Structural Concrete: Theory and Design, 6th EditionISBN: 9781118767818
1072 pages
March 2015

Description
Structural Concrete is the bestselling text on concrete structural design and analysis, providing the latest information and clear explanation in an easy to understand style. Newly updated to reflect the latest ACI 31814 code, this sixth edition emphasizes a conceptual understanding of the subject, and builds the student's body of knowledge by presenting design methods alongside relevant standards and code. Numerous examples and practice problems help readers grasp the realworld application of the industry's best practices, with explanations and insight on the extensive ACI revision. Each chapter features examples using SI units and USSI conversion factors, and SI unit design tables are included for reference.
Exceptional weatherresistance and stability make concrete a preferred construction material for most parts of the world. For civil and structural engineering applications, rebar and steel beams are generally added during casting to provide additional support. Precast concrete is becoming increasingly common, allowing better quality control, the use of special admixtures, and the production of innovative shapes that would be too complex to construct on site. This book provides complete guidance toward all aspects of reinforced concrete design, including the ACI revisions that address these new practices.
 Review the properties of reinforced concrete, with models for shrink and creep
 Understand shear, diagonal tension, axial loading, and torsion
 Learn planning considerations for reinforced beams and strut and tie
 Design retaining walls, footings, slender columns, stairs, and more
The American Concrete Institute updates structural concrete code approximately every three years, and it's critical that students learn the most recent standards and best practices. Structural Concrete provides the most up to date information, with intuitive explanation and detailed guidance.
Table of Contents
Preface xiii
Notation xvii
Conversion Factors xxiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Structural Concrete 1
1.2 Historical Background 1
1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete 3
1.4 Codes of Practice 4
1.5 Design Philosophy and Concepts 4
1.6 Units of Measurement 5
1.7 Loads 6
1.8 Safety Provisions 8
1.9 Structural Concrete Elements 9
1.10 Structural Concrete Design 9
1.11 Accuracy of Calculations 10
1.12 Concrete HighRise Buildings 10
References 13
2 Properties of Reinforced Concrete 15
2.1 Factors Affecting Strength of Concrete 15
2.2 Compressive Strength 17
2.3 Stress–Strain Curves of Concrete 18
2.4 Tensile Strength of Concrete 19
2.5 Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Concrete 21
2.6 Shear Strength 21
2.7 Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete 22
2.8 Poisson’s Ratio 23
2.9 Shear Modulus 24
2.10 Modular Ratio 24
2.11 Volume Changes of Concrete 24
2.12 Creep 25
2.13 Models for Predicting Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete 27
2.14 Unit Weight of Concrete 69
2.15 Fire Resistance 70
2.16 HighPerformance Concrete 70
2.17 Lightweight Concrete 71
2.18 Fibrous Concrete 72
2.19 Steel Reinforcement 72
Summary 78
References 79
Problems 80
3 Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams 83
3.1 Introduction 83
3.2 Assumptions 84
3.3 Behavior of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beam Loaded to Failure 84
3.4 Types of Flexural Failure and Strain Limits 88
3.5 Load Factors 91
3.6 Strength Reduction Factor Φ 93
3.7 Significance of Analysis and Design Expressions 94
3.8 Equivalent Compressive Stress Distribution 94
3.9 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section in Bending 99
3.10 Lower Limit or Minimum Percentage of Steel 108
3.11 Adequacy of Sections 109
3.12 Bundled Bars 113
3.13 Sections in the Transition Region (Φ 0.9) 114
3.14 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 116
3.15 Analysis of T and ISections 127
3.16 Dimensions of Isolated TShaped Sections 136
3.17 Inverted LShaped Sections 137
3.18 Sections of Other Shapes 137
3.19 Analysis of Sections Using Tables 139
3.20 Additional Examples 140
3.21 Examples Using SI Units 142
Summary 145
References 148
Problems 148
