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Essential Readings in Magnesium Technology

Suveen N. Mathaudhu (Editor), Alan A. Luo (Editor), Neale R. Neelameggham (Editor), Eric A. Nyberg (Editor), Wim H. Sillekens (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-85894-3
664 pages
March 2014
Essential Readings in Magnesium Technology (1118858948) cover image
This is a compilation of the best papers in the history of Magnesium Technology, a definitive annual reference in the field of magnesium production and related light metals technologies. The volume contains a strong topical mix of application and fundamental research articles on magnesium technology.
  1. Magnesium Technology History and Overview
  2. Electrolytic and Thermal Primary Production
  3. Melting, Refining, Recycling, and Life-Cycle Analysis
  4. Casting and Solidification
  5. Alloy and Microstructural Design
  6. Wrought Processing
  7. Modeling and Simulation
  8. Joining
  9. Corrosion, Surface Treatment, and Coating
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Preface xiii

About the Editors xvii

Part 1: Magnesium Technology History and Overview

Magnesium Technology Growth in the 1990 Period 3
R. Brown

The Magnesium Industry Today…The Global Perspective 13
G. Patzer

Advances in Manufacturing Processes for Magnesium Alloys 19
H. Dieringa, J. Bohlen, N. Hort, D. Letzig, and K. Kainer

Materials Comparison and Potential Applications of Magnesium in Automobiles 25
A. Luo

Summary of Magnesium Vision 2020: A North American Automotive Strategic Vision for Magnesium 35
G. Cole

Magnesium Front End Research and Development: A Canada-China-USA Collaboration 41
A. Luo, E. Nyberg, K. Sadayappan, and W. Shi

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering for Magnesium in Automotive Body Applications 49
J. Allison, B. Liu, K. Boyle, L. Hector, and R. McCune

A Lightweight Automobile Body Concept Featuring Ultra-Large, Thin-Wall Structural Magnesium Castings 55
S. Logan

Magnesium Castings in Aeronautics Applications – Special Requirements 65
A. Wendt, K. Weiss, A. Ben-Dov, M. Bamburger, and B. Bronfin

Magnesium Alloys in U.S. Military Applications: Past, Current and Future Solutions 71
S. Mathaudhu and E. Nyberg

High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions for the Grid Balancing 77
F. D'Errico and A. Screnci

Part 2: Electrolytic and Thermal Primary Production

History of Primary Magnesium Since World War II 85
B. Clow

Lloyd M. Pidgeon – Magnesium Pioneer 89
R. Brown

Magnesium Electrolysis – A Monopolar Viewpoint 93
O. Wallevik, K. Amundsen, A. Faucher, and T. Mellerud

Magnesium Electrolytic Production Process 97
G. Shekhovtsov, V. Shchegolev, B. Devyatkin, A. Tatakin, and I. Zabelin

Pilot Experiments of Magnesia Direct Electryolysis in a 5kA Magnesium Reduction Cell 101
H. Lu, W. Jia, C. Liao, R. Ma, and W. Yuan

Cathode Wetting Studies in Magnesium Electrolysis 107
K. McLean, J. Pettingill, and B. Davis

The Pidgeon Process in China and Its Future 113
J. Zang and W. Ding

Vertical Larger-Diameter Vacuum Retort Magnesium Reduction Furnace 117
X. Mei, A. Yu, S. Shang, and T. Zhu

Magnesium Production by Vacuum Aluminothermic Reduction of a Mixture of Calcined Dolomite and Calcined Magnesite 121
W. Hu, N. Feng, Y. Wang, and Z. Wang

Carbothermal Production of Magnesium: CSIRO's Magsonic Process 127
L. Prentice, M. Nagle, T. Barton, S. Tassios, B. Kuan, P. Witt, and K. Constanti-Carey

Part 3: Melting, Refining, Recycling, and Life-Cycle Analysis

The Use of SO2 as a Cover Gas for Molten Magnesium 135
S. Cashion and N. Ricketts

