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Water Resources in the Built Environment: Management Issues and Solutions

ISBN: 978-1-118-80911-2
440 pages
March 2014
Water Resources in the Built Environment: Management Issues and Solutions (1118809114) cover image

Description

Water management is a key environmental issue in controlling of floods and reducing droughts. This book provides analysis of the main issues, offering solutions and describing good practice.

Water Resources for the Built Environment: management issues and solutions develops an appreciation of the diverse, complex and current themes of the water resources debate across the built environment, urban development and management continuum. The integration of physical and environmental sciences, combined with social, economic and political sciences, provide a unique resource, useful to policy experts, scientists, engineers and subject enthusiasts. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, water resources issues and impacts on the built environment are presented in the inventive and strategic setting of considering the constraints of delivering potable water to an ever-demanding society who, at the same time, are increasingly aware of living in an urban landscape where excessive surface water creates a flood threatened environment – hence, the need to portray a balance between ‘too little vs. too much’.

This unique approach to the water resources debate presents a multifaceted collection of chapters that address the contemporary concomitant issues of water shortage and urban flooding and proffers solutions specifically for the built environment.

The book is structured into three parts: the first part (Sections 2, 3 and 4) addresses management issues and solutions to minimise water shortages and provide water security for society; whilst the second part of the book (Sections 5 and 6) addresses management issues and solutions to control excessive rainfall and minimise flooding impacts. The third part (Section 7) contextualises the issues of the earlier sections within international case studies from the developing world.

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Table of Contents

Contributors xv

About the Editors xviii

Section 1 Introduction to the Book 1

Chapter 1 Water Resources: Balancing too Little Versus too Much 3
Colin A. Booth and Susanne M. Charlesworth

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Too Little Versus too Much 3

1.3 Structure of the Book 6

1.4 Conclusions 7

References 7

Section 2 Water Demand, Policy and Cost 9

Chapter 2 Meeting Demand: Water Strategy, Policy and Legislation 11
Sharron McEldowney

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Legislative and Regulatory Framework for Managing the Water Resources 12

2.3 Water Management and Conservation for the Future 18

2.4 Conclusions 20

References 20

Chapter 3 Water Privatisation and Regulation: The UK Experience 23
John McEldowney

3.1 Introduction 23

3.2 The First Country to Fully Privatise its Water and Sewerage Business 24

3.3 Water Privatisation and Structure 25

3.4 The Water Industry and the Domestic Market 27

3.5 The Water Industry and the Market for Business Customers 28

3.6 Conclusions 30

References 31

Chapter 4 Urban Water Economics 33
Graham Squires

4.1 Introduction 33

4.2 Externalities 33

4.3 Pollution Control (of Water Resources at a Market or Zero Price) 34

4.4 Natural Resource Economics and Water 37

4.5 Resource Valuation and Measurement 38

4.6 International Issues and Development in Water 42

4.7 Conclusions 43

References 43

Section 3 Water Infrastructure and Supply 45

Chapter 5 Impacts and Issues of Dams and Reservoirs 47
KimTannahill, Peter Mills and Colin A. Booth

5.1 Introduction 47

5.2 Building Dams 48

5.3 Historical and Global Context 49

5.4 Environmental Impact 51

5.5 Socioeconomic Impact 52

5.6 Socioeconomic Impacts of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project 52

5.7 Socioeconomic Impacts of the Manwan Dam, Upper Mekong River, China 53

5.8 Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam, China 54

5.9 Dam Risks: Incidents and Failures 55

5.10 Insights into the UNEP Dams Project 57

5.11 Conclusions 59

References 59

Chapter 6 Powering the Water Industry 61
Jay Millington

6.1 Introduction 61

6.2 Conventional Approach 61

6.3 Hydropower 63

6.4 Micro and Small Hydros 68

6.5 Other Factors 72

6.6 Conclusions 74

Acknowledgements 74

References 75

Chapter 7 Water Quality and Treatment 77
J. Bryan Ellis

7.1 Introduction 77

7.2 Water Quality 78

7.3 Drinking Water Safety Plans 84

7.4 Urban Growth and Water Demand 86

7.5 Conclusions 89

References 89

Chapter 8 Desalination 92
Augustine Ifelebuegu, Susanne M. Charlesworth and Colin A. Booth

8.1 Introduction 92

8.2 Desalination Technologies 93

8.3 Developing Technologies 94

8.4 Economics of Desalination 94

8.5 Small and Domestic Scale Desalination Plants 97

8.6 Environmental Impacts 98

8.7 Renewable Energy Sources and Desalination 99

8.8 The Future of Desalination and Sustainable Water Supplies 99

8.9 Case Study: The Thames Water Desalination Plant 100

8.10 Conclusions 101

References 101

Chapter 9 Delivering and Designing for Potable Water in Buildings 104
Phil Harris

