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Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators

ISBN: 978-1-118-85252-1
248 pages
July 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators (1118852524) cover image

Pollinators play a vital role in ecosystem health and are essential to ensuring food security. With declines in both managed and wild pollinator populations in recent years, scientists and regulators have sought answers to this problem and have explored implementing steps to protect pollinator populations now and for the future. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators focuses on the role pesticides play in impacting bee populations and looks to develop a risk assessment process, along with the data to inform that process, to better assess the potential risks that can accompany the use of pesticide products.

Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators opens with two chapters that provide a biological background of both Apis and non-Apis species of pollinators. Chapters then present an overview of the general regulatory risk assessment process and decision-making processes. The book then discusses the core elements of a risk assessment, including exposure estimation, laboratory testing, and field testing.  The book concludes with chapters on statistical and modeling tools, and proposed additional research that may be useful in developing the ability to assess the impacts of pesticide use on pollinator populations.

Summarizing the current state of the science surrounding risk assessment for Apis and non-Apis species, Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators is a timely work that will be of great use to the environmental science and agricultural research communities.

  • Assesses pesticide risk to native and managed pollinators
  • Summarizes the state of the science in toxicity testing and risk assessment
  • Provides valuable biological overviews of both Apis and non-Apis pollinators
  • Develops a plausible overall risk assessment framework for regulatory decision making
  • Looks towards a globally harmonized approach for pollinator toxicity and risk assessment
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List of Figures xi

List of Tables xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Editors xix

Workshop Participants xxi

Pellston Workshop Series xxv

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Workshop Balance and Composition 2

Chapter 2 Overview of the Honey Bee 3
J. Pettis

2.1 Overview of Honey Bee Biology 3

Chapter 3 Overview of Non-Apis Bees 5
M. Vaughan, B.E. Vaissi`ere, G. Maynard, M. Kasina, R.C.F. Nocelli, C. Scott-Dupree, E. Johansen, C. Brittain, M. Coulson, and A. Dinter

3.1 Introduction 5

3.2 Non-Apis Bee Biology and Diversity 7

3.3 Opportunities for Non-Apis Bees to Inform Pollinator Risk Assessment 12

3.4 Conclusions 12

References 14

Chapter 4 Overview of Protection Goals for Pollinators 19
T. Moriarty, A. Alix, and M. Miles

4.1 Introduction 19

4.2 Elements and Proposed Protection Goals 20

4.3 Linking Protection Goals with Assessment Endpoints 21

4.4 Protection Goals and Monitoring 22

4.5 Conclusion 22

Reference 23

Chapter 5 Overview of the Pesticide Risk Assessment and the Regulatory Process 25
C. Lee-Steere and T. Steeger

5.1 Introduction 25

5.2 Current Approach for Assessing Effects of Pesticide Products to Pollinators 26

References 27

Chapter 6 Problem Formulation for an Assessment of Risk to Honey Bees from Applications of
Plant Protection Products to Agricultural Crops 29
D. Fischer, A. Alix, M. Coulson, P. Delorme, T. Moriarty, J. Pettis, T. Steeger, and J.D. Wisk

6.1 What Is Problem Formulation? 30

6.2 Case 1: Problem Formulation for a Systemic Chemical Applied to the Soil, or as a Seed-Dressing 35

6.3 Case 2: Problem Formulation for a Contact Chemical Applied as a Foliar Spray 39

References 44

Chapter 7 Assessing Exposure of Pesticides to Bees 45
J.D.Wisk, J. Pistorius, M. Beevers, R. Bireley, Z. Browning, M.P. Chauzat, A. Nikolakis, J. Overmyer, R. Rose, R. Sebastien, B.E. Vaissi`ere, G. Maynard, M. Kasina, R.C.F. Nocelli, C. Scott-Dupree, E. Johansen, C. Brittain, M. Coulson, A. Dinter, and M. Vaughan

7.1 Introduction 46

7.2 Potential Routes of Exposure for Non-ApisBees 49

7.3 Methods and Models for Estimating Exposure of Bees to Pesticides 54

7.4 Physical and Chemical Properties of Pesticide Active Ingredients Which Affect Exposure 55

7.5 Information Needed to Develop Refined Predictive Exposure Models 56

7.6 Predicted Contact Exposure for Foliar-Applied Products 56

7.7 Predicted Dietary Exposure for Foliar-Applied Products 59

7.8 Predicted Exposure for Soil and Seed Treatment Systemic Compounds 61

7.9 Predicted Exposure for Tree-Injected Compounds 62

7.10 Measuring Pesticides in Matrices Relevant for Assessing Exposure to Bees 62

7.11 Higher Tier Studies to Assess Exposure of Pesticides to Bees 63

7.12 Health of Honey Bee Colonies Can Influence Exposure 65

7.13 Higher Tier Studies with Non-Apis Bee Species 65

7.14 Summary and Recommendations 68

References 70

Chapter 8 Assessing Effects Through Laboratory Toxicity Testing 75
J. Frazier, J. Pflugfleder, P. Aupinel, A. Decourtye, J. Ellis, C. Scott-Dupree, Z. Huang, H. Thompson, P. Bachman, A. Dinter, M. Vaughan, B.E. Vaissi`ere, G. Maynard, M. Kasina, E. Johansen, C. Brittain, M. Coulson, and R.C.F. Nocelli

