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Introduction to Cosmetic Formulation and Technology

ISBN: 978-1-118-76489-3
728 pages
March 2015
Introduction to Cosmetic Formulation and Technology (1118764897) cover image

Description

Designed as an educational and training text, this book provides a clear and easily understandable review of cosmetics and over the counter (OTC) drug-cosmetic products. The text features learning objectives, key concepts, and key terms at the beginning and review questions and glossary of terms at the end of each chapter section.

• Overviews functions, product design, formulation and development, and quality control of cosmetic ingredients
• Discusses physiological, pharmaceutical, and formulation knowledge of decorative care products
• Reviews basic terms and definitions used in the cosmetic industry and provides an overview of the regulatory environment in the US
• Includes learning objectives, key concepts, and key terms at the beginning and review questions and glossary of terms at the end of each chapter section
• Has PowerPoint slides as ancillaries, downloadable from the book's wiley.com page, for adopting professors

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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

Biography of Gabriella Baki xxi

Biography of Kenneth S. Alexander xxiii

1 General Concepts 1

Section 1: Basic Definitions 1

Learning Objectives 1

Key Concepts 2

What is Cosmetic Science? 2

Basic Definitions 4

How is a Product’s Intended Use Established in the United States? 10

Popular Cosmetic Claims 10

A Special Category: Soap 18

Glossary of Terms for Section 1 19

Review Questions for Section 1 20

References 23

Section 2: Classification of Cosmetics and OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products.

Cosmetic Ingredients and Active Ingredients used in Cosmetics and OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products 25

Learning Objectives 25

Key Concepts 26

Classification of Cosmetics and OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products 26

Major Ingredient Types in Cosmetics and OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products and their Functions 28

Glossary of Terms for Section 2 45

Review Questions for Section 2 47

References 49

Section 3: Dosage Forms for Cosmetics and OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products 50

Learning Objectives 50

Key Concepts 51

What is a Dosage Form? 52

Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications 53

Glossary of Terms for Section 3 63

Review Questions for Section 3 64

References 67

2 Legislation for Cosmetics and OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products 69

Section 1: Current Rules and Regulations for Cosmetics and OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products in the United States and European Union 69

Learning Objectives 69

Key Concepts 70

Introduction 71

Regulation in the United States 72

Regulation in the European Union 80

Import of Products 84

Recalls 84

Glossary of Terms for Section 1 85

Review Questions for Section 1 85

References 88

Section 2: Labeling Tutorial for Cosmetics and OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products Marketed in the United States 90

Learning Objectives 90

Key Concepts 91

Introduction 92

Definitions 92

Cosmetic Products 94

OTC Drug–Cosmetic Products 98

INCI Naming 101

How do you Know the Exact Composition of a Cosmetic Product or OTC Drug–Cosmetic Product? 102