An Improved Process for the Production of Magnesium 141
H. Eklund, P. Engseth, B. Langseth, T. Mellerud, and O. Wallevik

Effect of Ca(OH)2 on Oxidation and Ignition Resistances of Pure Mg 145
D. Jang, and S. Kim

A New Conti-Process for the Fluxless Recycling of High Purity Magnesium 151
U. Galovsky, and M. Kuhlein

Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling 157
T. Zhu, N. Li, X. Mei, A. Yu, and S. Shang

A Numerical Understanding of Vertical Magnesium Thermal Reduction Processes 163
H. Hu, A. Yu, and N. Li

A Comparison of the Greenhouse Impacts of Magnesium Produced by Electrolytic and Pidgeon Processes 169
S. Ramakrishnan and P. Koltun

Life Cycle Environmental Impact of Magnesium Automotive Components 175
P. Koltun, A. Tharumarajah, and S. Ramakrishnan

Solubility of Fluorine in Molten Magnesium 181
K. Aarstad, M. Syvertsen, and T. Engh

Part 4: Casting and Solidification

Castability of Magnesium Alloys 187
A. Bowles, Q. Han, and J. Horton

Solidification of Cast Magnesium Alloys 193
D. StJohn, A. Dahle, T. Abbott, M. Nave, and M. Qian

Solidification and Microstructure of Mg - Al - (Ca, Sr, Ce, La) Ternary Alloys 199
N. Saddock, A. Suzuki, K. Wu, S. Wildy, Y. Chang, T. Pollock, and J. Jones

Hot Cracking Susceptibility of Binary Mg-Al Alloys 205
G. Cao, S. Kou, and Y. Chang

Phenomena of Formation of Gas Induced Shrinkage Porosity in Pressure Die-Cast Mg-Alloys 211
S. Lee and A. Gokhale

The Role of Microstructure and Porosity in Ductility of Die Cast AM50 and AM60 Magnesium Alloys 217
G. Chadha, J. Allison, and J. Jones

Semisolid Processing and Its Application to Magnesium Alloys 223
F. Czerwinski

Fatigue Behavior of Thixomolded Magnesium AZ91D Using Ultrasonic Techniques 227
A. Moore, C. Torbet, A. Shyam, J. Jones, D. Walukas, and R. Decker

Development of Wrought Mg Alloys via Strip Casting 233
S. Park, J. Lee, H. Lee, and N. Kim

Development of 1500MM Wide Wrought Magnesium Alloys by Twin Roll Casting Technique in Turkey 239
O. Duygulu, S. Ucuncuoglu, G. Oktay, D. Temur, O. Yucel, and A. Kaya

Part 5: Alloy and Microstructural Design

Grain Refinement of Magnesium 247
Y. Lee, A. Dahle, and D. StJohn

Preliminary Investigation on the Grain Refinement Behavior of ZrB2 Particles in Mg-Al Alloys 255
G. Klosch, B. McKay, and P. Schumacher

Solid Solution Effects on the Tensile Behaviour of Concentratred Mg-Zn Alloys 263
A. Blake and C. Caceres

Age Hardening Behavior of Mg-l.2Sn-l.7Zn Alloy Containing Al 269
T. Sasaki, T. Ohkubo, and K. Hono

The Relationship between Microstructure and Creep Behavior in AE42 Magnesium Die Casting Alloy 275
B. Powell, V. Rezhets, M. Balogh, and R. Waldo

Development of Creep Resistant Mg-Al-Sr Alloys 283
M. Pekguleryuz and E. Baril

Phase Transformation and Creep of Mg-Al-Ca Based Die-Cast Alloys291
A. Suzuki, N. Saddock, J. Jones, and T. Pollock

Magnesium Diecasting Alloys for High Temperature Applications 297
M. Pekguleryuz and A. Kaya

Fire-Proof Evaluation of CaO Added Mg-3Al, Mg-6Al, and Mg-9Al Mg Cast Products 305
J. Lee and S. Kim

The Role of Rare Earth Elements in Structure and Property Control of Magnesium Die Casting Alloys 313
P. Bakke and H. Westengen

