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Clinical Investigations at a Glance

ISBN: 978-1-118-75932-5
376 pages
January 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Clinical Investigations at a Glance (111875932X) cover image

Description

Clinical Investigations at a Glance provides an up-to-date, evidence-based overview of diagnostic investigations, looking at their choice, importance and interpretation for commonly presenting symptoms and conditions.

Designed to help develop the evidence-based use of investigations and interpret results properly, the book provides a unique perspective on many critical issues in medical testing, with the aim of improving diagnostic accuracy and reducing unnecessary tests or harm.

Clinical Investigations at a Glance is structured in three parts: an overview of tests; common presentations (such as chest pain, nausea and vomiting, weight loss and anaemia,); and conditions organized by body system, such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and nephrology.

Key features include:
• How to interpret investigations, using high quality illustrations to compare ‘normal’ and ‘diseased’ results
• Evidence-based, including references
• How to select the most appropriate investigation, the accuracy of tests and how to manage incidental findings

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgements x

Abbreviations xi

Overview of tests 1

1 Investigations and interpreting tests 2

2 Screening tests 4

3 Consent for investigations 6

4 Risks of tests 8

5 Genetic tests 10

6 Principles of radiological investigations 12

7 Cytology and histopathology tests 14

8 Presenting at radiology and histopathology meetings 16

9 Requesting tests 18

10 Therapeutic drug monitoring 20

11 Investigations in resource-limited settings 22

12 Tests for outpatient, inpatient and patients in intensive care 24

Common Presentations 27

13 Chest pain 28

14 Acute abdominal pain 31

15 Headache 34

16 Nausea and vomiting 36

17 Diarrhoea 38

18 Constipation 40

19 Haematemesis and melaena 42

20 Rectal bleeding 44

21 Dyspepsia 46

22 Dysphagia 50

23 Weight loss 52

24 Obesity 54

25 Fatigue 56

26 Coma and impaired consciousness 58

27 Preoperative investigations for elective surgery 60

28 Syncope 62

29 Back pain 64

30 Peripheral oedema 66

31 Jaundice 68

32 Meningitis 70

33 Anaemia 72

34 Lymphadenopathy 74

35 Cough 76

36 Haemoptysis 78

37 Palpitations and cardiac arrhythmias 80

38 Red eye 82

39 Vertigo 84

40 Urinary tract infection 86

41 Haematuria 88

42 Attempted suicide and self-poisoning 90

43 Immunosuppressed patients 92

44 Diagnosing death 94

45 Shock 96

46 Trauma 98

47 Alcohol-use disorder 104

48 Eating disorders 106

49 Seizure 108

50 Muscle weakness 110

51 Visual loss 112

52 Hearing loss 114

Conditions 117

Cardiovascular disease

53 Heart failure 118

54 Peripheral arterial disease 120

55 Infective endocarditis 122

56 Aortic disease 124

57 Hypertension 126

58 Hyperlipidaemia 128

Respiratory disease and sleep disorders

59 Pneumonia 130

60 Asthma 132

61 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 134

62 Pleural effusion 136

63 Pneumothorax 138

64 Pulmonary embolism 140

65 Pulmonary hypertension 144

66 Pulmonary nodules 146

67 Interstitial lung disease 148

68 Sleep disorders 150

Gastroenterology and hepatology

69 Ascites 152

70 Intestinal obstruction 154

71 Malabsorption 156

72 Inflammatory bowel disease 158

73 Irritable bowel syndrome 160

74 Colorectal cancer 162

75 Liver mass 164

76 Cirrhosis 166

77 Liver function tests 168

78 Acute pancreatitis 170

Nephrology and urology

79 Acute kidney injury 172

80 Chronic kidney disease 174

81 Metabolic acid–base disorders 176

82 Potassium disorders 178

83 Sodium disorders 180

84 Calcium disorders 182

85 Proteinuria 184

86 Renal mass 186

87 Kidney stones 188

88 Renal artery stenosis 190

Endocrinology

89 Diabetes mellitus: diagnosis 192

90 Diabetes mellitus: complications 194

91 Diabetes insipidus 196

92 Thyroid disorders 198

93 Thyroid function tests 202

Pituitary disorders

94 Hypopituitarism 204

95 Acromegaly 206

96 Hyperprolactinaemia 208

Adrenal disorders

97 Adrenal insufficiency 210

98 Adrenal incidentaloma 212

99 Cushing’s syndrome 214

100 Phaeochromocytoma 216

101 Primary hyperaldosteronism 218

Reproductive and obstetric medicine

102 Male hypogonadism 220

103 Infertility 222

104 Erectile dysfunction 224

105 Amenorrhoea 226

106 Hirsutism 228

107 Polycystic ovary syndrome 230

108 Pre-eclampsia and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy 232

109 Pregnancy 234

Infectious diseases

110 Pyrexia of unknown origin 236

111 Leucopenia and febrile neutropenia 238

112 Illness in returned travellers 240

113 Sepsis 242

114 Sepsis: testing for infectious diseases 244

115 Osteomyelitis 246

116 Sexually transmitted diseases 248

117 Tuberculosis 250

118 HIV 252

Haematology

119 Leucocytosis 254

120 Myelodysplastic syndromes 256

121 Erythrocytosis 258

122 Haemolytic anaemia 259

123 Leukaemia 262

124 Lymphoma 264

125 Multiple myeloma 266

126 Platelet disorders 268

127 Bleeding disorders 270

128 Thrombophilia 272

Oncology

129 Breast cancer 274

130 Spinal cord compression 276

131 Cancer of unknown primary 278

132 Tumour markers 280

133 Ovarian cancer 282

134 Prostate cancer 284

Neurology

135 Stroke 286

136 Haemorrhagic stroke 288

137 Brain abscess 291

138 Encephalitis 292

139 Brain tumours 294

140 Multiple sclerosis 296

141 Spinal cord disorders 298

142 Peripheral neuropathy 300

143 Movement disorders 304

Rheumatology

144 Septic and crystal arthropathies 306

145 Osteoarthritis 309

146 Spondyloarthropathies 310

147 Scleroderma and Raynaud’s phenomenon 313

148 Rheumatoid arthritis 316

149 Systemic lupus erythematosus 318

150 Sjögren’s syndrome 322

151 Vasculitis 324

152 Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis 326

153 Osteoporosis 328

Geriatric and general medicine

154 Dementia 330

155 Delirium 332

156 Falls 334

157 Urinary incontinence 336

Clinical immunology and allergy

158 Allergy and anaphylaxis 338

159 Primary immunodeficiency disorders 340

Dermatology

160 Skin cancers 342

161 Skin rashes 344

162 Urticaria and angioedema 346

Further reading 348

Index 352

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Reviews

"This is an extraordinarily useful primer on diagnostic testing and how to incorporate the results into the differential diagnosis. It provides tremendous insights for those just beginning their medical careers and for experienced clinicians. 5 Stars!" (Doody Enterprises 07/04/2017)

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