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Handbook for Construction Planning and Scheduling

ISBN: 978-1-118-82693-5
432 pages
April 2014
Handbook for Construction Planning and Scheduling (1118826930) cover image


The authoritative industry guide on good practice for planning and scheduling in construction

This handbook acts as a guide to good practice, a text to accompany learning and a reference document for those needing information on background, best practice, and methods for practical application. 

A Handbook for Construction Planning & Scheduling presents the key issues of planning and programming in scheduling in a clear, concise and practical way. The book divides into four main sections: Planning and Scheduling within the Construction Context; Planning and Scheduling Techniques and Practices; Planning and Scheduling Methods; Delay and Forensic Analysis. The authors include both basic concepts and updates on current topics demanding close attention from the construction industry, including planning for sustainability, waste, health and safety and Building Information Modelling (BIM).

The book is especially useful for early career practitioners - engineers, quantity surveyors, construction managers, project managers - who may already have a basic grounding in civil engineering, building and general construction but lack extensive planning and scheduling experience. Students will find the website helpful with worked examples of the methods and calculations for typical construction projects plus other directed learning material.

This authoritative industry guide on good practice for planning and scheduling in construction is written in a direct, informative style with a clear presentation enabling easy access of the relevant information with a companion website providing additional resources and learning support material.

  • the authoritative industry guide on construction planning and scheduling
  • direct informative writing style and clear presentation enables easy access of the relevant information
  • companion website provides additional learning material.
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Table of Contents

