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Research Methods in Social Relations, 8th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-76498-5
576 pages
June 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Research Methods in Social Relations, 8th Edition (1118764986) cover image

Description

Research Methods in Social Relations, 8th Edition, features a series of updates and revisions in its comprehensive introduction to current research methods in the social and behavioural sciences.

  • Offers comprehensive coverage of a wide variety of traditional and topical research methods
  • Addresses many newer research approaches such as propensity score matching, mixed methods designs, and confirmatory factor analysis
  • Written to be accessible to a range of social and behavioural science disciplines, including public health, political science, sociology, and psychology
  • Includes new chapters that engage readers in critical thinking about the processes involved in building sustainable partnerships in field and community settings
  • The Companion website includes an array of resources for Instructors, including Test Banks, Power Point lecture slides, discussion questions and exercises
  • This new edition is the much-anticipated follow-up to 2001’s seventh edition by Hoyle, Harris and Judd
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Table of Contents

Preface to the Eighth Edition xv

Acknowledgments xix

About the Companion Website xx

Part I Underpinnings of Social Relations Research 1

Chapter 1 Ways of Thinking and Knowing 3

Recognizing Importance of Research Methods and Relevance of Research 3

Perspective 7

The Place of Values in Social Science Research 8

Contestability in Social and Physical Sciences 11

Casual Observation 13

Naïve Hypotheses and Theories of Social Behavior 15

Sources of Support for Naïve Hypotheses Underlying Casual

Observation 18

Logical Analysis 18

Authority 19

Consensus 20

Observation 20

Past Experience 22

Toward a Science of Social Behavior 22

Summary 26

Chapter 2 Doing Social Science Research 29

The Nature of Social Science Theories and Hypotheses 30

What Makes a Theory Productive? 32

The Functions of Research in Constructing Theories 35

Discovery 35

Demonstration 36

Refutation 37

Replication 37

Criteria for Evaluating Social Science Research 38

Construct Validity 38

Internal Validity 39

External Validity 39

Conclusion Validity 40

Maximizing Construct Validity 41

Maximizing Internal Validity 43

Maximizing External Validity 48

Basic and Applied Research 49

Summary 49

Chapter 3 Ethical Principles 53

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study 53

Why Did Ethical Concerns Arise? 55

The Belmont Report 57

Respect for Persons 57

Beneficence 60

Justice 62

Focus on Ethical Issues in Experimental Research: Deception 64

Using Deception in an Ethical Manner 66

Focus on Ethical Issues in Quasi-Experimental Research: Confidentiality and Anonymity 67

Focus on Ethical Issues in Non-Experimental Research: Participant Observation 68

Is Not Doing a Study Ethical? 69

The Ethical Review Process 70

Closing Thoughts 75

Summary 76

Chapter 4 Roles and Relations among Researchers, Practitioners, and Participants in Engaged Research 81

Roles of Researchers in Work with Practitioners, Policy Makers, and Participants in Social Research 84

Action Research Approaches 86

Participatory Action Research 87

Community-Based Participatory Research 87

Importance of Work that Engages Practitioners and Is Relevant to Policy 89

Historical Roots of Engaged Research 90

Importance of Collaborative Engaged Research 92

Prior Social Relations Research Affecting Policy and Practice 93

Applied versus Translational Research 94

Practical Suggestions for Developing Relations with Policy Makers, Practitioners, and Communities 94

Developing Relationships 95

Being Aware of and Acknowledging Other Ongoing Research and Partnership Efforts 96

