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RF Power Amplifier, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-84434-2
688 pages
November 2014
RF Power Amplifier, 2nd Edition (1118844343) cover image

Description

This second edition of the highly acclaimed RF Power Amplifiers has been thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest challenges associated with power transmitters used in communications systems. With more rigorous treatment of many concepts, the new edition includes a unique combination of class-tested analysis and industry-proven design techniques.

Radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers are the fundamental building blocks used in a vast variety of wireless communication circuits, radio and TV broadcasting transmitters, radars, wireless energy transfer, and industrial processes. Through a combination of theory and practice, RF Power Amplifiers, Second Edition provides a solid understanding of the key concepts, the principle of operation, synthesis, analysis, and design of RF power amplifiers.

This extensive update boasts: up to date end of chapter summaries; review questions and problems; an expansion on key concepts; new examples related to real-world applications illustrating key concepts and brand new chapters covering ‘hot topics’ such as RF LC oscillators and dynamic power supplies.

Carefully edited for superior readability, this work remains an essential reference for research & development staff and design engineers. Senior level undergraduate and graduate electrical engineering students will also find it an invaluable resource with its practical examples & summaries, review questions and end of chapter problems.

Key features:

• A fully revised solutions manual is now hosted on a companion website alongside new simulations.

• Extended treatment of a broad range of topologies of RF power amplifiers.

• In-depth treatment of state-of-the art of modern transmitters and a new chapter on oscillators.

• Includes problem-solving methodology, step-by-step derivations and closed-form design equations with illustrations.
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Table of Contents

Preface xvi

About the Author xix

List of Symbols xxi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Radio Transmitters 1

