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Traffic Engineering Handbook, 7th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-76230-1
688 pages
January 2016
Traffic Engineering Handbook, 7th Edition (1118762304) cover image

Description

Get a complete look into modern traffic engineering solutions

Traffic Engineering Handbook, Seventh Edition is a newly revised text that builds upon the reputation as the go-to source of essential traffic engineering solutions that this book has maintained for the past 70 years. The updated content reflects changes in key industry standards, and shines a spotlight on the needs of all users, the design of context-sensitive roadways, and the development of more sustainable transportation solutions. Additionally, this resource features a new organizational structure that promotes a more functionally-driven, multimodal approach to planning, designing, and implementing transportation solutions.

A branch of civil engineering, traffic engineering concerns the safe and efficient movement of people and goods along roadways. Traffic flow, road geometry, sidewalks, crosswalks, cycle facilities, shared lane markings, traffic signs, traffic lights, and more—all of these elements must be considered when designing public and private sector transportation solutions.

  • Explore the fundamental concepts of traffic engineering as they relate to operation, design, and management
  • Access updated content that reflects changes in key industry-leading resources, such as the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM), Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), AASSHTO Policy on Geometric Design, Highway Safety Manual (HSM), and Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Understand the current state of the traffic engineering field
  • Leverage revised information that homes in on the key topics most relevant to traffic engineering in today's world, such as context-sensitive roadways and sustainable transportation solutions

Traffic Engineering Handbook, Seventh Edition is an essential text for public and private sector transportation practitioners, transportation decision makers, public officials, and even upper-level undergraduate and graduate students who are studying transportation engineering.

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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE TRAFFIC ENGINEERING HANDBOOK AND ITS ROLE IN EVOLVING PRACTICE 1
Anurag Pande, Ph.D. and Brian Wolshon, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE

I. Background 1

II. The Vision for This Edition 1

III. Organization of the Handbook 2

References 7

CHAPTER 2: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES TECHNIQUES FOR TRAFFIC ENGINEERING PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT  9
John McFadden, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE, Seri Park, Ph.D., PTP, and David A. Petrucci, Jr., P.E., PTOE

I. Introduction 9

A. Background and Definitions Related to Statistics and Probability 9

B. Sampling Strategies 10

C. Types of Error 10

D. Variables 10

E. Parametric versus Nonparametric Statistics 10

II. Descriptive Statistics 11

A. Graphs and Tables  11

B. Other Tools 12

C. Measures of Central Tendency  13

D. Measures of Dispersion 14

E. Measures of Position 16

F. Measures of Association: Correlation Analysis 17

III. Probability 18

A. Rules of Probability 18

IV. Probability Distributions 21

A. Discrete Probability Distributions 21

B. Negative Binomial (NB) Distribution 23

C. Continuous Probability Distributions  23

V. Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing  25

A. Estimating 𝜇 When 𝜎 Is Known 25

VI. Regression Modeling 27

A. Linear Regression 27

B. Multiple Linear Regression  28

VII. Financial Analysis and Engineering Economics 28

VIII. Fundamental Concepts in Engineering Economics 29

A. Time Value of Money, Interest, Interest Rate, Equivalence, Cash Flow, and Rate of Return 29

B. Benefit/Cost Analysis 33

C. Risk Management Principles Applied Using Financial Indicators/Metrics 38

D. Application of Engineering Economics in Traffic Engineering via Examples 41

IX. Before-and-After Studies 45

A. Overview 45

B. Data Considerations 46

C. Study Types 47

D. Summary 48

References 49

CHAPTER 3: ROAD USERS 51
Alison Smiley, Ph.D., CCPE and Robert E. Dewar, Ph.D., CCPE