Organizing Meetings 97

Building Commitment to the Work 98

Dynamics of Power in Relationships with Communities 98

Communication 99

Establishing Timelines for Work and a Work Plan 99

Finding Support for the Research 100

Summary 103

Illustrative Examples 103

Chapter 5 Research in Laboratory Settings 107

When Should the Laboratory Be Used? 109

Universalistic versus Particularistic Research Goals 109

Basic versus Applied Research 110

Examining What Does Happen versus What Would Happen 111

Manipulable versus Nonmanipulable Independent Variables 112

Short versus Long Time Frames 112

Participants’ Awareness of the Research 113

Summary 113

Types of Laboratory Study 114

Impact Studies 114

Judgment Studies 114

Observational Studies 115

Summary 115

Artifact and Artificiality 115

The Laboratory and Types of Validity 116

Internal Validity 116

Construct Validity 116

External Validity 118

“Artificiality” of the Laboratory 119

Overcoming Threats to Validity of Laboratory Research 120

Experimenter Expectancy 120

Demand Characteristics 124

Elements of a Laboratory Study 125

Setting 125

Independent Variable 126

Manipulation Checks 130

Dependent Variable 132

Debriefing 134

Summary 136

Chapter 6 Research in Field and Community-Based Settings 139

Levels of Analysis 141

Randomization: Pro and Con 143

Illustrations of Non-Laboratory Research 147

Experimental Research: The Jigsaw Classroom 147

Non-Experimental Research: Engaging and Persisting in Volunteerism 148

Non-Experimental Research: Impacts of Post-Secondary Education on Inmate Recidivism Rates, an Action Research Study 149