Glossary of Terms for Section 2 103

Review Questions for Section 2 104

References 108

Section 3: Government and Independent Organizations in the Cosmetic Industry 109

Learning Objectives 109

Key Concepts 109

Introduction 110

Food and Drug Administration 110

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition 111

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research 111

Personal Care Product Council 111

Cosmetic Ingredient Review Panel 111

Federal Trade Commission 112

European Commission 112

Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety 113

Cosmetics Europe – the Personal Care Association 113

Glossary of Terms for Section 3 113

Review Questions for Section 3 114

References 116

Section 4: Cosmetic Good Manufacturing Practices 116

Learning Objectives 116

Key Concepts 117

Cosmetic Good Manufacturing Practices 117

Glossary of Terms for Section 4 122

Review Questions for Section 4 123

References 124

3 Skin Care Products 125

Introduction 125

Section 1: Skin Anatomy and Physiology 126

Learning Objectives 126

Key Concepts 127

Introduction 127

Structure and Function of Human Skin 128

Epidermis 128

Dermis 132

Hypodermis 133

Moisture Content of Normal Skin 133

Skin Flora and Skin pH 135

Surface Charge of Normal Skin 135

Skin Types 136

Skin Types Based on Hydration State and Lipid Content 137

Skin Types Based on Gender 139

Glossary of Terms for Section 1 140

Review Questions for Section 1 141

References 144

Section 2: Skin Cleansing Products 147

Learning Objectives 147

Key Concepts 148

Introduction 149

Types and Definition of Skin Cleansing Products 150

History of Using Skin Cleansing Products 150

How Skin Cleansing Products May Affect the Skin? 152

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 154

Cleansing Products – Basic Concepts 155

Classification Based on Chemical Nature and Mildness 155

Classification Based on Cleaning Principle 156

Classification Based on Foamability 157

Classification Based on Product Types 157

Typical Ingredients and Formulation of Skin Cleansing Products 158

Face 158

Body 164

Hand 170

Considerations When Selecting Skin Cleansing Products 175

Typical Quality Problems of Skin Cleansing Products 176

Evaluation of Skin Cleansing Products 180

Quality Parameters Generally Tested 180

Efficacy (Performance) Parameters Generally Tested 190

Ingredients Causing Safety Concerns 191

Packaging of Skin Cleansing Products 194

Glossary of Terms for Section 2 194

Review Questions for Section 2 196

References 199

Section 3: Skin Moisturizing Products 204

Learning Objectives 204

Key Concepts 205

Introduction 206

Types and Definition of Skin Moisturizers 206

History of Using Skin Moisturizers 207

How Skin Moisturizers May Affect the Skin? 208

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 210

Typical Ingredients and Formulation of Skin Moisturizers 210

Considerations When Selecting Skin Moisturizers 219

Typical Quality Issues of Skin Moisturizer Formulations 220

Evaluation of Skin Moisturizing Products 220

Packaging of Skin Moisturizers 226

Glossary of Terms for Section 3 226

Review Questions for Section 3 227

References 230

Section 4: Products for Special Skin Concerns – Aging and Acne 232

Learning Objectives 232

Key Concepts 234

Introduction 234

Part 1: Anti-Aging Products 235

Drug or Cosmetic? 238

Typical Ingredients Used in Topical Anti-Aging Products 238

Formulation Considerations for Topical Anti-Aging Products 243

Formulation Challenges for Common Anti-Aging Ingredients 247

Safety Issues Regarding the Use of Topical Non-invasive Anti-Aging Ingredients 248

Part 2: Anti-Acne Products 249

Causes of Acne and Potential Exacerbating Factors 251

Symptoms and Types of Acne Vulgaris 253

Treatment of Acne Vulgaris 255

Formulation Considerations 259

Ingredients Causing Safety Concerns 260

Glossary of Terms for Section 4 261

Review Questions for Section 4 262

References 265

Section 5: Sun Care Products 273

Learning Objectives 273

Key Concepts 274

Introduction 275

Sun Protection Basics 275

Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 278

Broad-Spectrum Protection 280

Water Resistance 281

Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Human Body 281

Types and Definition of Sun Care Products 283

History of Using Sun Care Products 284

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 285

Sunscreens 286

UV Filters 286

Additional Ingredients of Sunscreens 288

Product Forms 289

Optimizing Product Efficacy and Consumer Acceptance 291

After-Sun Preparations 293

Typical Quality Problems of Sun Care Products 294

Evaluation of Sun Care Products 295

Packaging of Sun Care Products 303

Glossary of Terms for Section 5 304

Review Questions for Section 5 306

References 309

Section 6: Deodorants and Antiperspirants 315

Learning Objectives 315

Key Concepts 316

Introduction 317

Anatomy and Physiology of Human Sweat Glands 317

Types and Definition of Products Reducing Body Odor 319

History of Using Deodorants and Antiperspirants 320

How Deodorants and Antiperspirants May Affect the Human Skin and Body? 321

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 322

Types of Ingredients Product Forms and Formulation of Deodorants and Antiperspirants 323