1.2 Batteries for Portable Electronics 2

1.3 Block Diagram of RF Power Amplifiers 3

1.4 Classes of Operation of RF Power Amplifiers 6

1.5 Waveforms of RF Power Amplifiers 8

1.6 Parameters of RF Power Amplifiers 9

1.7 Transmitter Noise 15

1.8 Conditions for 100% Efficiency of Power Amplifiers 16

1.9 Conditions for Nonzero Output Power at 100% Efficiency of Power Amplifiers 20

1.10 Output Power of Class E ZVS Amplifiers 23

1.11 Class E ZCS Amplifiers 26

1.12 Antennas 28

1.13 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves 31

1.14 Frequency Spectrum 33

1.15 Duplexing 35

1.16 Multiple-Access Techniques 36

1.17 Nonlinear Distortion in Transmitters 38

1.18 Harmonics of Carrier Frequency 39

1.19 Intermodulation Distortion 42

1.20 AM/AM Compression and AM/PM Conversion 48

1.21 Dynamic Range of Power Amplifiers 48

1.22 Analog Modulation 50

1.23 Digital Modulation 70

1.24 Radars 73

1.25 Radio-Frequency Identification 75

1.26 Summary 76

1.27 References 79

1.28 Review Questions 81

1.29 Problems 83

2 Class A RF Power Amplifier 85

2.1 Introduction 85

2.2 Power MOSFET Characteristics 85

2.3 Short-Channel Effects 91

2.4 Circuit of Class A RF Power Amplifier 102

2.5 Waveforms in Class A RF Amplifier 105

2.6 Energy Parameters of Class A RF Power Amplifier 115

2.7 Parallel-Resonant Circuit 126

2.8 Power Losses and Efficiency of Parallel Resonant Circuit 129

2.9 Class A RF Power Amplifier with Current Mirror 132

2.10 Impedance Matching Circuits 138

2.11 Class A RF Linear Amplifier 142

2.12 Summary 146

2.13 References 148

2.14 Review Questions 149

2.15 Problems 150

3 Class AB, B, and C RF Power Amplifiers 153

3.1 Introduction 153

3.2 Class B RF Power Amplifier 153

3.3 Class AB and C RF Power Amplifiers 172

3.4 Push-Pull Complementary Class AB, B, and C RF Power Amplifiers 190

3.5 Transformer-Coupled Class B Push-Pull RF Power Amplifier 199

3.6 Class AB, B, and C RF Power Amplifiers with Variable-Envelope Signals 205

3.7 Summary 208

3.8 References 210

3.9 Review Questions 211

3.10 Problems 212

4 Class D RF Power Amplifiers 213

4.1 Introduction 213

4.2 MOSFET as a Switch 214

4.3 Circuit Description of Class D RF Power Amplifier 216

4.4 Principle of Operation of Class D RF Power Amplifier 220

4.5 Topologies of Class D Voltage-Source RF Power Amplifiers 228

4.6 Analysis 230

4.7 Bandwidth of Class D RF Power Amplifier 240

4.8 Operation of Class D RF Power Amplifier at Resonance 243

4.9 Class D RF Power Amplifier with Amplitude Modulation 250

4.10 Operation of Class D RF Power Amplifier Outside Resonance 252

4.11 Efficiency of Half-Bridge Class D Power Amplifier 260

4.12 Design Example 269

4.13 Transformer-Coupled Push-Pull Class D Voltage-Switching RF Power Amplifier 272

4.14 Class D Full-Bridge RF Power Amplifier 278

4.15 Phase Control of Full-Bridge Class D Power Amplifier 284

4.16 Class D Current-Switching RF Power Amplifier 287

4.17 Transformer-Coupled Push-pull Class D Current-Switching RF Power Amplifier 292

4.18 Bridge Class D Current-Switching RF Power Amplifier 300

4.19 Summary 305

4.20 References 307

4.21 Review Questions 309

4.22 Problems 310

5 Class E Zero-Voltage-Switching RF Power Amplifiers 313

5.1 Introduction 313

5.2 Circuit Description 314

5.3 Circuit Operation 316

5.4 ZVS and ZDS Operation of Class E Amplifier 319

5.5 Suboptimum Operation 320

5.6 Analysis 321

5.7 Drain Efficiency of Ideal Class E Amplifier 329

5.8 RF Choke Inductance 329

5.9 Maximum Operating Frequency of Class-E Amplifier 330

5.10 Summary of Parameters at D = 0.5 331

5.11 Efficiency 332

5.12 Design of Basic Class E Amplifier 336

5.13 Impedance Matching Resonant Circuits 340

5.14 Class E ZVS RF Power Amplifier with Only Nonlinear Shunt Capacitance360

5.15 Push-Pull Class E ZVS RF Power Amplifier 365

5.16 Class E ZVS RF Power Amplifier with Finite DC-Feed Inductance 367

5.17 Class E ZVS Amplifier with Parallel-Series Resonant Circuit 371

5.18 Class E ZVS Amplifier with Nonsinusoidal Output Voltage 374

5.19 Class E ZVS Power Amplifier with Parallel Resonant Circuit 380

5.20 Amplitude Modulation of Class E ZVS RF Power Amplifier 386

5.21 Summary 389

5.22 References 390

5.23 Review Questions 400

5.24 Problems 401

6 Class E Zero-Current-Switching RF Power Amplifier 403

6.1 Introduction 403

6.2 Circuit Description 403

6.3 Principle of Operation 404

6.4 Analysis 408

6.5 Power Relationships 413

6.6 Element Values of Load Network 413