4 Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 152
4.1 Introduction 152
4.2 Rectangular Sections with Tension Reinforcement Only 152
4.3 Spacing of Reinforcement and Concrete Cover 155
4.4 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 162
4.5 Design of TSections 169
4.6 Additional Examples 174
4.7 Examples Using SI Units 178
Summary 181
Problems 184
5 Shear and Diagonal Tension 188
5.1 Introduction 188
5.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams 188
5.3 Behavior of Beams without Shear Reinforcement 191
5.4 Moment Effect on Shear Strength 193
5.5 Beams with Shear Reinforcement 195
5.6 ACI Code Shear Design Requirements 198
5.7 Design of Vertical Stirrups 201
5.8 Design Summary 205
5.9 Shear Force Due to Live Loads 209
5.10 Shear Stresses in Members of Variable Depth 213
5.11 Examples Using SI Units 217
Summary 222
References 222
Problems 223
6 Deflection and Control of Cracking 226
6.1 Deflection of Structural Concrete Members 226
6.2 Instantaneous Deflection 227
6.3 LongTime Deflection 233
6.4 Allowable Deflection 234
6.5 Deflection Due to Combinations of Loads 234
6.6 Cracks in Flexural Members 243
6.7 ACI Code Requirements 247
Summary 252
References 253
Problems 254
7 Development Length of Reinforcing Bars 257
7.1 Introduction 257
7.2 Development of Bond Stresses 258
7.3 Development Length in Tension 261
7.4 Development Length in Compression 264
7.5 Summary for Computation of ID in Tension 266
7.6 Critical Sections in Flexural Members 268
7.7 Standard Hooks (ACI Code, Sections 25.3 and 25.4) 272
7.8 Splices of Reinforcement 276
7.9 Moment–Resistance Diagram (Bar Cutoff Points) 281
Summary 285
References 286
Problems 287
8 Design of Deep Beams by the StrutandTie Method 290
8.1 Introduction 290
8.2 B and DRegions 290
8.3 StrutandTie Model 290
8.4 ACI Design Procedure to Build a StrutandTie Model 293
8.5 StrutandTie Method According to AASHTO LRFD 301
8.6 Deep Members 303
References 321
Problems 321
9 OneWay Slabs 324
9.1 Types of Slabs 324
9.2 Design of OneWay Solid Slabs 326
9.3 Design Limitations According to ACI Code 328
9.4 Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement 328
9.5 Reinforcement Details 329
9.6 Distribution of Loads from OneWay Slabs to Supporting Beams 329
9.7 OneWay Joist Floor System 335
Summary 338
References 339
Problems 340
10 Axially Loaded Columns 342
10.1 Introduction 342
10.2 Types of Columns 342
10.3 Behavior of Axially Loaded Columns 344
10.4 ACI Code Limitations 344
10.5 Spiral Reinforcement 347
10.6 Design Equations 348
10.7 Axial Tension 349
10.8 Long Columns 349
Summary 352
References 353
Problems 354
11 Members in Compression and Bending 356
11.1 Introduction 356
11.2 Design Assumptions for Columns 358
11.3 Load–Moment Interaction Diagram 358
11.4 Safety Provisions 361
11.5 Balanced Condition: Rectangular Sections 362
11.6 Column Sections under Eccentric Loading 365
11.7 Strength of Columns for Tension Failure 367
11.8 Strength of Columns for Compression Failure 370
11.9 Interaction Diagram Example 376
11.10 Rectangular Columns with Side Bars 377
11.11 Load Capacity of Circular Columns 381
11.12 Analysis and Design of Columns Using Charts 386
11.13 Design of Columns under Eccentric Loading 391
11.14 Biaxial Bending 397
11.15 Circular Columns with Uniform Reinforcement under Biaxial Bending 399
11.16 Square and Rectangular Columns under Biaxial Bending 402
11.17 Parme Load Contour Method 403
11.18 Equation of Failure Surface 408
11.19 SI Example 411
Summary 413
References 415
Problems 415
12 Slender Columns 420
12.1 Introduction 420
12.2 Effective Column Length (Klu) 421
12.3 Effective Length Factor (K) 422
12.4 Member Stiffness (EI) 425
12.5 Limitation of the Slenderness Ratio (Klu¨Mr) 427
12.6 MomentMagnifier Design Method 428
Summary 438
References 440
Problems 441
13 Footings 443
13.1 Introduction 443
13.2 Types of Footings 445
13.3 Distribution of Soil Pressure 448
13.4 Design Considerations 449
13.5 Plain Concrete Footings 459
13.6 Combined Footings 472
13.7 Footings under Eccentric Column Loads 478
13.8 Footings under Biaxial Moment 479
13.9 Slabs on Ground 483
13.10 Footings on Piles 483
13.11 SI Equations 484
Summary 484
References 487
Problems 487
14 Retaining Walls 490
14.1 Introduction 490
14.2 Types of Retaining Walls 490