9.1 Introduction 104

9.2 Regulating Water Supply 105

9.3 Water Supply to Domestic Low-Rise Buildings 106

9.4 Water Supply to Medium and High-Rise Buildings (or Those with Insufficient Mains Pressure) 110

9.5 Pipe Sizing and Flow Rate Design in Buildings 113

9.6 Pipework Maintenance Issues 116

9.7 Future Issues 118

References 119

Section 4 Water Conservation Strategies 121

Chapter 10 Water Neutrality – An Overview 123
Victoria Ashton

10.1 Introduction 123

10.2 Defining Water Neutrality 124

10.3 Strategies for Water Neutrality Implementation 126

10.4 Funding Mechanisms 131

10.5 Conclusions 133

References 134

Chapter 11 Building Regulations for Water Conservation 135
Sean Churchill, Colin A. Booth and Susanne M. Charlesworth

11.1 Introduction 135

11.2 What are the Building Regulations? 136

11.3 Background to the Changes in Approved Document G 137

11.4 Changes to Approved Document G and the Water Calculator for New Dwellings 139

11.5 Rainwater and Greywater Recycling 143

11.6 Case Study: Calculating Water Usage 144

11.7 Other Household Water Conservation Measures 147

11.8 Conclusions 148

References 149

Chapter 12 Rainwater Harvesting – Reaping a Free and Plentiful Supply of Water 151
Susanne M. Charlesworth, Colin A. Booth, Frank Warwick, Craig Lashford and Omolara O. Lade

12.1 Introduction 151

12.2 What is Rainwater Harvesting? 152

12.3 Policy 153

12.4 Rainwater Harvesting Design 154

12.5 Water Quality 156

12.6 Water Quantity 158

12.7 Cost–Benefit Analysis and Whole Life Costs 159

12.8 Case Studies 160

12.9 Conclusions 161

References 162

Chapter 13 Greywater Harvesting – Reusing, Recycling and Saving Household Water 165
Emma Hatfield, Colin A. Booth and Susanne M. Charlesworth

13.1 Introduction 165

13.2 Insights into Greywater Harvesting 166

13.3 The Potential for Using Greywater Harvesting Systems 167

13.4 Case Studies in the United Kingdom 171

13.5 The Future of Greywater Harvesting 175

13.6 Conclusions 176

References 177

Chapter 14 Inland Waterway Systems – A Solution to Drought and Flooding Issues 180
Carly B. Rose and Luke Walker

14.1 Introduction 180

14.2 The Past 180

14.3 The Present – Canals in the 20th Century 182

14.4 Sourcing and Conserving Water Supplies 185

14.5 A Climate Resilient Future 190

14.6 Conclusions 191

References 192

Section 5 Flooding Responses and Reinstatement 197

Chapter 15 Urban Precipitation: Measurements, Monitoring and Processes 199
Omolara O. Lade, Michael A. Fullen, David Oloke, Madhu Subedi and Colin A. Booth

15.1 Introduction 199

15.2 Types of Precipitation 200

15.3 Urban Climate and Potential Impacts 200

15.4 Urban Irrigation 201

15.5 Urban Effects on Rainfall Variability 202

15.6 Precipitation Variability in Thunderstorms 203

15.7 Measuring Precipitation 204

15.8 Spatial and Temporal Precipitation Monitoring 205

15.9 Case Study of Small-Scale Variability: Spatial Variability in Precipitation within the Hilton Experimental Site, Shropshire, UK 206

15.10 Conclusions 207

References 207

Chapter 16 Urbanisation and Stormwater 211
John W. Davies and Susanne M. Charlesworth

16.1 Introduction 211

16.2 Urbanisation and Flood Risk 211

16.3 Urban Drainage Systems 212

16.4 Problems with Drainage Systems 215

16.5 Sewer Flooding 215

16.6 Drainage System Capacity 216

16.7 Increasing or Decreasing Impermeable Surfaces 219

16.8 Storage 219

16.9 Stormwater Quality 220

16.10 Conclusions 221

References 222

Chapter 17 River Flood Defences 223
Carly B. Rose

17.1 Introduction 223

17.2 The Historical Context 224

17.3 The Future 229

17.4 Conclusions 229

References 230

Chapter 18 Coastal Flood Defences – Strategies for Protection in the United Kingdom 233
Trevor Goodhew

18.1 Introduction 233

18.2 Holding Back the Sea 233

18.3 The Nature and Complexity of the Coastal Processes 235

18.4 Coastal Flood Defences 237

18.5 The Strategy of Managed Retreat 239

18.6 Flooding Challenges from Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise 241

18.7 Changing Populations, Land Management and Development 244

18.8 Important National Infrastructure 245

18.9 Proportionate Risk-Based Approaches to Flood Risk Management 245

18.10 Beneficiaries Should be Encouraged to Invest in Risk Management 246

18.11 A View to the Future – Strategies Requiring Innovations and New Solutions 246

18.12 Conclusions 247

References 247

Chapter 19 The Costs of Flooding on Households 249
Rotimi Joseph, David G. Proverbs, Jessica E. Lamond and Peter Wassell

