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The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers

ISBN: 978-1-118-83721-4
368 pages
February 2014
The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers (1118837215) cover image

Description

An exhaustive and timely overview of renewable polymers from a respected chemist and successful author

The recent explosion of interdisciplinary research has fragmented the knowledge base surrounding renewable polymers. The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers brings together, in one volume, the research and work of Professor Johannes Fink, focusing on biopolymers that can be synthesized from renewable polymers. After introducing general aspects of the field, the book’s subsequent chapters examine the chemistry of biodegradable polymeric types sorted by their chemical compounds, including the synthesis of low molecular compounds. Various categories of biopolymers are detailed including vinyl-based polymers, acid and lactone polymers, ester and amide polymers, carbohydrate-related polymers and others. Procedures for the preparation of biopolymers and biodegradable nanocomposites are arranged by chemical methods and in vitro biological methods, with discussion of the issue of “plastics from bacteria.”

The factors influencing the degradation and biodegradation of polymers used in food packaging, exposed to various environments, are detailed at length. The book covers the medical applications of bio-based polymers, concentrating on controlled drug delivery, temporary prostheses, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Professor Fink also addresses renewable resources for fabricating biofuels and argues for localized biorefineries, as biomass feedstocks are more efficiently handled locally.

Audience

The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers will be read by chemists, polymer and materials scientists, chemical, bio-based, and biomedical engineers, agricultural and environmental faculty and all those who work in the bioeconomy area. This book will be critical for engineers in a number of industries including food packaging, medical devices, personal care, fuels, auto, and construction.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 An Overview of Methods and Standards 1

1.1 History of Biodegradable Plastics 1

1.2 Green Chemistry 2

1.3 Commercial Situation 5

1.4 Environmental Situation 7

1.5 Properties of Biodegradable Polymers 12

1.6 Special Methods of Synthesis 14

1.7 Biodegradability Standards 20

1.8 Test of the Biological Origin 29

References 35

Part I Bio-based Polymers Degradation and Chemistry 43

2 Vinyl Based Polymers 45

2.1 Polyolefins 45

2.2 Poly(styrene) Elastomers 48

2.3 Poly(vinyl alcohol) 48

2.4 Poly(vinyl butyral) 51

References 60

3 Acid and Lactone Polymers 63

3.1 Poly(lactic acid) 63

3.2 Poly(glycolic acid)s 74

3.3 Butyrolactone-based Vinyl Monomers 77

3.4 Poly(caprolactone) 81

References 83

4 Ester and Amide Polymers 87

4.1 Poly(ester)s 87

4.2 Plant oil-based Biopolymers 117

4.3 Poly(amide)s 124

References 131

5 Carbohydrate Related Polymers 137

5.1 Starch 137

5.2 Cellulose 149

5.3 Cellulose ethers 158

5.4 Cellulose esters 158

5.5 Cellulose ether esters 158

5.6 Lignin 160

5.7 Biodegradable Nanocomposites 162

5.8 Chitin 164

References 167

6 Other Polymer Types 171

6.1 Terpenes 171

6.2 Poly(urethane)s 176

6.3 Cationic Lipopolymers 178

6.4 Plastics from Bacteria 179

6.5 Biobased Epoxy Resins 180

6.6 Phosphate Containing Polymers 181

6.7 Polyketals 187

6.8 Bio-rubber 188

6.9 Collagen 189

6.10 Pyridinium Modified Polymers 189

6.11 Commercial Biodegradable Polymers 190

References 192

Part II Applications 195

7 Packaging and Food Applications 197

7.1 Packaging 197

7.2 Fibers and Nets 210

7.3 Foams 213

7.4 Biodegradable Hot melt Adhesive Compositions 217

7.5 Food Applications 218

References 219

8 Medical Applications 223

8.1 Drug Delivery 223

8.2 Tissue Engineering 238

8.3 Tissue Markers 240

8.4 Hydrogels 242

8.5 Microporous Materials 243

8.6 Implants 246

8.7 Shape Memory Polymers 252

8.8 Stents 255

8.9 Thermogelling Materials 258

8.10 Wound Dressings 259

8.11 Bioceramics 259

8.12 Conjugates 261

References 262

9 Personal Care and Sanitary Goods 269

9.1 Breathable Biodegradable Hot Melt Composition 269

9.2 Sanitary Goods 269

9.3 Superabsorbent Materials 272

References 273

10 Miscellaneous Applications 275

10.1 Flooring Materials 275

10.2 Abrasives and Polishing Compositions 279

10.3 Lubricants 282

10.4 Renewable Cards 282

10.5 Biodegradable Irrigation Pipe 283

10.6 Thermosensitive Material 284

10.7 Biodegradable scale inhibitors 286

10.8 Nanocomposites 287

10.9 Molded Articles from Fruit Residues 287

10.10 Fluorescent Biodegradable Particles 287

10.11 Test Cylinder Mold for Testing Concrete 290

10.12 Flexographic Inks 290

10.13 Audio Systems 292

10.14 Automotive Uses 293

10.15 Green Hot Melt Adhesives 294

10.16 Mechanistic Studies 295

10.16.1 Olefin Isomerization 295

References 297

11 Biofuels 299

11.1 Xenobiotics 299

11.2 Biopolymers 300

11.3 Bioethanol 302

11.4 Biobutanol and Biobutanediol 310

11.5 Biodiesel 313

References 317

Index 321

Tradenames 321

Acronyms 326

Chemicals 328

General Index 336

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Author Information

Johannes Karl Fink is Professor of Macromolecular Chemistry at Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria. His industry and academic career spans more than 30 years in the fields of polymers, and his research interests include characterization, flame retardancy, thermodynamics and the degradation of polymers, pyrolysis, and adhesives. Professor Fink has published several books on physical chemistry and polymer science including A Concise Introduction to Additives for Thermoplastic Polymers (Wiley-Scrivener 2009) and Polymeric Sensors and Actuators (Wiley-Scrivener 2012)

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