I. Introduction 51

II. Basics 51

A. Fundamental Road User Characteristics and Limitations 51

B. The Driving Task Model 51

C. Vision 52

D. Attention and Information Processing 53

E. Visual Search 54

F. Perception–Reaction Time 56

G. Driver Expectation  58

H. Behavioral Adaptation  59

I. Driver Impairments  59

III. Types of Road Users  61

A. The Design Driver 61

B. Older Drivers 61

C. Novice Drivers  62

D. Truck Drivers 63

E. Motorcyclists 64

F. Pedestrians 65

G. Bicyclists 70

IV. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE  73

A. Positive Guidance 73

B. Traffic Control Devices  74

C. Intersections and Roundabouts 79

D. Interchanges 83

E. Railroad Grade Crossings 83

F. Road Segments 86

G. Work Zones 90

V. Case Studies  92

A. Case Study 3-1: Placement of Guide Signs on Freeways 92

B. Design to Slow Drivers in a Transition Zone 92

VI. EMERGING TRENDS 94

A. Naturalistic Driving Studies as a Basis for Road Design 94

B. Context-Sensitive Solutions and the Role of Human Factors 95

C. Driver Assistance Systems 95

D. Human Factors and Safety Tools  95

E. Marijuana Legalization 97

VII. Further Information 97

Endnote 98

References 98

CHAPTER 4: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING STUDIES 109
Daniel J. Findley, Ph.D., P.E.

I. Introduction  109

II. Basic Principles and Guidance Resource  109

A. Data Collection Preparation 110

B. Data Collection Execution 111

C. Pitfalls of Field Data Collection  112

D. ITE Manual of Transportation Engineering Studies 112

III. Professional Practice: Common Traffic Study Procedures 114

A. Volume Studies 114

B. Speed Studies 119

C. Intersection Studies 123

D. Safety Studies 131

IV. Emerging Trends 145

A. Data Collection 145

B. Data Applications 146

References 146

CHAPTER 5: LEVEL OF SERVICE CONCEPTS IN MULTIMODAL ENVIRONMENTS 149
Michael A. Carroll, P.E. and Ema C. Yamamoto, AICP

I. Introduction  149

II. Basics: Conceptual Foundations of Level of Service 150

A. The System Perspective 150

B. The User Perspective 151

III. Approaches to Level of Service and Performance Measures for Different Modes 151

A. Approaches to Auto Level of Service  151

B. Approaches to Transit Performance Measures 153

C. Approaches to Bicycle Performance Measures 154

D. Approaches to Pedestrian Performance Measures 155

IV. Multimodal Environments 156

A. The Modal Mix  157

V. Types of Multimodal Environments 158

A. Office and Retail Business Districts  159

B. Town Centers 159

C. Transit-Oriented Developments 159

D. Main Streets  159

E. Residential Multimodal Environments 160

F. Trail Corridors  160

G. Adapting Service Concepts to Multimodal Contexts 160

VI. Multimodal Level of Service Analysis  161

A. HCM 2010 Urban Streets Multimodal Level of Service Method  161

B. Practical Applications  161

VII. Challenges to Using MMLOS 165

A. When to Use Multimodal Level of Service 165

VIII. Case Studies 166

A. Case Study 5-1: Ashland, Oregon, Transportation System Plan  166

B. Case Study 5-2: Evaluating Traffic Design Using Multimodal LOS  167

C. Case Study 5-3: Multimodal Improvements and Economic Impact 170

IX. Emerging Trends  172

A. Alternatives to LOS Concepts 172

B. Simplified MMLOS 173

C. Multimodal Enhancements and Economic Impacts  174

D. Freight LOS 174

References 174

CHAPTER 6: FORECASTING TRAVEL DEMAND  177
David Kriger, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP

I. Introduction and Approach 177

A. Introduction 177

B. Definitions 177

C. Premise/Scope 178

D. Use 178

E. Organization of Chapter 179

II. Basic Principles 179

A. Common Applications of Forecasts  179

B. Overview of the Forecasting Process 180

C. Commercial Vehicle Forecasting 185

D. Externally Based Trips 185

E. Other Modeling Approaches 186

F. Forecasting Transportation Demand Management Impacts 186

G. Application of Forecasts to Traffic Impact Analyses 188

III. Professional Practice 190

A. Regulation 190

B. Applications to Transportation Engineering 190

C. Effective Practices and Common Pitfalls 192

IV. Case Studies  193

A. Policy Studies: Exploration of Pricing Schemes 193

B. Forecasting for Complete Streets 194

C. Applications to TIAs: A Multitiered Approach 195

D. Transportation Demand Management 196

V. Emerging Trends 197

A. Novel and Evolving Practices: New Modeling Approaches 197

B. Novel and Evolving Practices: Forecasting Active Transportation 198

C. Evidence from Recent Research 199

Endnotes 199

References 200

CHAPTER 7: TRAFFIC FLOW CHARACTERISTICS FOR UNINTERRUPTED FLOW FACILITIES 203
H. Gene Hawkins, Jr., Ph.D., P.E.

