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Structural Concrete: Theory and Design, 6th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-76781-8
1072 pages
March 2015
Structural Concrete: Theory and Design, 6th Edition (1118767810) cover image

Description

The most up to date structural concrete text, with the latest ACI revisions

Structural Concrete is the bestselling text on concrete structural design and analysis, providing the latest information and clear explanation in an easy to understand style. Newly updated to reflect the latest ACI 318-14 code, this sixth edition emphasizes a conceptual understanding of the subject, and builds the student's body of knowledge by presenting design methods alongside relevant standards and code. Numerous examples and practice problems help readers grasp the real-world application of the industry's best practices, with explanations and insight on the extensive ACI revision. Each chapter features examples using SI units and US-SI conversion factors, and SI unit design tables are included for reference.

Exceptional weather-resistance and stability make concrete a preferred construction material for most parts of the world. For civil and structural engineering applications, rebar and steel beams are generally added during casting to provide additional support. Pre-cast concrete is becoming increasingly common, allowing better quality control, the use of special admixtures, and the production of innovative shapes that would be too complex to construct on site. This book provides complete guidance toward all aspects of reinforced concrete design, including the ACI revisions that address these new practices.

  • Review the properties of reinforced concrete, with models for shrink and creep
  • Understand shear, diagonal tension, axial loading, and torsion
  • Learn planning considerations for reinforced beams and strut and tie
  • Design retaining walls, footings, slender columns, stairs, and more

The American Concrete Institute updates structural concrete code approximately every three years, and it's critical that students learn the most recent standards and best practices. Structural Concrete provides the most up to date information, with intuitive explanation and detailed guidance.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Notation xvii

Conversion Factors xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Structural Concrete 1

