Wiley.com
Print this page Share
E-book

Water Resources: A New Water Architecture

ISBN: 978-1-118-79407-4
360 pages
July 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Water Resources: A New Water Architecture (1118794079) cover image

Description

Over 7 billion people demand water from resources that the changing climate is making more and more difficult to harness. Water scarcity and shortage are increasingly common and conditions are becoming more extreme. Inadequate and inappropriate management of water is already taking its toll on the environment and on the quality of life of millions of people. Modern water professionals have a duty to develop sound water science and robust evidence to lobby and influence national and regional development policy and investment priorities. We need to be bold and brave to challenge the status quo, argue the case for change, and create a New Water Architecture.

Water Resources: A New Water Architecture takes a unique approach to the challenges of water management. The stress caused by our desire to live, eat, and consume is examined in the context of Governance, the role of policy, and the commercial world. The authors share their nine-step vision for a New Water Architecture.

Written by three industry practitioners, this book provides students, young professionals, policymakers, and those interested in the sustainability of our natural resources with a pragmatic and compelling perspective on how to manage the ultimate resource of our time. 

See More

Table of Contents

Series Editor Foreword – Challenges in Water Management xi

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

List of Abbreviations xix

Units and Conversion xxi

Glossary xxiii

Part I Setting the Scene 1

1 Water Resources in the Twenty-First Century 3

1.1 A Looming Crisis 3

1.2 Human Interactions with Water in the Biosphere 4

1.3 An Inspiring Challenge 6

References 6

2 Fundamentals of Water Management 7

2.1 The Planetary Picture 7

2.1.1 The Blue Planet 7

2.1.2 Water and the Biosphere 8

2.1.3 Distinguishing between Hydrology and Water Resources 10

2.2 Evolution of Water Resource Systems 11

2.2.1 Hydroclimates and Water Resources 12

2.2.2 Mechanisms of Human Interactions with Water Fluxes 18

2.2.3 Anthropogenic Influence: The Traditional Urban Water Cycle 20

2.2.3.1 Abstraction 22

2.2.3.2 Storage 22

2.2.3.3 Water Supply Distribution Systems 23

2.2.3.4 Urban Land Use and Stormwater Runoff 23

2.2.3.5 Sewerage Systems 23

2.2.3.6 Wastewater Treatment and Discharge 23

2.2.4 Anthropogenic Influence: Advancements in the Urban Water Cycle 24

2.2.4.1 Desalination 24

2.2.4.2 Reuse 24

2.2.4.3 Managed Aquifer Recharge 25

2.2.4.6 Water Transfers 25

2.2.5 Anthropogenic Influence: Agriculture 25

2.3 Water, Society and the Biosphere 26

2.3.1 Water and Civilisation 26

2.3.2 The Human Right to Water 27

2.3.3 Population Growth and Mobility 29

2.3.4 Disparity between Water Resources and Population 30

2.3.5 Ability to Access Local Water Resources 30

2.3.6 Different Types of Water Scarcity 32

2.3.7 Ability to Access Distant Water Resources 33

2.3.8 Modern Water Politics 33

References 37

Part II Stresses and Strains 41

3 Key Concepts 43

3.1 Water Fluxes in Space and Time 43

3.2 Mechanisms of Human Interaction with Water Fluxes 45

3.3 Water Stress and Water Scarcity 47

3.4 Virtual Water and the Water Footprint 49

3.5 Live, Eat, Consume: The Conceptual Framework of Water Stress and Virtual

Water 58

References 61

4 Live 63

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Water and Energy 63

4.2.1 The Nexus of Water and Energy 63

4.2.2 Energy Use in Water Management 65

4.2.2.1 Energy Demands from Water Management 65

4.2.2.2 Energy Consumption by the Customer 70

4.2.2.3 Reducing Energy Demands in the Water Sector 70

4.2.3 Water Use in Energy Production 72

4.2.3.1 Water Use in Primary Energy Supply 73

4.2.3.2 Water Use in Final Energy Consumption 74

4.2.3.3 Power Station Vulnerabilities Related to Water 76

4.2.3.4 Hydropower 77

4.2.3.5 Emerging Primary Energy Sources 78

4.2.3.6 Future Energy Portfolios 82

4.3 Urbanisation 86

4.3.1 The Rise of the City 86

4.3.2 Peri?]Urban Communities 88

4.3.3 Traditional Approaches to the Management of Urban Water Supply and Demand 90

4.3.4 Alternative Approaches to Urban Water Supply 91