Can We Afford Not to Do Applied Research? 151

Illustration: Living Downwind of Nuclear Reactors 151

Conducting Research in Community Settings 154

Cultural Issues 156

Control of Extraneous Factors, Statistical and Otherwise 158

Summary 159

Part II Research Approaches in Social Relations Research 161

Chapter 7 Measurement and Reliability 163

From Abstract Concepts to Concrete Representations 164

Constructs 164

Variables 165

Operational Definitions 165

Operational Definitions Are Necessary but Rarely Sufficient 165

Definitional Operationism 166

Measurement Presupposes a Clearly Defined Construct 167

Developing Questionnaire Items 169

Questions Aimed at Facts 170

Questions Aimed at Beliefs or Attitudes 170

Questions Aimed at Friendship Patterns and Attitudes toward Specific Others 172

Questions Aimed at Behavior 172

Question Content: General Issues 173

Question Structure 175

Expressing All Alternatives 175

Avoiding Unwarranted Assumptions 175

Open-Ended versus Closed-Ended Questions 176

Response Options for Closed-Ended Questions 178

Filters and the Assessment of No Opinion 179

Question Sequence 179

Sequence within a Topic Area 180

Item Wording for Sensitive Questions 181

Creating Multiple-Item Scales 182

Issues Concerning Item Construction in Multiple-Item Scales 183

Levels of Measurement 184

Nominal 184

Ordinal 184

Interval 184

Ratio 185

Types of Multiple-Item Scales 186

Differential Scales 186

Cumulative Scales 187

Summated Scales 189

Semantic Differential Scales 191

Reliability and Sources of Unreliability 192

Test–Retest Reliability 195

Internal Consistency Reliability 195

Inter-Rater Reliability 196

Factors that Affect Reliability 196

Summary 197

Chapter 8 Evaluating the Construct Validity of Measures 201

Using Multiple Methods of Measurement 202

Indirect Methods of Measurement 204

Collateral Reports 204

Observation 205

Physiological Measures 207

Other Indirect Methods 209

Summary 210

Evaluating Construct Validity 211

Face Validity 212

Content Validity 212

Criterion Validity 213

Convergent Validity 214

Discriminant Validity 215

Validity and the Nomological Net 216

The Multitrait–Multimethod Matrix 216

Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses 221

Cultural Issues in Measurement 224

Summary 225

Chapter 9 Sampling Methods 229

Some Basic Definitions and Concepts 231

Nonprobability Sampling 234

Haphazard Samples 234

Quota Samples 234

Purposive Samples 235

Snowball Samples 236

Concluding Thoughts about Nonprobability Sampling 237

Probability Sampling 237

Simple Random Samples 238

Selecting a Random Sample 239

Obtaining and Using Random Numbers 239

Principles Underlying the Use of Probability Sampling 241

Common Errors in Random Sampling 243

Stratified Random Sampling 244

Cluster Sampling 247

Sampling Error 249

Random Digit Dial (RDD) Telephone Sampling 250

Sampling Elements Other Than People 251

Summary 253

Chapter 10 Randomized Experiments 257

Controlling and Manipulating Variables 258

Random Assignment 261

Independent Variables that Vary Within and Between Participants 263

Threats to Internal Validity 264

Selection 265

Maturation 265

History 266

Instrumentation 267

Mortality 267

Selection by Maturation 268

Illustrating Threats to Internal Validity with a Research Example 269

Selection 270

Selection by Maturation 270

Maturation 271

History 271

Instrumentation 271

Mortality 272

Construct Validity of Independent Variables in a Randomized Experiment 272

Alternative Experimental Designs 274

Design 1: Randomized Two-Group Design 274

Design 2: Pretest–Posttest Two-Group Design 275

Design 3: Solomon Four-Group Design 276

Design 4: Between-Participants Factorial Design 277

Repeated Measures Designs 282

Analyzing Data from Experimental Designs 284

Strengths and Weaknesses of Randomized Experiments 284

Experimental Artifacts 285

External Validity 285

The Problem of College Sophomores in the Laboratory 286

The Failure of Experiments to Provide Useful Descriptive Data 287

Summary 288

Chapter 11 Quasi-Experimental and Other Nonrandomized Designs 291

Examples of Nonrandomized Designs 293

Survey Study 293

Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study 295

Conditions for Causality 297

Illustrative Nonrandomized Designs 300

Static-Group Comparison Design 300

Pretest–Posttest Nonequivalent Control Group Design 302

One-Group Pretest–Posttest Design 304

Interrupted Time-Series Design 305

Replicated Interrupted Time-Series Design 309

Single Case/Single Subject Designs 310

Regression Effects: Challenges of Matching in Quasi-Experimentation 312

Regression Discontinuity Analysis 317

Propensity Score Matching 318

Summary 320

Chapter 12 Non-Experimental Research 323

Types of Non-Experimental Research 325

Causal Thinking and Correlational Data 326

Analyzing Non-Experimental Quantitative Data 328

Longitudinal Panel Designs 329

Naturalness in Research 330

Benefits and Costs of Naturalness 332

When Might We Not Need Natural Settings? 333

Observational Research 335

Unobtrusive Measures Involving Physical Traces 335

Systematic Observation 338

Relatively Unstructured Methods: Ethological Approaches 339

Structured Methods: Checklists or Coding Schemes 341

Steps in Conducting an Observation 345

Archival Research 349

Statistical Records 351

Characteristics of Archival Research 354

Research Survey Archives 355

Verbal Records 356

Public and Private Documents 356

Mass Communications/Social Media 356

Issues in Archival Research 359

Summary 360