1.2 Historical Background 1

1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete 3

1.4 Codes of Practice 4

1.5 Design Philosophy and Concepts 4

1.6 Units of Measurement 5

1.7 Loads 6

1.8 Safety Provisions 8

1.9 Structural Concrete Elements 9

1.10 Structural Concrete Design 9

1.11 Accuracy of Calculations 10

1.12 Concrete High-Rise Buildings 10

References 13

2 Properties of Reinforced Concrete 15

2.1 Factors Affecting Strength of Concrete 15

2.2 Compressive Strength 17

2.3 Stress–Strain Curves of Concrete 18

2.4 Tensile Strength of Concrete 19

2.5 Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Concrete 21

2.6 Shear Strength 21

2.7 Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete 22

2.8 Poisson’s Ratio 23

2.9 Shear Modulus 24

2.10 Modular Ratio 24

2.11 Volume Changes of Concrete 24

2.12 Creep 25

2.13 Models for Predicting Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete 27

2.14 Unit Weight of Concrete 69

2.15 Fire Resistance 70

2.16 High-Performance Concrete 70

2.17 Lightweight Concrete 71

2.18 Fibrous Concrete 72

2.19 Steel Reinforcement 72

Summary 78

References 79

Problems 80

3 Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams 83

3.1 Introduction 83

3.2 Assumptions 84

3.3 Behavior of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beam Loaded to Failure 84

3.4 Types of Flexural Failure and Strain Limits 88

3.5 Load Factors 91

3.6 Strength Reduction Factor Φ 93

3.7 Significance of Analysis and Design Expressions 94

3.8 Equivalent Compressive Stress Distribution 94

3.9 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section in Bending 99

3.10 Lower Limit or Minimum Percentage of Steel 108

3.11 Adequacy of Sections 109

3.12 Bundled Bars 113

3.13 Sections in the Transition Region (Φ 0.9) 114

3.14 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 116

3.15 Analysis of T- and I-Sections 127

3.16 Dimensions of Isolated T-Shaped Sections 136

3.17 Inverted L-Shaped Sections 137

3.18 Sections of Other Shapes 137

3.19 Analysis of Sections Using Tables 139

3.20 Additional Examples 140

3.21 Examples Using SI Units 142

Summary 145

References 148

Problems 148

4 Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 152

4.1 Introduction 152

4.2 Rectangular Sections with Tension Reinforcement Only 152

4.3 Spacing of Reinforcement and Concrete Cover 155

4.4 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 162

4.5 Design of T-Sections 169

4.6 Additional Examples 174

4.7 Examples Using SI Units 178

Summary 181

Problems 184

5 Shear and Diagonal Tension 188

5.1 Introduction 188

5.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams 188

5.3 Behavior of Beams without Shear Reinforcement 191

5.4 Moment Effect on Shear Strength 193

5.5 Beams with Shear Reinforcement 195

5.6 ACI Code Shear Design Requirements 198

5.7 Design of Vertical Stirrups 201

5.8 Design Summary 205

5.9 Shear Force Due to Live Loads 209

5.10 Shear Stresses in Members of Variable Depth 213

5.11 Examples Using SI Units 217

Summary 222

References 222

Problems 223

6 Deflection and Control of Cracking 226

6.1 Deflection of Structural Concrete Members 226

6.2 Instantaneous Deflection 227

6.3 Long-Time Deflection 233

6.4 Allowable Deflection 234

6.5 Deflection Due to Combinations of Loads 234

6.6 Cracks in Flexural Members 243

6.7 ACI Code Requirements 247

Summary 252

References 253

Problems 254

7 Development Length of Reinforcing Bars 257

7.1 Introduction 257

7.2 Development of Bond Stresses 258

7.3 Development Length in Tension 261

7.4 Development Length in Compression 264

7.5 Summary for Computation of ID in Tension 266

7.6 Critical Sections in Flexural Members 268

7.7 Standard Hooks (ACI Code, Sections 25.3 and 25.4) 272

7.8 Splices of Reinforcement 276

7.9 Moment–Resistance Diagram (Bar Cutoff Points) 281

Summary 285

References 286

Problems 287

8 Design of Deep Beams by the Strut-and-Tie Method 290

8.1 Introduction 290

8.2 B- and D-Regions 290

8.3 Strut-and-Tie Model 290

8.4 ACI Design Procedure to Build a Strut-and-Tie Model 293

8.5 Strut-and-Tie Method According to AASHTO LRFD 301

8.6 Deep Members 303

References 321

Problems 321

9 One-Way Slabs 324

9.1 Types of Slabs 324

9.2 Design of One-Way Solid Slabs 326

9.3 Design Limitations According to ACI Code 328

9.4 Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement 328

9.5 Reinforcement Details 329

9.6 Distribution of Loads from One-Way Slabs to Supporting Beams 329

9.7 One-Way Joist Floor System 335

Summary 338

References 339

Problems 340

10 Axially Loaded Columns 342

10.1 Introduction 342

10.2 Types of Columns 342

10.3 Behavior of Axially Loaded Columns 344

10.4 ACI Code Limitations 344

10.5 Spiral Reinforcement 347

10.6 Design Equations 348

10.7 Axial Tension 349

10.8 Long Columns 349

Summary 352

References 353

Problems 354

11 Members in Compression and Bending 356

11.1 Introduction 356

11.2 Design Assumptions for Columns 358

11.3 Load–Moment Interaction Diagram 358

11.4 Safety Provisions 361

11.5 Balanced Condition: Rectangular Sections 362

11.6 Column Sections under Eccentric Loading 365

11.7 Strength of Columns for Tension Failure 367

11.8 Strength of Columns for Compression Failure 370

11.9 Interaction Diagram Example 376

11.10 Rectangular Columns with Side Bars 377

11.11 Load Capacity of Circular Columns 381

11.12 Analysis and Design of Columns Using Charts 386

11.13 Design of Columns under Eccentric Loading 391

11.14 Biaxial Bending 397

11.15 Circular Columns with Uniform Reinforcement under Biaxial Bending 399

11.16 Square and Rectangular Columns under Biaxial Bending 402

11.17 Parme Load Contour Method 403

11.18 Equation of Failure Surface 408

11.19 SI Example 411

Summary 413

References 415

Problems 415

12 Slender Columns 420

12.1 Introduction 420

12.2 Effective Column Length (Klu) 421

12.3 Effective Length Factor (K) 422

12.4 Member Stiffness (EI) 425

12.5 Limitation of the Slenderness Ratio (Klu¨Mr) 427

12.6 Moment-Magnifier Design Method 428

Summary 438

References 440

Problems 441

13 Footings 443

13.1 Introduction 443

13.2 Types of Footings 445

13.3 Distribution of Soil Pressure 448

13.4 Design Considerations 449

13.5 Plain Concrete Footings 459

13.6 Combined Footings 472

13.7 Footings under Eccentric Column Loads 478

13.8 Footings under Biaxial Moment 479

13.9 Slabs on Ground 483

13.10 Footings on Piles 483

13.11 SI Equations 484

Summary 484

References 487

Problems 487

14 Retaining Walls 490

14.1 Introduction 490

14.2 Types of Retaining Walls 490

14.3 Forces on Retaining Walls 492

14.4 Active and Passive Soil Pressures 493

14.5 Effect of Surcharge 497

14.6 Friction on the Retaining Wall Base 499

14.7 Stability against Overturning 499

14.8 Proportions of Retaining Walls 500

14.9 Design Requirements 501

14.10 Drainage 502

14.11 Basement Walls 513

Summary 517

References 518

Problems 518

15 Design for Torsion 523

15.1 Introduction 523

15.2 Torsional Moments in Beams 524

15.3 Torsional Stresses 525

15.4 Torsional Moment in Rectangular Sections 528

15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion 529

15.6 Torsion Theories for Concrete Members 529

15.7 Torsional Strength of Plain Concrete Members 534

15.8 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members (ACI Code Procedure) 534