Typical Quality Problems of Deodorants and Antiperspirants 329

Evaluation of Deodorants and Antiperspirants 331

Packaging of Deodorants and Antiperspirants 336

Glossary of Terms for Section 6 336

Review Questions for Section 6 337

References 339

4 Color Cosmetics 345

Introduction 345

Section 1: Lip Makeup Products 346

Learning Objectives 346

Key Concepts 347

Introduction 348

Anatomy and Physiology of Human Lips 348

History of Using Lip Makeup Products 349

Types and Definition of Lip Makeup Products 350

How Lip Makeup Products May Affect the Human Lips? 352

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 352

Typical Ingredients of Lip Makeup Products 353

Typical Lipstick Types 356

Formulation of Lip Makeup Products 356

Typical Quality Problems of Lip Makeup Products 360

Evaluation of Lip Makeup Products 363

Packaging of Lip Makeup Products 366

Glossary of Terms for Section 1 366

Review Questions for Section 1 367

References 370

Section 2: Eye Makeup Products 371

Learning Objectives 371

Key Concepts 372

Introduction 372

Anatomy and Physiology of Human Eyelids and Eyelashes 373

History of Using Eye Makeup Products 374

Types and Definition of Eye Makeup Products 375

How Eye Makeup Products May Affect the Eye Area? 375

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 377

Typical Ingredients and Formulation of Eye Makeup Products 378

Typical Quality Problems of Eye Makeup Products 385

Evaluation of Eye Makeup Products 386

Packaging of Eye Makeup Products 391

Glossary of Terms for Section 2 392

Review Questions for Section 2 393

References 395

Section 3: Facial Makeup Products 397

Learning Objectives 397

Key Concepts 398

Introduction 398

Types and Definition of Facial Makeup Products 399

History of Using Facial Makeup Products 400

How Facial Makeup Products May Affect the Skin? 400

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 402

Typical Ingredients and Formulation of Facial Makeup Products 403

Powder Makeup Products for the Face 403

Typical Quality Problems of Facial Makeup Products 410

Evaluation of Facial Makeup Products 410

Packaging of Facial Makeup Products 411

Glossary of Terms for Section 3 412

Review Questions for Section 3 413

References 414

Section 4: Nail Care Products 416

Learning Objectives 416

Key Concepts 417

Introduction 417

Anatomy and Physiology of Human Nails 418

History of Using Nail Care Products 420

Types and Definition of Nail Care Products 421

How Nail Care Products May Affect the Human Nails? 422

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 423

Functional Nail Care Products 424

Typical Quality Problems of Nail Care Products 433

Evaluation of Nail Care Products 434

Packaging of Nail Care Products 439

Glossary of Terms for Section 4 440

Review Questions for Section 4 441

References 443

5 Hair Care Products 447

Introduction 447

Section 1: Hair Anatomy and Physiology 448

Learning Objectives 448

Key Concepts 449

Introduction 449

Structure and Function of Human Hair 450

Hair Growth Cycle and Hair Loss 453

Chemical Composition of Human Hair 455

Physical Properties of Human Hair 457

Hair Weathering 457

Hair Types 458

Glossary of Terms for Section 1 460

Review Questions for Section 1 461

References 463

Section 2: Hair Cleansing and Conditioning Products 464

Learning Objectives 464

Key Concepts 465

Introduction 466

Types and Definition of Hair Cleansing and Conditioning Products 466

History of Using Shampoos and Hair Conditioning Products 467

How Hair Cleaning and Conditioning Products May Affect the Hair and Scalp? 467

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 469

Hair Cleansing Products 470

Hair Conditioners 476

Types of Conditioners 478

Typical Quality Problems of Shampoos and Hair Conditioners 479

Evaluation of Shampoos and Hair Conditioners 480

Packaging of Shampoos and Hair Conditioners 482

Glossary of Terms for Section 2 482

Review Questions for Section 2 483

References 485

Section 3: Hair Styling Products Hair Straightening Products and Hair Waving Products 487

Learning Objectives 487

Key Concepts 489

Introduction 489

Types and Definition of Hair Styling Products Hair Straightening Products and Hair Waving Products 490

History of Using Hair Styling Products 491

How Hair Styling Products and Procedures May Affect the Human Hair and Scalp? 492

