propulsion Systems / 45

3.2. Summary of Thermodynamic Relations / 47

3.3. Isentropic Flow through Nozzles / 51

3.4. Nozzle Configurations / 73

3.5. Real Nozzles / 81

3.6. Nozzle Alignment / 91

4 Flight Performance 99

4.1. Gravity-Free Drag-Free Space Flight / 99

4.2. Forces Acting on a Vehicle in the Atmosphere / 104

4.3. Basic Relations of Motion / 106

4.4. Space Flight / 113

4.5. Space Flight Maneuvers / 127

4.6. Effect of Propulsion System on Vehicle Performance / 133

4.7. Flight Vehicles / 136

4.8. Military Missiles / 144

4.9. Flight Stability / 147

Problems / 150

References / 152

5 Chemical Rocket Propellant Performance Analysis 154

5.1. Background and Fundamentals / 156

5.2. Analysis of Chamber or Motor Case Conditions / 161

5.3. Analysis of Nozzle Expansion Processes / 166

5.4. Computer-Assisted Analysis / 171

5.5. Results of Thermochemical Calculations / 172

6 Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Fundamentals 189

6.1. Types of Propellants / 192

6.2. Propellant Tanks / 196

6.3. Propellant Feed Systems / 203

6.4. Gas Pressure Feed Systems / 205

6.5. Tank Pressurization / 212

6.6. Turbopump Feed Systems and Engine Cycles / 217

6.7. Rocket Engines for Maneuvering, Orbit Adjustments, or Attitude Control / 229

6.8. Engine Families / 232

6.9. Valves and Pipelines / 233

6.10. Engine Support Structure / 239

Problems / 240

References / 242

7 Liquid Propellants 244

7.1. Propellant Properties / 245

7.2. Liquid Oxidizers / 255

7.3. Liquid Fuels / 259

7.4. Liquid Monopropellants / 264

7.5. Gaseous Propellants / 266

7.6. Safety and Environmental Concerns / 267

Problems / 268

References / 269

8 Thrust Chambers 271

8.1. Injectors / 276

8.2. Combustion Chamber and Nozzle / 285

8.3. Low-Thrust Rocket Thrust Chambers or Thrusters / 300

8.4. Materials and Fabrication / 304

8.5. Heat Transfer Analysis / 310

8.6. Starting and Ignition / 322

8.7. Useful Life of Thrust Chambers / 325

8.8. Random Variable Thrust / 326

8.9. Sample Thrust Chamber Design Analysis / 328

Problems / 339

References / 342

9 Liquid Propellant Combustion and Its Stability 344

9.1. Combustion Process / 344

9.2. Analysis and Simulation / 348

9.3. Combustion Instability / 349

Problems / 362

References / 362

10 Turbopumps and Their Gas Supplies 365

10.1. Introduction / 365

10.2. Descriptions of Several Turbopumps / 366

10.3. Selection of Turbopump Configuration / 371

10.4. Flow, Shaft Speeds, Power, and Pressure Balances / 376

10.5. Pumps / 378

10.6. Turbines / 387

10.7. Approach to Turbopump Preliminary Design / 390

10.8. Gas Generators and Preburners / 393

Problems / 396

References / 397

11 Engine Systems, Controls, and Integration 399

11.1. Propellant Budget / 399

11.2. Performance of Complete or Multiple Rocket Propulsion Systems / 401

11.3. Engine Design / 403

11.4. Engine Controls / 412

11.5. Engine System Calibration / 423

11.6. System Integration and Engine Optimization / 430

Problems / 432

References / 433

12 Solid Propellant Rocket Motor Fundamentals 434

12.1. Basic Relations and Propellant Burning Rate / 439

12.2. Other Performance Issues / 457

12.3. Propellant Grain and Grain Configuration / 462

12.4. Propellant Grain Stress and Strain / 472

12.5. Attitude Control and Side Maneuvers with Solid Propellant Rocket Motors / 483

Problems / 486

References / 488

13 Solid Propellants 491

13.1. Classification / 491

13.2. Propellant Characteristics / 497

13.3. Hazards / 505

13.4. Propellant Ingredients / 511

13.5. Other Propellant Categories / 522

13.6. Liners, Insulators, and Inhibitors / 525

13.7. Propellant Processing and Manufacture / 528

Problems / 531

References / 534

14 Solid Propellant Combustion and Its Stability 536

14.1. Physical and Chemical Processes / 536

14.2. Ignition Process / 540

14.3. Extinction or Thrust Termination / 541

14.4. Combustion Instability / 543

Problems / 552

References / 553

15 Solid Rocket Motor Components and Design 555

15.1. Rocket Motor Case / 555

15.2. Nozzles / 563

15.3. Igniter Hardware / 577

15.4. Rocket Motor Design Approach / 581

Problems / 589

References / 591

16 Hybrid Propellants Rocket Propulsion 593

16.1. Applications and Propellants / 594

16.2. Interior Hybrid Motor Ballistics / 599

16.3. Performance Analysis and Grain Configuration / 602

16.4. Design Example / 607

16.5. Combustion Instability / 611

Problems / 617

References / 618

17 Electric Propulsion 620

17.1. Ideal Flight Performance / 626

17.2. Electrothermal Thrusters / 631

17.3. Nonthermal Electrical Thrusters / 638

17.4. Optimum Flight Performance / 654

17.5. Mission Applications / 658

17.6. Electric Space-Power Supplies and Power-Conditioning Systems / 661

Problems / 666

References / 668

18 Thrust Vector Control 671

18.1. TVC Mechanisms with a Single Nozzle / 673

18.2. TVC with Multiple Thrust Chambers or Nozzles / 683

18.3. Testing / 686

18.4. Integration with Vehicle / 687

Problems / 688

References / 688

19 Selection of Rocket Propulsion Systems 690

19.1. Selection Process / 692

19.2. Criteria for Selection / 697

19.3. Interfaces / 699

19.4. Cost Reduction / 700

References / 702

20 Rocket Exhaust Plumes 703

20.1. Plume Appearance and Flow Behavior / 705

20.2. Plume Effects / 717

20.3. Analysis and Mathematical Simulation / 723

Problems / 724

References / 724

21 Rocket Testing 726

21.1. Types of Tests / 726

21.2. Test Facilities and Safeguards / 728

21.3. Instrumentation and Data Management / 735

21.4. Flight Testing / 739

21.5. Postaccident Procedures / 740

References / 741

Appendix 1 Conversion Factors and Constants 743

Conversion Factors (arranged alphabetically) / 743

Constants / 746

Appendix 2 Properties of the Earth’s Standard Atmosphere 747

Appendix 3 Summary of Key equations for Ideal Chemical Rockets 749

Index 751

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Author Information

GEORGE P. SUTTON is an acknowledged expert on rocket propulsion, and the former Executive Director of Engineering at Rocketdyne (now Aerojet Rocketdyne), and Laboratory Associate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

OSCAR BIBLARZ is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.

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