I. Introduction: Characterizing Traffic Flow for Analysis 203

II. Basics: Traffic Flow Characteristics for Performance Measurement 204

A. Flow or Traffic Volume 205

B. Speed 215

C. Density  217

III. Professional Practice: Measuring Traffic Characteristics  217

IV. Traffic Flow Relationships for Uninterrupted Flow 218

A. Fundamental Model for Uninterrupted Traffic Flow 218

B. Actual Representation of Uninterrupted Traffic Flow 223

V. Traffic Shock Waves 224

VI. Measuring Traffic Characteristics at Bottlenecks 225

VII. Quality of Service on Uninterrupted-Flow Facilities 226

VIII. Case Studies 227

A. Case Study 7-1: Shock Wave  227

B. Case Study 7-2: Quality of Service 229

References 232

CHAPTER 8: DESIGN AND OPERATIONS OF ROAD SEGMENTS AND INTERCHANGES IN RURAL AREAS 235
Reza Omrani, Ph.D., Ali Hadayeghi, P.Eng., Ph.D., and Brian Malone, P.Eng., PTOE

I. Basic Principles and Reference Sources 235

II. Professional Practice 236

A. Introduction 236

B. Design Control and Criteria 236

C. Design Elements 241

D. Road Safety Management Process 254

E. Signs, Markings, and Traffic Safety Devices  262

F. Lighting  267

G. Effective Practices 267

H. Challenges for Rural Transportation Planning  272

III. Case Studies  273

A. Case Study I: Context-Sensitive Design  273

B. Case Study II: Safety Effectiveness Evaluation  274

C. Case Study III: Road Safety Audit  275

IV. Emerging Trends  276

A. IHSDM Design Consistency Module 276

B. Strategic Highway Research Program  278

C. ITS ePrimer  278

D. Traffic Incident Management  279

E. Green Highway  279

References 280

CHAPTER 9: PLANNING, DESIGN, AND OPERATIONS OF ROAD SEGMENTS AND INTERCHANGES IN URBAN AREAS 283
Mark Doctor, P.E., Patrick Hasson, P.E., Hillary Isebrands, Ph.D., P.E., and John McFadden, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE

I. Introduction  283

A. Essential Reference Material 284

II. Basic Principles 285

A. General Definitions 285

B. Roadway Segments 286

C. Urban Interchange Types and Characteristics  287

D. Design Consistency 292

E. General Interchange Design Considerations 294

III. Professional Practice 298

A. Regulation  298

B. Safety 299

C. Environment 299

D. Current and Effective Practices  299

E. Modeling and Simulation  303

F. Common Pitfalls 305

IV. Case Studies  306

A. Case Study 9-1: Applying Innovative Interchange Designs, Bloomington, Minnesota  306

B. Case Study 9-2: Applying Collector–Distributor Lanes for Operational Improvements, DeKalb County, Georgia 307

C. Case Study 9-3: Urban Diamond Interchange, Interstate 57 at Illinois Route 50 in Kankakee, Illinois 308

D. Case Study 9-4: Active Traffic Management, Interstate 5, Seattle, Washington 310

E. Case Study 9-5: Roundabouts at Interchanges, I-70 and Pecos Street, Denver, Colorado  311

F. Case Study 9-6: Simulation Modeling to Evaluate Design Alternatives  313

G. Case Study 9-7: Integrated Approach for Express Toll Lane Modeling on I-95 in South Florida 315

V. Emerging Trends 318

A. Active Transportation and Demand Management 318

References 319

CHAPTER 10: DESIGN AND CONTROL FOR INTERRUPTED TRAFFIC FLOW THROUGH INTERSECTIONS 321
Anurag Pande, Ph.D., and Brian Wolshon, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE

