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Energy and Global Climate Change: Bridging the Sustainable Development Divide

ISBN: 978-1-118-84560-8
304 pages
October 2015, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Energy and Global Climate Change: Bridging the Sustainable Development Divide focuses attention on two urgent global development challenges faced by the UN and its member states: access to sustainable energy for all, and global climate change. This book presents compelling evidence about an often neglected aspect of the energy-climate change-development nexus faced by millions of poor: problems caused by the use of inefficient and polluting energy sources, and the lack of access to sustainable energy services.

Based on a detailed examination of major UN global climate change and sustainable development negotiated outcomes over the course of several decades, this book argues in a powerful and insightful manner that intergovernmental negotiated outcomes aimed at solving the climate change and energy access challenges have been restricted by being placed in different negotiating silos. This “siloization” or compartmentalization has resulted in separate tracks of negotiated outcomes on two inextricably linked global development challenges; and, has thereby hindered prospects for integrated action.

This book points out that the existence of these two silos is especially hard to ignore in light of the urgent UN-led quest for an integrated and universal post-2015 development agenda anticipated to be anchored by new sustainable development goals on energy access and climate change. By addressing the heavy reliance on inefficient and polluting energy services which result in indoor air pollution and short lived climate pollutants that tragically impact millions of poor people, this book highlights the unique importance of integrated action on the energy-poverty-climate change nexus in the UN’s post-2015 development era.

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Table of Contents

Foreword ix

Acknowledgments xiii

1 Confronting the Neglected Nexus Between Climate Change and Energy Access for the Poor 1

1.1 Confronting the neglected nexus between climate change and energy access for the poor: Time for “bold action” 1

1.2 Framing the argument and issuing the necessary caveats 20

1.3 Escalating risks and increasing costs of the climate change: Scaling up and linkages matter 27

1.4 Towards a better understanding of the nexus between global climate change and energy access for the poor 35

1.5 Energy access for the poor and climate change cannot exist as separate global silos: A shared post ]2015 development agenda necessitates integration not siloization 45

References 49

2 Where is the “Energy” in Global Climate Change Negotiations Outcomes? Examining Key UN Global Climate Change Outcomes from 1992 to 2014 for References to the Nexus Between Climate Change and Energy Access for the Poor 55

2.1 Framing the question: Has energy access for the poor been referenced in key outcomes of 20 years of climate change negotiations? 55

2.2 Global climate change negotiations analyses: A brief overview of broad trends 58

2.3 Examining key global climate change outcomes for references to the “energy” and “poverty reduction” nexus: Has “energy access for the poor” been referenced in key agreed outcomes? 67

2.3.1 The early years: Examining the 1992 UNFCC and the 1997 KP for references to the energy and poverty reduction nexus, and to energy access for the poor 68

2.3.2 The middle years: Examining the Bali Road Map and the Copenhagen Accord for references to the energy and poverty reduction nexus, and to energy access for the poor 77

2.3.3 The recent years: Examining the Cancun Agreements, Durban Outcomes, Doha Climate Gateway, the Warsaw Outcomes and the LCCA for references to the energy and poverty reduction nexus, and to energy access for the poor 83

2.4 The absence of concrete references to “energy access for the poor” in key agreed global climate outputs: A puzzling disconnect in the lead ]up to 2015 110

References 113

3 Where’s the “Energy” in Key Un Global Outcomes on Sustainable Development? Examining the Record from Unche 1972 to Rio+20 2012 for References to the Nexus Between Climate Change and Energy Access for the Poor 121

3.1 Setting the stage: Why linkages between energy access for the poor and climate change matter for the UN’s quest for sustainable development 122

3.2 The locus of “energy” within the UN context: Framing the issue of energy access for the poor at the global level 126

3.3 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in key UN global conferences on environment and sustainable development from 1972 to 2000 135

3.3.1 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in the 1972 UNCHE 137

3.3.2 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in the WCED 140

3.3.3 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in the 1992 Agenda 21 145

3.3.4 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in the lead ]up to, and in, the 2000 Millennium Declaration and the MDGs 149

3.4 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in key post ]millennium UN sustainable development outcomes (2001–2012) 155

3.4.1 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in the 2001 CSD 155

3.4.2 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in the 2002 JPOI 159

3.4.3 Examining the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in the lead ]up to, and at, the 2012 Rio+20 Summit: AGECC/SE4All, Global Sustainability Panel Report and the Rio+20 Summit’s Future We Want 166

3.5 Conclusion: Implications for the energy–poverty–climate change nexus in the UN’s post ]2015 development agenda 179

References 188

4 Understanding the Acronym Soup of Voluntary Initiatives and Partnerships on Sustainable Development Within the UN Context: Locating Energy Access and Climate Change Voluntary Efforts 193

4.1 Delving into the acronym soup of voluntary initiatives for sustainable development at the UN 193

4.2 The variegated world of PSDs, GPSD and VCs within the UN context: Making the case for conceptual and definitional clarity 196

4.3 Tracing the emergence of PSDs, GPSD, and VCs within key global sustainable development outcomes from 1992 to 2014: Locating energy access and climate change 204

4.4 An abundance of voluntary initiatives but an absence of a universal accountability framework: Examining energy access and climate change initiatives 216

4.5 Need for improved clarity and accountability of voluntary initiatives on sustainable development 225

References 228

5 Towards an Integrated Framework on Energy Access for the Poor and Climate Change: Issues to Consider for the UN ]Led Post ]2015 Development Agenda 231

5.1 The absence of “energy access for poor” in the negotiating silos on climate change and sustainable development: Summary of findings 232

5.2 Separate silos pose challenges for a shared post ]2015 development agenda 235

5.3 Increasing energy access for the poor and reducing SLCPs: Two key global multi ]stakeholder initiatives 242

5.4 Bold action is needed to address the nexus between energy access for the poor and climate change: Possibilities for consideration 246

References 261

Index 265

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Author Information

Dr Anilla Cherian is an independent, global energy and sustainable development expert who has worked with a number of UN organizations and globally recognized research institutions and foundations over the course of the past two decades. She has provided strategic advice, prepared expert reports and published peer-reviewed papers on a wide range of topics including global climate change, energy for sustainable development, energy access and poverty reduction, financing for sustainable development, water and sanitation, and the conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity resources. She has received fellowships and grant funding from the Rockefeller Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Institute for the Study of World Politics.
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