4.3.4.1 Cyclical Water Management Systems 91

4.3.4.2 Hybrid Systems and Localised Networks 93

4.3.4.3 Inter?]Basin Transfers 94

4.3.4.4 New Sources of Water Supply 95

4.3.5 Demand Management and the Role of Water Pricing 97

4.3.6 Using Water to Meet Urban Demands for Other Resources 100

4.3.7 Flooding in Urban Environments 102

4.3.7.1 Riverine and Coastal Flooding 103

4.3.7.2 Stormwater Flooding 104

4.3.7.3 Groundwater Flooding 105

4.3.8 Opportunities and Challenges of Urban Water Management 106

4.3.8.1 Improved Data Management 108

4.3.8.2 Learning from Nature 109

4.3.8.3 Integrating the Management of Urban Resources 110

4.3.8.4 Leadership and Social Action 110

References 110

5 Eat 117

5.1 The Hidden Water in Food 118

5.1.1 How Much Water is Hidden in Food? 118

5.1.2 The Impact of Water Use in the Global Food System 120

5.2 An Increasingly Important Problem 124

5.2.1 Population Growth 124

5.2.2 Changing Diet 126

5.2.3 Food Waste 129

5.2.4 Food as a Globalised Commodity 131

5.2.5 Climate Change 133

5.3 How to Respond to the Water/Food Conundrum 135

5.3.1 Improving the Efficiency of Water Use in the Global Food System 135

5.3.1.1 Rain?]Fed Agriculture 135

5.3.1.2 Irrigated Agriculture 138

5.3.1.3 Research and Development 142

5.3.2 The Importance of Consumer Education 145

5.3.3 Improve Governance of Water Use for Food Production 148

References 150

6 Consume 156

6.1 Impact of Consumerism on Water Management 156

6.1.1 Water as the Essential Economic Ingredient 156

6.1.2 Hidden Demand 157

6.2 Water Use in Industry: Which Sectors Use the Most? 158

6.3 Water Use in Industry: Which Activities Use the Most? 161

6.3.1 Agriculture: Water to Produce Non?]Food Goods 161

6.3.1.1 The Water Footprint of Clothing 161

6.3.1.2 The Cotton Problem 164

6.3.2 Mining for Minerals 166

6.3.2.1 The Role of Water in Mining 166

6.3.2.2 Regional Context and Water Management Challenges for Mining 168

6.3.3 Manufacturing 169

6.3.3.1 Water Use in Paper Production 169

6.3.3.2 Water Use in Fabricated Metal Production 170

6.4 Water Risk: Recognising the Magnitude of the Problem 170

6.5 Water Risk: Defining and Quantifying the Risk 173

6.5.1 Physical Risks 173

6.5.2 Geopolitical Risks 175

6.5.3 Reputational Risks 178

6.5.4 Social and Community Risks and Impacts 179

6.5.5 Regulatory Risks 179

6.5.6 Financial Implications of Water Risks 181

6.6 Managing Risks and Seizing Opportunities: The Path to Maturity 181

6.6.1 The Age of Taking Water for Granted 182

6.6.2 The Age of Water Reduction 184

6.6.3 The Age of Water Stewardship 186

References 190

Part III Existing Water Architecture 195

7 Existing Management of Water Resources 197

7.1 Governance 197

7.2 Structure of Water Management 198

7.3 The Role of Policy in Decision Making 201

7.4 Types of Policy and their Development 202

7.4.1 Water Policy for Domestic Supply 203

7.4.2 Water Policy for Agriculture 206

7.4.3 Water Policy for Industry 208

7.5 The Rise of Decentralisation and Consultation 209

7.6 Regulation of Water Management 210

7.6.1 Regulating Sources of Water 211

7.6.2 Regulating Drinking Water and Non?]Potable Quality 214

7.6.3 Managing Demands for Water and Enforcing Best Practice 215

7.6.4 Regulating Wastewater Treatment and Disposal 216

7.6.5 Regulating Environmental Conditions 217

7.7 Regulatory Models 218

7.8 Regulatory Phases: Unregulated versus Highly Regulated 219

7.8.1 The Unregulated or Lightly Regulated Phase 220

7.8.2 The Over?]Regulated Phase 221

7.8.3 The Mature Phase 222

7.9 Governance Silos 223

7.10 Breaking the Silos and Integrating Water Supply Policy 224

7.11 Evolution of Integrated Water Resource Management 227

7.12 Traditional Water Planning Responsibilities versus a Corporate-Driven

‘Water Risk’ Agenda 231

7.13 Summary 231

References 232

8 Ownership and Investment 237

8.1 Public versus Private Ownership Models 237

8.1.1 A New Era of Privatisation 238

8.1.2 A Backlash Against Privatisation 239

8.1.3 Reflections on the Public versus Private Debate 240

8.2 Investment Models and the Economics of Water Management 241

8.2.1 Current and Future Forecast Levels of Investment 241

8.2.2 Meeting Investment Needs 243

8.2.2.1 Investment to Achieve Basic Human Needs 245

8.2.2.2 Investment to Achieve Discretionary Domestic and Industrial Needs 245