6.7 Design Example 414

6.8 Summary 416

6.9 References 416

6.10 Review Questions 417

6.11 Problems 418

7 Class DE RF Power Amplifier 419

7.1 Introduction 419

7.2 Analysis of Class DE RF Power Amplifier 419

7.3 Components 427

7.4 Device Stresses 431

7.5 Design Equations 431

7.6 Maximum Operating Frequency 431

7.7 Class DE Amplifier with Only One Shunt Capacitor 433

7.8 Output Power 438

7.9 Cancellation of Nonlinearities of Transistor Output Capacitances 438

7.10 Amplitude Modulation of Class DE RF Power Amplifier 439

7.11 Summary 439

7.12 References 440

7.13 Review Questions 442

7.14 Problems 443

8 Class F RF Power Amplifiers 445

8.1 Introduction 445

8.2 Class F RF Power Amplifier with Third Harmonic 449

8.3 Class F35 RF Power Amplifier with Third and Fifth Harmonics 471

8.4 Class F357 RF Power Amplifier with Third, Fifth, and Seventh Harmonics 483

8.5 Class FT RF Power Amplifier with Parallel-Resonant Circuit and Quarter-Wavelength Transmission Line 484

8.6 Class F2 RF Power Amplifier with Second Harmonic 492

8.7 Class F24 RF Power Amplifier with Second and Fourth Harmonics 508

8.8 Class F246 RF Power Amplifier with Second, Fourth, and Sixth Harmonics 519

8.9 Class FK RF Power Amplifier with Series-Resonant Circuit and Quarter-Wavelength Transmission Line 520

8.10 Summary 526

8.11 References 527

8.12 Review Questions 529

8.13 Problems

9 Linearization and Efficiency Improvements of RF Power Amplifiers 533

9.1 Introduction 533

9.2 Predistortion 535

9.3 Feedforward Linearization Technique 537

9.4 Negative Feedback Linearization Technique 540

9.5 Envelope Elimination and Restoration 545

9.6 Envelope Tracking 547

9.7 The Doherty Amplifier 550

9.8 Outphasing Power Amplifier 557

9.9 Summary 561

9.10 References 562

9.11 Review Questions 571

9.12 Problems 572

10 Integrated Inductors 573

10.1 Introduction 573

10.2 Skin Effect 574

10.3 Resistance of Rectangular Trace 576

10.4 Inductance of Straight Rectangular Trace 579

10.5 Meander Inductors 581

10.6 Inductance of Straight Round Conductor 585

10.7 Inductance of Circular Round Wire Loop 588

10.8 Inductance of Two-Parallel Wire Loop 588

10.9 Inductance of Rectangle of Round Wire 589

10.10 Inductance of Polygon Round Wire Loop 589

10.11 Bondwire Inductors 590

10.12 Single-Turn Planar Inductor 592

10.13 Inductance of Planar Square Loop 595

10.14 Planar Spiral Inductors 595

10.15 Multi-Metal Spiral Inductors 613

10.16 Planar Transformers 614

10.17 MEMS Inductors 616

10.18 Inductance of Coaxial Cable 618

10.19 Inductance ofTwo-Wire Transmission Line 618

10.20 Eddy Currents in Integrated Inductors 618

10.21 Model of RF Integrated Inductors 620

10.22 PCB Inductors 622

10.23 Summary 625

10.24 References 626

10.25 Review Questions 632

10.26 Problems 633

11 RF Power Amplifiers with Dynamic Power Supply 635

11.1 Introduction 635

11.2 Dynamic Power Supply 635

11.3 Amplitude Modulator 636

11.4 DC Analysis of PWM Buck Converter Operating in CCM 637

11.5 Synchronous Buck Converter as Amplitude Modulator 679

11.6 Multiphase Buck Converter 686

11.7 Layout 688

11.8 Summary 690

11.9 References 693

11.10 Review Questions 699

11.11 Problems 700

12 Oscillators 701

12.1 Introduction 701

12.2 Classification of Oscillators 702

12.3 General Conditions for Oscillations 703

12.4 Topologies of LC Oscillators with Inverting Amplifier 718

12.5 Op-Amp Colpitts Oscillator 722

12.6 Single-Transistor Colpitts Oscillator 724

12.7 Common-Source Colpitts Oscillator 726

12.8 Common-Gate Colpitts Oscillator 737

12.9 Common-Drain Colpitts Oscillator 751

12.10 Clapp Oscillator 761

12.11 Crystal Oscillators 763

12.12 CMOS Oscillator 770

12.13 Hartley Oscillator 771

12.14 Armstrong Oscillator 774

12.15 LC Oscillators with Noninverting Amplifier 777

12.16 Cross-Coupled LC Oscillators 783

12.17 Wien-Bridge RC Oscillator 790

12.18 Oscillators with Negative Resistance 796

12.19 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators 801

12.20 Noise in Oscillators 802

12.21 Summary 813

12.22 References 815

12.23 Review Questions 821

12.24 Problems 822

13 Appendices 823

13.1 Appendix A SPICE Model of Power MOSFETs 823

13.2 Appendix B Introduction to SPICE 827

13.3 Appendix C Introduction to MATLAB R  830

13.4 Appendix D Trigonometric Fourier Series 834

13.5 Appendix E Circuit Theorems 838

13.6 Appendix F SABER Circuit Simulator 842

Answers to Problems 69

 

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