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Adhesion in Microelectronics

ISBN: 978-1-118-83133-5
368 pages
September 2014
Adhesion in Microelectronics (1118831330) cover image

Description

This comprehensive book will provide both fundamental and applied aspects of adhesion pertaining to microelectronics in a single and easily accessible source. Among the topics to be covered include;

  • Various theories or mechanisms of adhesion
  • Surface (physical or chemical) characterization of materials as it pertains to adhesion
  • Surface cleaning as it pertains to adhesion
  • Ways to improve adhesion
  • Unraveling of interfacial interactions using an array of pertinent techniques
  • Characterization of interfaces / interphases
  • Polymer-polymer adhesion
  • Metal-polymer adhesion  (metallized polymers)
  • Polymer adhesion to various substrates
  • Adhesion of thin films
  • Adhesion of underfills
  • Adhesion of molding compounds
  • Adhesion of different dielectric materials
  • Delamination and reliability issues in packaged devices
  • Interface mechanics and crack propagation
  • Adhesion measurement of thin films and coatings
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xvi

Part 1: Adhesion: Fundamentals and Measurement

1 Study of Molecular Bonding or Adhesion by Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy, with Special Reference to  Microelectronics 3
Robert R. Mallik

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Principles of IETS 6

1.3 Application of IETS in Microelectronics 13

1.4 Prospects 24

1.5 Summary 26

References 27

2 Adhesion Measurement of Thin Films and Coatings: Relevance to Microelectronics 33
Wei-Sheng Lei and Ajay Kumar

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 Mechanical Methods 36

2.3 Laser Based Techniques 51

2.4 Summary and Remarks 56

References 59

Part 2: Ways to Promote/Enhance Adhesion

3 Tailoring of Interface/Interphase to Promote Metal-Polymer Adhesion 67

Jörg Friedrich

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 New Concepts for Ideal Design of Metal-Polymer Interfaces with Covalently Bonded Flexible Spacer Molecules 87

3.3 Situation at Al Oxide/Hydroxide Surfaces Using Aluminium as Substrate 92

3.4. Adhesion Promotion by Non-specific Functionalization of Polyolefin Surfaces 94

3.5 Methods for Producing Monosort Functional Groups at Polyolefin Surfaces 103

3.6 Reactions and Bond Formation at the Interface 110

3.7 Grafting of Spacer Molecules at Polyolefin Surfaces 112

3.8 Summary and Conclusions 121

Acknowledgement 123

References 123

4 Atmospheric and Vacuum Plasma Treatments of Polymer Surfaces for Enhanced Adhesion in Microelectronics Packaging 137
Hang Yu, Yiyuan Zhang, Anita Wong, Igor M. De Rosa, Han S. Chueh, Misha Grigoriev, Thomas S. Williams, Tommy Hsu, and Robert F. Hicks

4.1 Introduction 137

4.2 Plasma Fundamentals 139

4.3 Survey of Vacuum Plasma Treatment of Polymers 146

4.4 Survey of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers 151

4.5 Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Activation of Polymer Materials Relevant to Microelectronics 153

4.6 Vacuum Versus Atmospheric Plasmas for Use in  Semiconductor Packaging 165

References 166

5 Isotropic Conductive Adhesive Interconnect Technology in Electronics Packaging Applications 173
James E. Morris and Liang Wang

5.1 Introduction 173

5.2 ICA Technology 174

5.3 Technology Reviews 176

5.4 Electrical Properties 176

5.5 Mechanical Properties 180

5.6 Thermal Properties 181

5.7 Metallic Filler 181

5.8 Polymer Materials 184

5.9 Reliability 186

5.10 Dispensation 188

5.11 Environmental Properties 189

5.12 Other Results 189

5.13 Summary 190

5.14 Prospects 190

References 191

Part 3: Reliability and Failure Mechanisms

6 Role of Adhesion Phenomenon in the Reliability of Electronic Packaging 213
Puligandla  Viswanadham

6.1 Introduction 214

6.2 Hierarchy of Electronic Packaging. 216

6.3 Substrates, Carriers, and Laminates 217

6.4 Flexible Laminates 236

6.5 First Level Packaging /Semiconductor Packaging 237

6.6 Second Level Packaging 247

6.7 Reliability Enhancements 256

6.8 Thermal Management 260

6.9 Summary 261

Acknowledgements 262

References 252

Suggested Reading 262

References 262

7 Delamination and Reliability Issues in Packaged Devices 267
Wei-Sheng Lei and Ajay Kumar

7.1 Introduction 267

7.2 Basic Aspects of Delamination Failure 269

7.3 Evaluation of Delamination Initiation in Electronic Packages 280

7.4 Evaluation of Delamination Propagation in Electronic Packages 290

7.5 Summary 304

References 305

8 Investigation of the Mechanisms of Adhesion and Failure in Microelectronic Packages 313
Tanweer Ahsan and Andrew Schoenberg

8.1 Introduction 313

8.2 Thermal Methods of Characterizatio 314

8.3 Stresses in Encapsulated Devices 320

8.4 More on Adhesion of Molding Compounds - Surface Chemical and Morphological Aspects 332

8.5 Summary 337

References 338

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