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 494

Hair Styling Formulations 495

Hair Styling Procedures 499

Typical Quality Problems of Hair Styling Products 507

Evaluation of Hair Styling Products 507

Glossary of Terms for Section 3 515

Review Questions for Section 3 516

References 518

Section 4: Hair Coloring Products 522

Learning Objectives 522

Key Concepts 523

Introduction 524

Types and Definition of Hair Coloring Products 524

History of Using Hair Coloring Products 525

How Hair Coloring Products May Affect the Scalp and Hair? 526

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 527

Current US Regulation on Hair Dyes 528

Types Typical Ingredients and Formulation of Hair Coloring Products 529

Typical Quality Problems of Hair Coloring Products 536

Evaluation of Hair Coloring Products 536

Packaging of Hair Coloring Products 537

Glossary of Terms for Section 4 538

Review Questions for Section 4 539

References 541

6 Oral and Dental Care Products 545

Introduction 545

Learning Objectives 546

Key Concepts 547

Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Oral Cavity 548

Brief Review of the Most Common Oral and Dental Care Problems 551

History of Using Oral and Dental Care Products 553

Types and Definition of Oral and Dental Care Products 554

How Oral and Dental Care Products May Affect the Teeth and the Oral Cavity? 555

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 556

Toothpaste 557

Ingredients 557

Rheology of Toothpaste Formulations 563

Formulation of Toothpaste 564

Mouthwash 566

Ingredients 566

Formulation of Mouthwash 568

Other Products 568

Tooth Whitening Aids 568

Tooth Powders 570

Dental Floss 570

Typical Quality Problems of Oral and Dental Care Products 571

Hardening 571

Inappropriate Viscosity 571

Grittiness 572

Cloudy Solution 572

Evaluation of Dental and Oral Care Products 572

Quality Parameters Generally Tested 572

Efficacy (Performance) Parameters Generally Tested 573

Ingredients Causing Safety Concern 574

Packaging of Dental and Oral Care Products 575

Glossary of Terms for Chapter 6 576

Review Questions for Chapter 6 577

References 580

7 Other Products 585

Introduction 585

Section 1: Hair Removal Products 586

Learning Objectives 586

Key Concepts 587

Introduction 588

Brief Review of the Structure and Function of Human Hair 588

History of Using Hair Removal Products 589

Possible Methods for Removing Hair 590

Types and Definition of Hair Removal Products 594

How Hair Removal Products May Affect the Skin and Hair? 595

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 597

Product Types Typical Ingredients and Formulation of Hair Removal Products 598

Typical Quality Problems of Hair Removal Products 607

Evaluation of Hair Removal Products 607

Packaging of Hair Removal Products 608

Glossary of Terms for Section 1 608

Review Questions for Section 1 609

References 611

Section 2: Baby Care Products 613

Learning Objectives 613

Key Concepts 614

Introduction 615

Anatomical and Physiological Differences between Baby and Adult Skin and Hair 615

Types and Definition of Baby Care Products 618

History of Using Baby Care Products 618

How Baby Care Products May Affect Baby Skin and Hair? 619

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 621

Types Typical Ingredients and Formulation of Baby Care Products 621

Typical Quality Problems of Baby Care Products 629

Evaluation of Baby Care Products 629

Packaging of Baby Care Products 631

Glossary of Terms for Section 2 632

Review Questions for Section 2 632

References 634

Section 3: Sunless Tanning Products 639

Learning Objectives 639

Key Concepts 639

Introduction 640

Types and Definition of Sunless Tanning Products 640

History of Using Sunless Tanning Products 641

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 641

How Sunless Tanners May Affect the Human Body? 642

Sunless Tanning Products 644

Formulation Concerns 646

Typical Quality Problems of Sunless Tanning Products 648

Evaluation of Sunless Tanning Products 648

Packaging of Sunless Tanning Products 649

Glossary of Terms for Section 3 649

Review Questions for Section 3 650

References 651

Section 4: Feminine Hygiene Products 653

Learning Objectives 653

Key Concepts 654

Introduction 655

Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Genital Area 655

Types and Definition of Feminine Hygiene Products 658

History of Using Feminine Hygiene Products 659

How Feminine Hygiene Products May Affect the Human Body and Genital Area? 660

Required Qualities and Characteristics and Consumer Needs 662

Types Typical Ingredients and Formulation of Feminine Hygiene Products 663

Typical Quality Problems of Feminine Hygiene Products 668

Evaluation of Feminine Hygiene Products 668

Packaging of Feminine Hygiene Products 670

Glossary of Terms for Section 4 671

Review Questions for Section 4 672

References 674

Key for Review Questions 679

Index 685

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Author Information

Gabriella Baki is an Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutics at the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UT CPPS). She serves as the main instructor in UT CPPS’s undergraduate program, the BS in Pharmaceutical Sciences Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design Major. Dr. Baki is a pharmacist, graduated in 2008 from the University of Szeged, Hungary and from where she also has a Ph.D. in Pharmaceutics.

Kenneth Alexander is Professor of Pharmacy at The University of Toledo and has been there since 1972. He developed the Industrial Pharmacy graduate program at this institution and is currently its Coordinator. In 2003, he developed the BSPS Pharmaceutics Major and, in 2011, the Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design Major and is the currently the Coordinator for both undergraduate programs. He graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy & Science and the University of Rhode Island.

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