8.3 Summary 246

References 246

Part IV Moving to a New Water Architecture 249

9 Challenges and Opportunities 251

9.1 A New Water Architecture: An Introduction 251

9.2 Challenges 252

9.2.1 Stresses and Strains 252

9.2.2 Current Architecture of Water Management 254

9.3 Opportunities 255

9.3.1 Emergence of Virtual Water Concepts in Water Policy 255

9.3.2 Emergence of Multi?]Stakeholder Approaches to Water Policy 257

9.3.3 Reform of Water Policy as Opportunity 258

9.4 A Systems Approach to Water Management 260

9.4.1 Principles of Systems Thinking 260

9.4.2 Integrated Management of Water at a Catchment Scale 261

9.4.3 Cyclical Management and Allocation of Water Resources 264

References 265

10 Conceptual Integration 266

10.1 Societal View of the Value of Water 267

10.1.1 The ‘Free’ Resource 267

10.1.2 Price Signals in Drinking Water Supply 267

10.1.3 Price Signals Related to Water in Food and Other Goods 268

10.2 Water as an Under-Valued Resource: The Consequences 269

10.2.1 Profligacy 269

10.2.2 Poor Water Management and Decision Making 269

10.3 Moving to Conceptual Integration 270

10.3.1 A New Appreciation of the Role and Value of Water 270

10.3.2 The Role of Water Professionals 271

References 272

11 Institutional Integration 273

11.1 Requirements for Delivering Integrated Solutions 273

11.1.1 Vertical Integration 274

11.1.2 Horizontal Integration 275

11.2 The Challenges of Delivering Integrated Solutions 276

11.2.1 The State of Play 276

11.2.2 Causes and Barriers 276

11.3 The Role of Governments 277

11.4 The Importance of Education 281

11.5 The Role of Private Organisations 283

11.6 The Importance of Knowledge Transfer and the Benefits of the Digital Revolution 285

11.7 The Role of Non-Governmental Organisations 287

11.8 How to Finance Change 287

11.9 Conclusions: Institutional Enablers 289

References 290

12 Physical Integration 293

12.1 The Need for Change 294

12.1.1 Existing Limitations 294

12.1.2 Barriers to Change 297

12.1.2.1 Path Dependency 297

12.1.2.2 Siloed Decision Making 297

12.1.2.3 Perceptions of Ecosystem Services 298

12.1.2.4 Business Models 298

12.1.3 Overcoming the Barriers 298

12.2 Integrating Green and Grey Infrastructure to Slow Down Water 299

12.3 The Storage Continuum 301

12.4 Creating Hybrid Water Management Systems 305

12.4.1 The Challenge of Maintenance and Long?]Term Responsibility 307

12.5 Circular Systems that Transform ‘Wastes’ to ‘Resources’ 308

12.6 Conclusions 312

References 313

13 A Way Forward 316

13.1 Conceptual Integration 316

13.2 Institutional Integration 318

13.3 Physical Integration 319

13.4 Summary 320

Index 321

 

See More

Author Information

The Authors
Alexander Lane specialises in the development of water strategy and planning that acknowledges the interrelationships between water, other natural resources and human interests. As a consultant in the UK and Australia, Alex has advised a diverse range of public bodies and global companies on the preparation and implementation of robust and sustainable approaches to the management of water that deliver not just immediate gains, but also long-term and mutually beneficial outcomes.

Michael Norton is an expert in water engineering and management, has contributed to over 100 studies and projects in 20 countries, and was awarded an MBE for his outstanding services to water and international trade. With experience in Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia, Michael's technical interests include water security, water footprint, sustainable wastewater treatment, urban drainage and the water-food-energy system. He now provides consultancy to private sector, public sector, government and non-government organisations on a regional, national and international scale.

Sandra Ryan specialises in strategic water resource planning, focusing on finding traditional and alternative solutions in situations where demand for water exceeds the resource available for supply. With a career background in water utility based water resource planning and regulation in the UK, Sandra is transferring these technical principles to clients in the industrial and commercial sectors battling water risks, and national and local governments seeking to build resilience.

See More

Related Titles

More in this series

Back to Top