I. Basic Principles 321

A. Fundamentals of Multimodal Intersections  321

II. Professional Practice 325

A. Multimodal Intersection Design and Safety  325

B. Control of Multimodal Intersections 335

C. Developing a Signal Timing Plan 346

D. Signal Progression and Coordination  352

E. Intersection Capacity and Performance Measurement Concepts 353

F. Roundabouts: Operational Considerations 356

III. Case Studies  358

A. Case Study 10-1: Evaluation of Engineering Countermeasures for Red-Light Running 358

B. Case Study 10-2: Roundabout in Scott County, Minnesota 359

C. Case Study 10-3: Smart Traffic Signal System, Reston, Virginia 359

IV. Emerging Trends  360

A. Signalization for Pedestrians and Bicyclists 360

B. Unconventional Intersection Designs  361

V. Conclusions 363

Endnotes 364

References 364

Further Information 365

CHAPTER 11: DESIGN AND OPERATION OF COMPLETE STREETS AND INTERSECTIONS 367
Jeffrey R. Riegner, P.E., AICP, PTOE

I. Basic Principles 367

A. Fundamentals of Complete Streets  367

B. Interrupted Traffic Flow on Urban Streets  367

C. Selection of Performance Measures 368

D. Context Zones 369

E. Context-Sensitive Solutions  369

F. Design for All Users: Modal Balance or Priority 371

II. Professional Practice 371

A. Design Controls and Criteria 371

B. Complete Streets Design Process  378

C. Streetside Design  379

D. Intersection Design and Operations 381

E. Midblock Crossings  387

F. Multiway Boulevards 387

G. Modal Priority Streets 387

III. Case Studies 388

A. US Route 62, Hamburg, New York 388

B. West Jefferson Streetscape Project, Ashe County, North Carolina 390

C. 300 South, Salt Lake City, Utah 391

IV. Emerging Trends 393

A. Composite or Prioritized Level of Service Measures 393

B. Shared Space 394

C. Tactical Urbanism 394

References 396

Further Information 397

CHAPTER 12: ACCESS MANAGEMENT 399
Vergil G. Stover, Ph.D., P.E. and Kristine M. Williams, AICP

I. Introduction 399

II. Basic Principles 400

A. Provide a Specialized Roadway (Circulation) System 401

B. Intersection Hierarchy 405

C. Traffic Signal Spacing and Operation  405

D. Preserving Intersection Functional Area 407

E. Limiting Conflict Points  409

F. Separating Conflict Areas  410

G. Removing Turning Vehicles from Through-Traffic Lanes 411

III. Benefits of Access Management 415

A. Safety 415

B. Operations  417

C. Economic Effects  420

D. Aesthetics 420

IV. Professional Practice 421

A. Compatibility with Multimodal Objectives 421

B. Programs and Guidelines  422

C. Policies and Regulations 424

D. Common Pitfalls 427

E. Public Involvement 428

V. Case Studies 429

Case Study 12-1: Bridgeport Way—University Place, Washington 430

VI. Emerging Trends  432

VII. Conclusion 433

References 434

CHAPTER 13: PARKING 437
Mary S. Smith, P.E. and Randall W. Carwile, P.E.

I. Introduction . 437

II. Basic Principles and Fundamentals 437

A. Regulatory Considerations and Design Resources 437

B. Types of Parking 439

C. Cost of Parking  442

D. User Considerations 443

E. Wayfinding 444

F. Design Vehicle for Parking Facilities 445

G. Aren’t Cars Getting Smaller?  447

III. Professional Practice 448

A. Parking Demand Management  448

B. Parking Layout Terminology 450

C. Parking Geometrics 452

D. On-Street Parking 456

E. Off-Street Facilities  461

F. Multimodal Considerations 470

G. Motorcycle and Bicycle Considerations  470

H. Pedestrian Considerations 472

I. Walking Distance 473

J. Accessibility  473

K. Safety 478

L. Signs  485

IV. Case Studies  487

A. Case Study 13-1: Eliminating Gridlock in a Parking Garage 487

B. Case Study 13-2: SFpark 489

V. Emerging Trends 490

A. Alternate Fuel Vehicles  490

B. Automated Mechanical Parking Facilities  493

C. Mobile Parking Apps  496

D. Self-Driving Vehicles 496

Endnotes 497

References.498

CHAPTER 14: TRAFFIC CALMING 501
Jeff Gulden, P.E., PTOE and Joe De La Garza, P.E.