8.1 Introduction 75

8.2 Overview of Laboratory Testing Requirements Among Several Countries 77

8.3 Uncertainties in Current Testing Paradigms 78

8.4 Limitations and Suggested Improvements for Tier 1 Testing 79

8.5 Adult Oral Chronic Toxicity—Apis Bees 83

8.6 Honey Bee Brood Tests in the Laboratory 83

8.7 Adult Toxicity Testing with Non-Apis Bees 84

8.8 Sublethal Effects and Test Developments 86

8.9 Conclusions 91

References 91

Chapter 9 Assessing Effects Through Semi-Field and Field Toxicity Testing 95
J. Pettis, I. Tornier, M. Clook, K. Wallner, B. Vaissiere, T. Stadler, W. Hou, G. Maynard, R. Becker, M. Coulson, P. Jourdan, M. Vaughan, R.C.F. Nocelli, C. Scott-Dupree, E. Johansen, C. Brittain, A. Dinter, and M. Kasina

9.1 Introduction 96

9.2 Definition of Semi-Field and Field Studies 97

9.3 Design of a Semi-Field Study 97

9.4 Outline of a Semi-Field Study for Apis and Non-Apis Bees 101

9.5 Design of a Field Study 108

9.6 Outline of a Field Study for Apis and Non-Apis Species 108

9.7 Role of Monitoring and Incident Reporting 116

9.8 Summary 118

References 118

Chapter 10 Overview of a Proposed Ecological Risk Assessment Process for Honey bees
(Apis mellifera) and Non-Apis Bees 121
A. Alix, T. Steeger, C. Brittain, D. Fischer, R. Johnson, T. Moriarty, E. Johansen, F. Streissel, R. Fischer, M. Miles, C. Lee-Steere, M. Vaughan, B. Vaissiere, G. Maynard, M. Kasina, R.C.F. Nocelli, C. Scott-Dupree, M. Coulson, A. Dinter, and M. Fry

10.1 Introduction 122

10.2 Protection Goals, Assessment and Measurement Endpoints, Trigger Values for Transitioning to Higher Levels of Refinement, and Risk Assessment Terminology 125

10.3 Risk Assessment Flowcharts 127

10.4 Spray Applications 132

10.5 Soil and Seed Treatment Applications for Systemic Substances 134

10.6 Screening-Level Risk Assessments (Tier 1) 135

10.7 Factors Limiting Certainty in Screening Assessments 135

10.8 Refinement Options for Screening-Level Risk Assessment 136

10.9 Conclusions on the Risks and Recommendations 144

10.10 Recommending Risk Mitigation Measures 145

10.11 Additional Tools in Support of Risk Assessment and to Inform

Risk Management 146

References 146

Chapter 11 Ecological Modeling for Pesticide Risk Assessment for Honey Bees and Other Pollinators 149
V. Grimm, M.A. Becher, P. Kennedy, P. Thorbek, and J. Osborne

11.1 Introduction 149

11.2 Example Model: Common Shrew 150

11.3 Rationale and Approaches of Mechanistic Effect Modeling 152

11.4 Modeling Practice for Risk Assessment 154

11.5 Existing Models of Pollinators 155

11.6 Discussion 159

References 160

Chapter 12 Data Analysis Issues 163
W. Warren-Hicks

12.1 Study Duration 163

12.2 Replicates and Dosing 163

12.3 Long-Term Tests 164

12.4 Statistical Models 164

Chapter 13 Risk Mitigation and Performance Criteria 165
E. Johansen, M. Fry, and T. Moriarty

13.1 The Role of Risk Management in Pollinator Protection 165

13.2 Regulatory Risk Mitigation Methods167

13.3 Non-Regulatory Risk Mitigation Methods 169

13.4 Suggested Techniques to Mitigate Risks to Other Species of Bees 170

13.5 Pesticide Application Technologies to Mitigate Exposure to Bees 171

References 172

Chapter 14 Recommendations for Future Research in Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators 173

14.1 Exposure 173

14.2 Effects 175

References 177

Appendix 1 Elements for a Chronic Adult Oral Toxicity Study 179

Appendix 2 Elements of a Larval Study 181

Appendix 3 Elements of Artificial Flower Test 187

Appendix 4 Elements of theVisual Learning Test 189

Appendix 5 Foraging Behavior with Radio Frequency Identification 193

Appendix 6 Detailed Description of the Proposed Overall Risk Assessment Scheme 195

Glossary of Terms 209

Index 211

Color plate section is located between pages 120 and 121.

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David Fischer is Director of Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment at Bayer CropScience.

Thomas Moriarty is a Team Leader in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Pesticide Re-Evaluation Division.

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