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Environmental Engineering: Principles and Practice

ISBN: 978-1-118-80145-1
662 pages
May 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Environmental Engineering: Principles and Practice (1118801458) cover image

Description

Environmental Engineering: Principles and Practice is written for advanced undergraduate and first-semester graduate courses in the subject. The text provides a clear and concise understanding of the major topic areas facing environmental professionals.

For each topic, the theoretical principles are introduced, followed by numerous examples illustrating the process design approach. Practical, methodical and functional, this exciting new text provides knowledge and background, as well as opportunities for application, through problems and examples that facilitate understanding.

Students pursuing the civil and environmental engineering curriculum will fi nd this book accessible and will benefit from the emphasis on practical application. The text will also be of interest to students of chemical and mechanical engineering, where several environmental concepts are of interest, especially those on water and wastewater treatment, air pollution, and sustainability. Practicing engineers will find this book a valuable resource, since it covers the major environmental topics and provides numerous step-by-step examples to facilitate learning and problem-solving.

Environmental Engineering: Principles and Practice offers all the major topics, with a focus upon:

• a robust problem-solving scheme introducing statistical analysis;
• example problems with both US and SI units;
• water and wastewater design;
• sustainability;
• public health.

There is also a companion website with illustrations, problems and solutions.

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Table of Contents

Contributing Authors xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xix

About the Cover Artist xix

About the Author xxi

About the Companion Website xxiii

1 Introduction to environmental engineering and problem solving 1
André J. Butler

Learning Objectives 1

1.1 History of environmental engineering 1

1.2 Significant national and international environmental concerns 10

1.3 Prominent federal environmental statues – an overview 10

1.4 An approach to problem solving: a six-step method 15

1.5 Data collection, analysis, interpretation, and communication 18

Summary 38

Key words 40

References 40

Problems 41

2 Essential chemistry concepts 43
Richard O. Mines, Jr.

Learning Objectives 43

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Dimensions, units, and conversions 43

2.3 Balancing reactions 50

2.4 Oxidation-reduction reactions 52

2.5 Thermodynamic equilibrium 53

2.6 Acid-base chemistry 60

2.7 Solubility (solubility product) 82

2.8 Gas phase laws 84

2.9 Organic chemistry overview 89

Summary 95

Key words 99

References 99

Problems 99

3 Water and wastewater characteristics 103
Richard O. Mines, Jr.

Learning Objectives 103

3.1 Overview 103

3.2 Water quality parameters 103

3.3 Lumped parameter organic quantification 104

3.4 Physical parameters 110

3.5 Inorganic chemical parameters 116

3.6 Biological and microbiological characteristics 129

3.7 Sample water quality data 133

Summary 135

Key words 136

References 136

Problems 137

4 Essential biology concepts 139
Richard O. Mines, Jr.

Learning Objectives 139

4.1 Introduction to microbiological unit processes 139

4.2 Cell basics 140

4.3 Energy and synthesis (carbon and energy transformations) 140

4.4 Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics 149

4.5 Introduction to ecology 153

4.6 Primary productivity 155

4.7 Introduction to biochemical cycles 160

4.8 Population dynamics 169

4.9 River water quality management 178

4.10 Limnology 184

Summary 188

Key words 189

References 190

Problems 191

5 Environmental systems: modeling and reactor design 195
Richard O. Mines, Jr.

Learning Objectives 195

5.1 Introduction 195

5.2 Material balances 195

5.3 Reaction kinetics 202

5.4 Flow regimes and reactors 209

5.5 Energy balances 218

Summary 232

Key words 232

References 232

Problems 233

6 Design of water treatment systems 239
Richard O. Mines, Jr.

Learning Objectives 239

6.1 Drinking water standards 239

6.2 Overview of typical processes used for contaminant removal 245

6.3 Design flows and capacities 247

6.4 Preliminary treatment 249

6.5 Mixing, coagulation, and flocculation 258

6.6 Water softening 267

6.7 Sedimentation 276

6.8 Filtration 283

6.9 Membrane treatment 293

6.10 Fluoridation 303

6.11 Disinfection in water treatment 303

6.12 Residuals, solids, and quantities of sludge 310

Summary 322

Key words 324

References 324

Problems 325

7 Design of wastewater treatment systems 331
Richard O. Mines, Jr.

Learning Objectives 331

7.1 Wastewater standards 331

7.2 Design flows and loadings 333

7.3 Preliminary treatment 340

7.4 Primary sedimentation 345

7.5 Secondary wastewater treatment 348

7.6 Oxygen transfer and mixing 375

7.7 Attached-growth biological systems 381

7.8 Advanced biological treatment systems 388

7.9 Secondary clarification 401

7.10 Disinfection 408

7.11 Solids handling and treatment systems 411

Summary 434

Key words 435

References 436

Bibliography 438

Problems 438

8 Municipal solid waste management 449
Philip T. McCreanor

Learning Objectives 449

8.1 Introduction 449

8.2 Regulations 450

8.3 Waste generation – international perspectives 451

8.4 Waste generation in the United States 451

8.5 Waste composition 451

8.6 Properties of municipal solid waste 456

8.6.1 Specific weight () 456

8.6.2 Moisture content 457

8.6.3 Field capacity 458

8.7 Municipal landfill design 461

8.8 Case study –Mecklenburg County, North Carolina (NC), USA 473

Summary 475

Key words 476

References 476

Problems 476

9 Air pollution 479
Arthur B. Nunn, III

Learning Objectives 479

9.1 Principal air pollutants 479

9.2 Air pollution sources 481

9.3 Pollutant affects on humans and environment 484

9.4 Air pollution meteorology 488

9.5 Dispersion modeling 490

9.6 Air pollution control technologies 493

9.7 Indoor Air Pollution 514

Summary 514

Key words 515

References 515

Useful Websites 516

Problems 516

10 Environmental sustainability 519
John C. Little and Zhe Liu

Learning Objectives 519

10.1 Overview 519

10.2 Unsustainable earth 521

10.3 Addressing climate change 527

10.4 Addressing resource depletion and environmental degradation 541

Key words 550

References 550

Problems 551

11 Environmental public health 555
Peter Vikesland

Learning Objectives 555

11.1 Introduction 555

11.2 Toxicology 556

11.3 Epidemiology 567

11.4 Agents of infectious disease 578

11.5 Public health and engineering measures for control of disease 583

11.6 Emergent and reemergent infectious diseases 585

Summary 589

Key words 591

References 592

Problems 592

12 Hazardous waste management 595
John T. Novak and Paige J. Novak

Learning Objectives 595

12.1 Introduction 595

12.2 Common hazardous compounds and wastes 598

12.3 Physical and chemical characteristics 603

12.4 Remediation 608

Summary 612

Key words 612

References 612

Problems 613

The Periodic Table 615

Index 617

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Author Information

Richard O. Mines, Jr., Department of Environmental Engineering, Mercer University, Macon, Georgia, USA
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Reviews

“In summary, this textbook on Environmental Engineering: Principles and Practice can be recommended to all teachers with responsibility in environmental engineering. It focuses upon problem solving, introducing statistical analysis, examples with US and SI units, water and wastewater treatment design, sustainability, public health. It offers all major topics of an US environmental engineering curriculum with clear preference for wide-ranging knowledge on the one hand, water treatment on the other.”  (International Journal of Environment & Pollution, 1 June 2014)

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