I. Basic Principles and Reference Sources 501

A. Definition 501

B. Previous Documents 502

II. Professional Practice 503

A. Purpose of Traffic Calming  503

B. Process of Neighborhood Traffic Calming  504

C. Other Uses of Traffic Calming in Cities 508

D. Neighborhood Traffic-Calming Program Updates  511

III. Toolbox 511

A. Nonphysical Measures 512

B. Speed Control Measures—Vertical 516

C. Speed Control Measures—Horizontal 518

D. Volume Control Measures 520

E. Signs and Markings 522

F. Design 527

G. Other Considerations 532

IV. Case Studies  537

A. Case Study 14-1: College Terrace Neighborhood, Palo Alto, California 537

B. Case Study 14-2: Kihapai Street, Kailua, Hawaii 537

V. Emerging Trends 538

A. Speed Kidney 538

B. Low-Stress Bikeway Networks 538

C. Bicycle Boulevard  538

D. Public Interest 539

References 539

Further Information 540

CHAPTER 15: WORK ZONE MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC AND CONSTRUCTION STAGING 541
Robert K. Seyfried, President

I. Basic Principles 541

II. Professional Practice 544

A. Transportation Management Plans 544

B. Temporary Traffic Control Strategies 547

C. Transportation Operations Strategies 558

D. Public Information Strategies 559

III. Implementing the Transportation Management Plan 561

A. Staging of Construction 562

B. Geometrics of Temporary Roadways 563

C. Traffic Control Devices 571

D. Implementation of Traffic Control Plan 575

E. Operational Reviews and Revisions to the Traffic Control Plan 575

F. Detour Planning and Operations 576

G. Contingency Plans 79

IV. Other Practice Issues 579

A. Speed Management and Enforcement 579

B. Training of Personnel 581

C. Pedestrian Accommodation 582

D. Bicycle Accommodation 585

E. Incident Management in Work Zones 86

F. Public Communication and Outreach Strategies 587

V. Case Studies 588

A. Case Study 15-1: ITS Applications 588

B. Case Study 15-2: Contracting Strategies for Expedited Construction 590

C. Case Study 15-3: Effective Public Communications 591

VI. Emerging Trends 592

A. Rapid Construction Techniques and Incentives 592

B. Contracting Strategies 593

C. Innovations in Work Zone Traffic Management 594

Endnotes 595

References.596

CHAPTER 16: TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FOR PLANNED, UNPLANNED, AND EMERGENCY EVENTS 599
Deborah Matherly, AICP, Pamela Murray-Tuite, Ph.D., and Brian Wolshon, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE

I. Basic Principles 599

II. Professional Practice 601

A. Regulation 601

B. Key Stakeholder Relationships 604

C. Safety and Program Planning for Transportation Incidents and Events 606

D. Environment 608

III. Current Practice 611

A. Planned Special Events  613

B. Larger-Scale Emergency Events 614

C. Operational Strategies 618

D. Effective Practices for Addressing Needs of All Users 621

E. Modeling and Simulation  623

IV. Common Pitfalls 625

V. Case Studies 625

A. Case Study 16-1: Planned Long-Notice Emergency Event: Multimodal Regional Evacuation 625

B. Case Study 16-2: Planned Special Events: The 2009 Presidential Inaugural 628

C. Case Study 16-3: No-Notice Evacuation Modeling Support for Northern Virginia 630

VI. Emerging Trends 632

A. Novel and Emerging Practices 632

B. Evidence from Recent Research 633

References 634

Index 637

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Author Information

INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS is an international educational and scientific association of over 15,000 professionals, with a diverse network of practitioners providing geographic balance and perspective.

DR. BRIAN WOLSHON is the Edward A. and Karen Wax Schmitt Distinguished Professor of Engineering in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Louisiana State University. He has also served research appointments at Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory.

DR. ANURAG PANDE is an Assistant Professor in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo, and has co-authored more than 25 papers that have been published in peer-reviewed transportation journals.

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