Notes on Contributors xiv

Foreword xvii

Preface xviii

Acknowledgements xxi

About the Companion Website xxii

Section I Planning and Scheduling within the Construction Context 1

Introduction 1

1 An Introduction to Planning and Scheduling 3

A brief history of planning and scheduling 3

Critical path methods 4

The impact of the PC 5

New systems and new thinking 6

New information and communication technologies 6

Planning 7

Who plans? 8

Planning, programming and scheduling 8

The cost and benefits of planning 10

Types of plans 11

An activity of the mind 11

Planning for construction 12

The planning process in the project cycle 13


CIOB code of practice for project management for construction and development 15

The RIBA plan of work 17

The process protocol map 19

Summary 23

How is the planning process affected by procurement? 24

The context of construction project planning 27

Procurement and the performance of the UK construction industry 28

The Egan report (1998) 29

Partnering 30

Public sector construction procurement: The private finance initiative (PFI) 31

What do construction planners do? 31

Construction planning practice: a summary 33

Key points 34

2 Managing Construction Projects 36

Li Baiyi and Simon Austin

Project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) 36

Simultaneous management 41

Lean construction 42

A theory of construction as production by projects 44

Collaborative working 46

Morris’ perspective 47

Summary 47

Key points 50

Section II Planning and Scheduling Techniques and Practices 51

Introduction 51

3 Planning and Scheduling Techniques 53

To-do lists 53

Bar charts 55

Flow diagrams 56

Flow charts 56

Work study 57

Network analysis 59

Activity-on-arrow networks 60

Drawing the network 60

Precedence diagrams 63

Drawing the network-precedence diagrams 63

Linked bar charts 65

Space diagrams 65

Time chainage charts 65

Multiple activity charts 69

Line of balance 71

Line of balance – resource scheduling 73

ADePT 74

Data flow diagrams 75

A generic model for detailed building design 75

Dependency structure matrix analysis 76

Producing project and departmental schedules 79

4D CAD 79

Key points 80

4 Planning and Scheduling Practices 81

Schedule design and structure 81

Level 1 schedule report 81

Level 2 schedule report 82

Level 3 schedule report 82

Level 4 schedule report 83

Level 5 schedule report 83

What is required on smaller projects? 83

Creating these schedules 84

Work Breakdown Structure 84

Pre-tender planning, pre-contract planning, contract planning 86

Pre-tender planning 86

Pre-contract planning 92

Contract planning 94

Activities: selection, sequencing and duration 96

Activity selection 96

Sequencing 98

Assessing the duration of each activity 99

Links, dependencies and constraints 100

Float and contingency 102

Total float 103

Free float 104

Interfering float 105

Independent float 105

Intermittent float 106

Negative float 107

Terminal float 108

Internal float 108

Contingency 109

Manipulation of float 110

Who owns the float? 111

Monitoring progress and managing the time model 112

Reviewing the assumptions used to produce the schedule 113

Collecting and reviewing production records and progress reports 114

Reviewing the activities currently in progress 114

Updating the schedule 115

Identifying intervening events 117

Assessing progress and forecasting completion 119

Reviewing contingencies and revising the working schedule to effect a recovery 119

Other methods of monitoring progress 119

Milestone monitoring 119

Cash flow monitoring 120

Activity schedules 120

Planned progress monitoring 120

Earned value analysis 121

Resources and cost optimisation 122

Resources 122

Method statements 127

Format of the method statement 127

The tender method statement (for submission to the client) 127

The tender method statement (for internal use) 129

The construction or work method statement 129

The health and safety method statement 129

Planning method statement 130

Site layout plans 132

At the tender stage 132

At the pre-contract stage 134

At the contract stage 134

Site waste management plans 134

Contractors’ cash flow 135

Bank borrowings 136

Head office overheads 136

Working capital 136

Uncertainty and risk 139

Risk management 140

How do contractors price risk in bids? 143

Key points 146

Section III Planning and Scheduling Methods 149

Introduction 149

5 Critical Chain Project Management 151

Background 151

How does CCPM differ from accepted best practice in project management? 152

Establishing the critical chain 152

Monitoring and controlling the critical chain 153

A critical review of CCPM 155

Key points 157

6 Earned Value Analysis 158

Terminology and definitions 158

Cost Performance Index (CPI) 159

Cost variance 159

Earned value analysis (EVA) 159

Earned value management (EVM) 159

Earned value management system (EVMS) 159

Budgeted cost of work scheduled 159

Budget at completion (BAC) 159

Actual cost of work performed (ACWP) 160

Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) 160

Earned value (EV) 160

Performance measurement baseline 160

Schedule Performance Index (SPI) 160

Schedule variance (SV) 160

The basis of the EVA 160

Earned value analysis calculations and their interpretation 163

Forecasting 164

An example of EVA calculations 164

Earned value management systems 167

Problems and pitfalls of EVA and how to overcome them 168

Key points 170

7 Last Planner® 171

Background 171

The development of Last Planner® 172

Principles of the Last Planner System® (LPS) 174

Implementing the Last Planner System® (LPS) 175

Improving production performance 179

Benefits of the Last Planner® System 179

Barriers to the adoption of Last Planner® 180

Key points 181

8 ADePT–Planning, Managing and Controlling the Design Process 182

Background 182

A new way of working 183

Defining the scope of the design process 185

Process sequencing 185

Scheduling 185

Controlling the design workflow 186

Practical implementation 186

A facilitated approach to planning 186

Integrating design with procurement and construction 188

Managing constraints and measuring progress 189

Summary 191

Key points 191

9 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 192

What is building information modelling (BIM)? 192

BIM is not new 193

Why now? 194

BIM maturity levels 195

Level 0 195

Level 1 195

Level 2 196

Level 3 196

The development of 4D CAD 197

Virtual construction 200

The requirement collection phase 200

The model building phase 200

The process simulation phase 202

How will BIM change construction planning and scheduling? 202

BIM and the law 203

Key points 203

10 Planning for Sustainability with BREEAM 204

Samuel Ewuosho

Background 204

The need for sustainable construction 204

Drivers of sustainable construction 205

Legislative drivers 205

Client (market-led) requirements 206

Professional responsibility 206

Competitors 206


BREEAM sections 209

Management 209

Health and wellbeing 209

Energy 209

Transport 210

Water section 210

Materials 211

Waste 211

Land use and ecology 211

Pollution section 211

Innovation 211

Industry response to BREEAM 212

Case study analysis 213

Different projects produce different management situations 213

Individual perceptions of sustainability and BREEAM 214

Key points 215

11 Planning for Waste Management 216

Sarah-Jane Holmes and Mohamed Osmani

Background 216

Construction waste causes and origins 217

Materials procurement 217

Design 218

Site operations 218

On-site waste management practices 219

On-site waste management techniques 220

Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) requirements 221

How the research was undertaken 222

Research results 222

Construction waste origins 222

Waste production and potential waste minimisation across projects’ life cycle 223