14.3 Forces on Retaining Walls 492
14.4 Active and Passive Soil Pressures 493
14.5 Effect of Surcharge 497
14.6 Friction on the Retaining Wall Base 499
14.7 Stability against Overturning 499
14.8 Proportions of Retaining Walls 500
14.9 Design Requirements 501
14.10 Drainage 502
14.11 Basement Walls 513
Summary 517
References 518
Problems 518
15 Design for Torsion 523
15.1 Introduction 523
15.2 Torsional Moments in Beams 524
15.3 Torsional Stresses 525
15.4 Torsional Moment in Rectangular Sections 528
15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion 529
15.6 Torsion Theories for Concrete Members 529
15.7 Torsional Strength of Plain Concrete Members 534
15.8 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members (ACI Code Procedure) 534
15.9 Summary of ACI Code Procedures 542
Summary 550
References 551
Problems 552
16 Continuous Beams and Frames 555
16.1 Introduction 555
16.2 Maximum Moments in Continuous Beams 556
16.3 Building Frames 561
16.4 Portal Frames 562
16.5 General Frames 565
16.6 Design of Frame Hinges 565
16.7 Introduction to Limit Design 578
16.8 The Collapse Mechanism 580
16.9 Principles of Limit Design 582
16.10 Upper and Lower Bounds of Load Factors 582
16.11 Limit Analysis 582
16.12 Rotation of Plastic Hinges 586
16.13 Summary of Limit Design Procedure 593
16.14 Moment Redistribution of Maximum Negative or Positive Moments in Continuous Beams 596
Summary 605
References 607
Problems 607
17 Design of TwoWay Slabs 610
17.1 Introduction 610
17.2 Types of TwoWay Slabs 610
17.3 Economical Choice of Concrete Floor Systems 614
17.4 Design Concepts 615
17.5 Column and Middle Strips 619
17.6 Minimum Slab Thickness to Control Deflection 620
17.7 Shear Strength of Slabs 624
17.8 Analysis of TwoWay Slabs by the Direct Design Method 629
17.9 Design Moments in Columns 658
17.10 Transfer of Unbalanced Moments to Columns 659
17.11 Waffle Slabs 672
17.12 Equivalent Frame Method 681
Summary 692
References 693
Problems 693
18 Stairs 696
18.1 Introduction 696
18.2 Types of Stairs 698
18.3 Examples 713
Summary 721
References 722
Problems 722
19 Introduction to Prestressed Concrete 724
19.1 Prestressed Concrete 724
19.2 Materials and Serviceability Requirements 735
19.3 Loss of Prestress 737
19.4 Analysis of Flexural Members 746
19.5 Design of Flexural Members 756
19.6 Cracking Moment 762
19.7 Deflection 764
19.8 Design for Shear 767
19.9 Preliminary Design of Prestressed Concrete Flexural Members 775
19.10 EndBlock Stresses 777
Summary 780
References 782
Problems 783
20 Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 786
20.1 Introduction 786
20.2 Seismic Design Category 786
20.3 Analysis Procedures 804
20.4 Load Combinations 818
20.5 Special Requirements in Design of Structures Subjected to Earthquake Loads 819
References 856
Problems 856
21 Beams Curved in Plan 858
21.1 Introduction 858
21.2 Uniformly Loaded Circular Beams 858
21.3 Semicircular Beam Fixed at End Supports 865
21.4 FixedEnd Semicircular Beam under Uniform Loading 869
21.5 Circular Beam Subjected to Uniform Loading 872
21.6 Circular Beam Subjected to a Concentrated Load at Midspan 875
21.7 VShape Beams Subjected to Uniform Loading 878
21.8 VShape Beams Subjected to a Concentrated Load at the Centerline of the Beam 881
Summary 885
References 886
Problems 886
22 Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 887
22.1 Introduction 887
22.2 Typical Cross Sections 888
22.3 Design Philosophy of AASHTO Specificatioins 891
22.4 Load Factors and Combinations (AASHTO 3.4) 892
22.5 Gravity Loads 896
22.6 Design for Flexural and Axial Force Effects (AASHTO 5.7) 905
22.7 Design for Shear (AASHTO 5.8) 906
22.8 Loss of Prestress (AASHTO 5.9.5) 913
22.9 Deflections (AASHTO 5.7.3.6) 915
References 944
23 Review Problems on Concrete Building Components 945
24 Design and Analysis Flowcharts 970
Appendix A: Design Tables (U.S. Customary Units) 994
Appendix B: Design Tables (SI Units) 1005
Appendix C: Structural Aids 1013
Index 1033
Author Information
M. NADIM HASSOUN, PHD, PE, FASCE, FICE, MACI, is Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at South Dakota State University.
AKTHEM ALMANASEER, PHD, PENG, FASCE, FACI, FCSCE, MISTRUCTE, is Professor of Structural Concrete in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at San Jose State University.