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The Galapagos: A Natural Laboratory for the Earth Sciences

Karen S. Harpp (Editor), Eric Mittelstaedt (Editor), Noemi d'Ozouville (Editor), David W. Graham (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-85241-5
448 pages
October 2014, American Geophysical Union
The Galapagos: A Natural Laboratory for the Earth Sciences (1118852419) cover image

Description

The Galápagos Islands are renown for their unique flora and fauna, inspiring Charles Darwin in the elaboration of his theory of evolution. Yet in his Voyage of the Beagle, published in 1839, Darwin also remarked on the fascinating geology and volcanic origin of these enchanted Islands. Since then, the Galápagos continue to provide scientists with inspiration and invaluable information about ocean island formation and evolution, mantle plumes, and the deep Earth.

Motivated by an interdisciplinary Chapman Conference held in the Islands, this AGU volume provides cross-disciplinary collection of recent research into the origin and nature of ocean islands, from their deepest roots in Earth's mantle, to volcanism, surface processes, and the interface between geology and biodiversity.

Volume highlights include:

  • Case studies in biogeographical, hydrological, and chronological perspective
  • Understanding the connection between geological processes and biodiversity
  • Synthesis of decades of interdisciplinary research in physical processes from surface to deep interior of the earth
  • In-depth discussion of the concept of the island acting as a natural laboratory for earth scientists
  • Integrated understanding of the Galápagos region from a geological perspective

Collectively, The Galápagos presents case studies illustrating the Galápagos Archipelago as a dynamic natural laboratory for the earth sciences. This book would be of special interest to a multidisciplinary audience in earth sciences, including petrologists, volcanologists, geochronologists, geochemists, and geobiologists.

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Table of Contents

Contributors vii

Foreword: Darwin’s Perspective
Randal Keynes xi

Foreword: The Galápagos as a Natural Laboratory
Peter Grant xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1. Introduction
Eric Mittelstaedt, Noémi d’Ozouville, Karen S. Harpp, and David W. Graham 1

2. Contrasting Volcanism in Hawai‘i and the Galápagos
Michael P. Poland 5

3. Galápagos and Easter: A Tale of Two Hotspots
Karen S. Harpp, Paul S. Hall, and Matthew G. Jackson 27

4. Eruption Rates for Fernandina Volcano: A New Chronology at the Galápagos Hotspot Center
Mark D. Kurz, Scott K. Rowland, Joshua Curtice, Alberto E. Saal, and Terry Naumann 41

5. Galápagos Magma Chambers
Dennis J. Geist, George Bergantz, and William W. Chadwick, Jr 55

6. The Geology and Geochemistry of Isla Floreana, Galápagos: A Different Type of Late-Stage Ocean Island Volcanism
Karen S. Harpp, Dennis J. Geist, Alison M. Koleszar, Branden Christensen, John Lyons, Melissa Sabga, and Nathan Rollins 71

7. Plate Tectonics, Evolution, and the Survival of Species: A Modern Day Hotspot
Godfrey Merlen 119

8. A Paleogeographic Model of the Galápagos Islands and Biogeographical and Evolutionary
Implications
Dennis J. Geist, Howard Snell, Heidi Snell, Charlotte Goddard, and Mark D. Kurz 145

9. Hydrogeology of the Galápagos Archipelago: An Integrated and Comparative Approach Between Islands
Sophie Violette, Noémi d’Ozouville, Alexandre Pryet, Benoît Deffontaines, Jérôme Fortin, and
Mathilde Adelinet 167

10. Controls on the Hydrological and Topographic Evolution of Shield Volcanoes and Volcanic Ocean Islands
Anne J. Jefferson, Ken L. Ferrier, J. Taylor Perron, and Ricardo Ramalho 185

11. Climate and the Global Reach of the Galápagos Archipelago: State of the Knowledge
Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Raghu Murtugudde, and W. Brechner Owens 215

12. Assessment of the Chile 2010 and Japan 2011 Tsunami Events in the Galápagos Islands
Willington Rentería and Patrick Lynett 233

13. Patterns in Galápagos Magmatism Arising from the Upper Mantle Dynamics of Plume-Ridge
Interaction
Garrett Ito and Todd Bianco 245

14. Variations in Crustal Thickness, Plate Rigidity, and Volcanic Processes Throughout the Northern Galápagos Volcanic Province
Eric Mittelstaedt, Adam S. Soule, Karen S. Harpp, and Daniel Fornari 263

15. Plume-Ridge Interaction in the Galápagos: Perspectives from Wolf, Darwin, and Genovesa Islands
Karen S. Harpp, Karl R. Wirth, Rachel Teasdale, Susanna Blair, Leslie Reed, Jay Barr, Janna Pistiner,
and Daniel Korich 285

16. A Preliminary Survey of the Northeast Seamounts, Galápagos Platform
Christopher W. Sinton, Karen S. Harpp, and David M. Christie 335

17. Effect of Variations in Magma Supply on the Crustal Structure of Mid-Ocean Ridges: Insights from the Western Galápagos Spreading Center
Juan Pablo Canales, Robert A. Dunn, Garrett Ito, Robert S. Detrick, and Valentí Sallarès 363

18. Helium Isotope Variations and Mantle Plume-Spreading Ridge Interactions Along the Galápagos Spreading Center
David W. Graham, Barry B. Hanan, John E. Lupton, Kaj Hoernle, Reinhard Werner, David M. Christie, and John M. Sinton 393

Index 415

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