15.9 Summary of ACI Code Procedures 542

Summary 550

References 551

Problems 552

16 Continuous Beams and Frames 555

16.1 Introduction 555

16.2 Maximum Moments in Continuous Beams 556

16.3 Building Frames 561

16.4 Portal Frames 562

16.5 General Frames 565

16.6 Design of Frame Hinges 565

16.7 Introduction to Limit Design 578

16.8 The Collapse Mechanism 580

16.9 Principles of Limit Design 582

16.10 Upper and Lower Bounds of Load Factors 582

16.11 Limit Analysis 582

16.12 Rotation of Plastic Hinges 586

16.13 Summary of Limit Design Procedure 593

16.14 Moment Redistribution of Maximum Negative or Positive Moments in Continuous Beams 596

Summary 605

References 607

Problems 607

17 Design of Two-Way Slabs 610

17.1 Introduction 610

17.2 Types of Two-Way Slabs 610

17.3 Economical Choice of Concrete Floor Systems 614

17.4 Design Concepts 615

17.5 Column and Middle Strips 619

17.6 Minimum Slab Thickness to Control Deflection 620

17.7 Shear Strength of Slabs 624

17.8 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs by the Direct Design Method 629

17.9 Design Moments in Columns 658

17.10 Transfer of Unbalanced Moments to Columns 659

17.11 Waffle Slabs 672

17.12 Equivalent Frame Method 681

Summary 692

References 693

Problems 693

18 Stairs 696

18.1 Introduction 696

18.2 Types of Stairs 698

18.3 Examples 713

Summary 721

References 722

Problems 722

19 Introduction to Prestressed Concrete 724

19.1 Prestressed Concrete 724

19.2 Materials and Serviceability Requirements 735

19.3 Loss of Prestress 737

19.4 Analysis of Flexural Members 746

19.5 Design of Flexural Members 756

19.6 Cracking Moment 762

19.7 Deflection 764

19.8 Design for Shear 767

19.9 Preliminary Design of Prestressed Concrete Flexural Members 775

19.10 End-Block Stresses 777

Summary 780

References 782

Problems 783

20 Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 786

20.1 Introduction 786

20.2 Seismic Design Category 786

20.3 Analysis Procedures 804

20.4 Load Combinations 818

20.5 Special Requirements in Design of Structures Subjected to Earthquake Loads 819

References 856

Problems 856

21 Beams Curved in Plan 858

21.1 Introduction 858

21.2 Uniformly Loaded Circular Beams 858

21.3 Semicircular Beam Fixed at End Supports 865

21.4 Fixed-End Semicircular Beam under Uniform Loading 869

21.5 Circular Beam Subjected to Uniform Loading 872

21.6 Circular Beam Subjected to a Concentrated Load at Midspan 875

21.7 V-Shape Beams Subjected to Uniform Loading 878

21.8 V-Shape Beams Subjected to a Concentrated Load at the Centerline of the Beam 881

Summary 885

References 886

Problems 886

22 Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 887

22.1 Introduction 887

22.2 Typical Cross Sections 888

22.3 Design Philosophy of AASHTO Specificatioins 891

22.4 Load Factors and Combinations (AASHTO 3.4) 892

22.5 Gravity Loads 896

22.6 Design for Flexural and Axial Force Effects (AASHTO 5.7) 905

22.7 Design for Shear (AASHTO 5.8) 906

22.8 Loss of Prestress (AASHTO 5.9.5) 913

22.9 Deflections (AASHTO 5.7.3.6) 915

References 944

23 Review Problems on Concrete Building Components 945

24 Design and Analysis Flowcharts 970

Appendix A: Design Tables (U.S. Customary Units) 994

Appendix B: Design Tables (SI Units) 1005

Appendix C: Structural Aids 1013

Index 1033

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Author Information

M. NADIM HASSOUN, PHD, PE, FASCE, FICE, MACI, is Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at South Dakota State University.

AKTHEM AL-MANASEER, PHD, PENG, FASCE, FACI, FCSCE, MISTRUCTE, is Professor of Structural Concrete in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at San Jose State University.

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