19.1 Introduction 249

19.2 Economic Costs of Flooding 250

19.3 Financial Costs of Flooding 251

19.4 Conclusions 255

References 256

Chapter 20 The Role of Market-Based Flood Insurance in Maintaining Communities at Risk of Flooding: A SWOT Analysis 258
Jessica E. Lamond

20.1 Introduction 258

20.2 Strengths 261

20.3 Weaknesses 264

20.4 Threats 266

20.5 Opportunities 267

20.6 Conclusions 268

References 269

Chapter 21 Holistic Property-Level Flood Protection 271
David W. Beddoes and Colin A. Booth

21.1 Introduction 271

21.2 Flood Resistance 272

21.3 Flood Resilience 273

21.4 Current Situation Facing Homeowners 274

21.5 Holistic Solutions 275

21.6 Conclusions 278

References 278

Section 6 Flood Solutions in the Urban Landscape 281

Chapter 22 Sustainable Drainage Systems – Features and Designs 283
Simon Watkins and Susanne M. Charlesworth

22.1 Introduction 283

22.2 Water and Landscape – One and Indivisible 283

22.3 Conclusions 300

References 301

Acknowledgements 301

Chapter 23 Drainage Benefits of Porous, Permeable and Pervious Paving 302
Miklas Scholz, Susanne M. Charlesworth and Steve J. Coupe

23.1 Introduction 302

23.2 Rethinking Stormwater Drainage 302

23.3 Porous, Permeable and Pervious Pavement Systems 303

23.4 Porous Pavements 304

23.5 Cost Implications of Utilising PPS 305

23.6 Design Considerations 305

23.7 Infiltration through PPSs 307

23.8 Maintenance to Enhance Infiltration 307

23.9 Water Quality Improvements 308

23.10 Biodegradation of Pollutants by Microorganisms 310

23.11 Directions of Further Investigation 311

23.12 Conclusions 314

References 314

Chapter 24 Multiple Benefits of Green Infrastructure 319
Rebecca Wade and Neil McLean

24.1 Introduction 319

24.2 What is Green Infrastructure? 320

24.3 Benefits of Green Infrastructure 322

24.4 Barriers to Implementation of GI 330

24.5 The Value of GI 332

24.6 Conclusions 332

References 333

Chapter 25 Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Management 336
Kate V. Heal

25.1 Introduction 336

25.2 Treatment Processes in Constructed Wetlands 337

25.3 Different Types and Deployment of Constructed Wetlands and Reedbeds 338

25.4 Performance of Constructed Wastelands for Wastewater Management 341

25.5 Design Considerations for Constructed Wetlands 343

25.6 Construction and Maintenance Considerations for Constructed Wetlands 345

25.7 Costs of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Management 347

25.8 Conclusions 348

References 348

Chapter 26 Wastewater Treatment Infrastructure and Design 350
Joseph Akunna and Joanne Bartie

26.1 Introduction 350

26.2 Wastewater Treatment Technologies 351

26.3 Factors Affecting Investment in UK Wastewater Treatment Infrastructure 363

26.4 Conclusions 368

References 369

Websites 370

Section 7 International Case Studies 371

Chapter 27 An Overview of Management Issues in Developing a Sustainable Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Service Delivery in Nigeria 373
David Oloke and Dayo Olugboye

27.1 Introduction 373

27.2 Background on WASH Development 374

27.3 Situation of WASH in Nigeria 376

27.4 Sanitation and Hygiene 377

27.5 New Approach to Rural Sanitation 379

27.6 The Sanitation Ladder Concept 379

27.7 Management and Sustainability of WASH facilities 380

27.8 Rural WASH in Nigeria 382

27.9 Conclusions 385

References 386

Chapter 28 Balancing Flood Risk and Water Scarcity of the Asian Delta Regions 389
Jessica E. Lamond

28.1 Introduction 389

28.2 Characteristics of Flooding in Asia 390

28.3 Approaches to Risk Reduction 392

28.4 Flood and Water Management in the Delta City of Jakarta, Indonesia 395

28.5 Conclusions 398

References 399

Section 8 Summary of the Book 401

Chapter 29 Water Resources Challenges – Penury and Peace 403
Susanne M. Charlesworth and Colin A. Booth

29.1 Introduction 403

29.2 Insights Gathered from the Chapters of this Book 404

29.3 Dialogue on International Water Resources Challenges 404

29.4 Conclusions 406

References 406

Index 407

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