Discussion 225

Key challenges associated with implementing SWMPs 226

Key points 227

12 Planning for Safety, Health and Environment 228

Alastair Gibb

Background 228

SHE management model: An overview 228

Planning 230

Hazard/risk identification and control 231

Risk control measures 231

Developing the SHE plan 239

Programme for occupational health 242

Right info, right people, right time 243

Construction risk assessments 243

Constructability reviews 243

Method statements 244

Job safety analysis (JSA) 244

Environment 245

Emergency preparedness 245

Key points 246

Section iV D elay and Forensic Analysis 247

Introduction 247

13 Delays 249

Delay and disruption: Definitions 249

Delays 250

Categories of delay 251

Types of delay 251

Date 251

Total 252

Extended 252

Additional 254

Progress 254

Sequence 255

Fragnets 256

Prospective versus retrospective delay and other concepts 256

Key points 259

14 Factual Information 260

The As-Planned schedule 260

Correcting the As-Planned schedule 261

Key contract dates 262

Missing logic links 262

Constraints 263

Activity durations 264

Sequence of activities 264

Missing activities 265

Additional activities 265

Scope change 266

Software 266

Bar chart to network 267

As-built/progress records 269

As-built schedule 272

Key points 275

15 Protocols and Methods of Analysis 276

The Society of Construction Law Delay and Disruption Protocol 276

AACEI recommended practice no. 29R-03 – Forensic schedule analysis 279

Methods of analysis 280

Global claims 286

As-planned versus as-built 289

Impacted as-planned 291

Time impact analysis 300

Collapsed as-built 317

Windows 319

As-Planned versus As-Built 325

Time impact analysis 325

As-Planned versus As- Built #2 Or Time Slice Analysis 326

Key points 327

16 Disruption 328

Definitions and background 328

Methods of analysis 329

Measured mile 329

Leonard/Ibbs curves 332

Indices and statistics 335

Key points 336

17 Other Issues 337

Out-of-Sequence progress 337

Progress override 338

Retained logic 338

Omissions 340

Calendars 341

Weather 345

Concurrent delay 348

Pacing 352

Mitigation 352

Acceleration 354

Employer/contractor/subcontractor schedules 355

Key points 356


Appendix 1 BIM Case Study: One Island East 358

Appendix 2 The Shepherd Way and Collaborative Planning 362

Appendix 3 Building Information Modelling (BIM) and English Law 367

Stacy Sinclair

Glossary 371

References 389

Index 399

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Author Information

Andrew Baldwin, BSc(Hons), MSc, PhD, CEng, FICE, Eur Ing, has extensive construction industry and academic experience. Following a career in the civil engineering and construction industries that included planning and scheduling for a number of major construction projects, he commenced an academic career at Loughborough University, UK, where he is now Emeritus Professor in Construction Management. He is also a Distinguished Visiting Professor at Chongqing University, China, where he is a Co-Director of the National Centre for International Research of Low-Carbon and Green Buildings, a position funded under the national ‘One Thousand Experts’ programme.

David Bordoli, BSc, MSc, FCIOB, MAPM, ACIArb, is an extremely experienced planning professional who began his career as a planning engineer with construction contractors then worked as a consultant, providing contractual advice, preparing time delay claims, reports for adjudications, arbitrations and litigation, and undertaking expert witness appointments in delay and disruption disputes in construction and engineering. He is now a Director of Driver Trett and has recently spent most of his time working on overseas projects, particularly in South Africa.

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