Chapter 13 Qualitative Research 365

Narrative Analysis 366

Research Example of Narrative Analysis 367

Analyzing and Reporting Narrative Data 368

Focus Groups 371

How Focus Groups Are Structured and Conducted 371

Case Study of the Strategic Use of Focus Groups 375

What Focus Groups Can and Cannot Do 376

Oral History 378

Participant Observation 382

Field Notes 384

Analyzing Field Notes 385

Generalization 386

Ethical Concerns 387

Summary 388

Chapter 14 Survey Research 391

Major Components of Survey Research and Sources of Error 393

Major Survey Research Designs 394

Modes of Data Collection 396

Questionnaires 396

Face-to-Face Interviews 400

Telephone Interviews 402

Asking Sensitive Questions 405

Summary 408

Chapter 15 Evaluation Research 413

Background 414

Defining Program Evaluation 415

Program Evaluation and Accountability 415

Steps in an Evaluation 417

Summative and Formative Evaluations 418

Detailed Description of Stages in Conducting a Program Evaluation 419

Developing a Conceptual Model 420

Developing Evaluation Questions 421

Developing an Evaluation Design 422

Collecting Data 422

Analyzing Data 423

Providing Information to Interested Audiences 423

A Quasi-Experimental Program Evaluation: Compensatory Education 424

The Politics of Applied and Evaluation Research 427

Results with Immediate Impact 427

Vested Interests and Competing Criteria 428

Technical Decisions with Ideological Consequences 429

Clients’ and Other Stakeholders’ Participation in Evaluations 430

Summary 432

Appendix: Criteria for Effective Evaluations 434

Chapter 16 Mixed Methods Approaches: Learning from

Complementary Methods 437

Overview 437

When to Use Mixed Methods 438

Triangulation 441

Brief Background of Mixed Methods Approaches 443

Types of Mixed Methods Approaches 443

Framing Perspectives for Mixed Methods 444

Decisions in Selecting the Type of Mixed Methods Design 444

Major Types of Mixed Methods Designs 445

Convergent Parallel Design 445

Explanatory Sequential Design 446

Exploratory Sequential Design 446

Embedded Design 446

Transformative Design 447

Multiphase Design 448

Wrapping Up 448

Summary 449

Part III Analysis and Writing 453

Chapter 17 Critically Reviewing Research Reports and Literatures 455

Reviewing Individual Research Studies 456

Step One: Read the Abstract 457

Step Two: Read the Introduction 457

Step Three: Read the Method Section with a Fine-Tooth Comb 457

A. Participants 457

B. Measures or Apparatus 458

C. Procedures 459

Step Four: Evaluate the Results 460

Step Five: Take the Discussion Section with More than a Grain of Salt 460

Reviewing Bodies of Research on a Single Topic 461

Searching the Literature 461

Other Ways of Locating Articles 463

Reviewing the Literature: “Traditionally” and Meta-Analytically 465

Understanding the Concept of Effect Size: The Foundation of Meta-Analysis 468

Coding Studies for a Meta-Analysis 470

Coding Other Features of Studies 473

Basic Meta-Analytic Tests: Combining and Comparing Studies 474

Writing and Reading Meta-Analyses 479

Summary 482

Chapter 18 Writing the Research Report 485

Preface 486

Some Preliminary Considerations 487

Which Report Should You Write? 487

Arguments for Position Number Two 488

Arguments for Position Number One 489

The “Hourglass” Shape of the Report 490

Introduction 491

What Is the Problem Being Investigated? 491

The Literature Review 493

Your Study 494

Method 494

What to Include 494

Ethical Issues 497

Results 497

Setting the Stage 497

Presenting the Findings 498

Discussion 501

Summary or Abstract 503

References 503

Appendix 503

Some Suggestions on Procedure and Style 504

Accuracy and Clarity 504

Work from an Outline 504

Write Simply. Use Examples. Use Friends as Reviewers 504

Omit Needless Words 505

Avoid Metacomments on the Writing 506

Use Repetition and Parallel Construction 506

Be Compulsive. Be Willing to Restructure 507

Person and Voice 507

Tense 508

Avoid Language Bias 508

A. Research Participants 508

B. Sex and Gender 508

C. Racial and Ethnic Identity 510

D. Sexual Orientation and Identification 510

E. Disabilities 510

Summary 511

References 513

Index 535

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Author Information

Geoffrey Maruyama is Professor and Chair of the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Minnesota. His books include Basics of Structural Equation Modeling (1998) and Research in Educational Settings (with Stanley Deno, 1992). He is a former President and Secretary Treasurer of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI).

Carey S. Ryan is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Nebraska-Omaha. She is co-author of Data Analysis: A Model Comparison Approach (2nd ed., 2009) with Charles M. Judd and Gary H. McClelland.

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Reviews

“Maruyama and Ryan have produced an outstanding textbook very useful to the advanced scholar and yet accessible to the novice. The volume is sophisticated in its epistemology but easily read and understood. An excellent source for anyone who wants to know how to do research in the social sciences.” Professor Faye Crosby, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz

“This impressive and comprehensive volume is unparalleled in its ability to make sophisticated concepts and rigorous scientific methods accessible and easy to understand.” Dr. Linda R Tropp, Director, Psychology of Peace and Violence Program, University of Massachusetts

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