Directionally Controlled Precipitation on Twin-Boundaries in Mg-Zn-Y Alloys 319
J. Rosalie, H. Somekawa, A. Singh, and T. Mukai

Applicablity of Mg-Zn-(Y, Gd) Alloys for Engine Pistons 325
K. Okamoto, M. Sasaki, N. Takahashi, Q. Wang, Y. Gao, D. Yin, and C. Chen

Part 6: Wrought Processing

Deformation Mechanisms of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy 333|
T. Ebeling, C. Hartig, T. Laser, M. Nurnberg, and R. Bormann

Constitutive Behavior of Wrought Magnesium Alloy AZ61339
F. Slooff, J. Zhou, J. Duszczyk, and L. Katgerman

The Evolution of In-Grain Misorientation Axes (IGMA) during Deformation of Wrought Magnesium Alloy AZ31 345
Y. Chun and C. Davies

Plastic Anisotropy of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B Sheet 351
S. Agnew

Formability of Magnesium Sheet ZE10 and AZ31 with Respect to Initial Texture 357
L. Stutz, J. Bohlen, D. Letzig, and K. Kainer

Influence of Cerium on Texture and Ductility of Magnesium Extrusions 363
R. Mishra, A. Gupta, P. Rao, A. Sachdev, A. Kumar, and A. Luo

The Hot Working Flow Stress and Microstructure in Magnesium AZ31 369
A. Beer and M. Barnett

The High Strain Rate Deformation Behavior of High Purity Magnesium and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy 375
V. Livescu, C. Cady, E. Cerreta, B. Henrie, and G. Gray

Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Tubes 381
A. Luo and A. Sachdev

Heated Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing of Magnesium Sheet Metal 389
G. Kurz

Non-Basal Textures in Magnesium Alloy Strips Produced by Extrusion Machining 395
D. Sagapuram, M. Efe, W. Moscoso, S. Chandrasekar, and K. Trumble

Part 7: Modeling and Simulation

Design Magnesium Alloys: How Computational Thermodynamics Can Help 403
Z. Liu

A Thermodynamic Database for Magnesium Alloys 411
M. Piche, A. Pelton, and C. Brochu

Computational Thermodynamics and Experimental Investigation of Mg-Al-Ca Alloys 415
K. Ozturk, Y. Zhong, and Z. Liu

Computational Thermodynamics and Experimental Investigation of the Mg-Al-Ca-Sr Alloys 421
Y. Zhong, K. Ozturk, Z. Liu, and A. Luo

New Phases in Mg-Al-Ca System 427
Y. Zhong, A. Luo, J. Nie, J. Sofo, and Z. Liu

Thermodynamic Database of Mg-Al-Ca-Sr: A Resource for Alloy Development and Improvement 433
H. Cao, J. Zhu, C. Zhang, and Y. Chang

The Mg-Al-Zn-Mn-Ca-Sr Alloy System: Backbone of Understanding Phase Formation in AXJ Alloys and Modifications of AZ and AM Alloys with Ca or Sr 437
A. Janz, J. Groebner, and R. Schmid-Fetzer

Thermodynamics and Constitution of Mg-Zn-Ce Alloys 441
C. Chiu, A. Kozlov, J. Gröbner, and R. Schmid-Fetzer

Modelling of the Thermo-Physical and Physical Properties for Solidification of Mg-Alloys 445
N. Saunders, X. Li, A. Miodownik, and J. Schille

Constitution of Magnesium Alloys 451
R. Schmid-Fetzer, J. Gröbner, D. Mirkovic, A. Janz, and A. Kozlov

Computer Modeling of DC Casting Magnesium Alloy WE43 Rolling Slabs 457
M. Turski, J. Grandfield, T. Wilks, B. Davis, R. DeLorme, and K. Cho

Magnesium for Crashworthy Components 463
T. Abbott, M. Easton, and R. Schmidt

Numerical Modelling of Large Strain Deformation in Magnesium 467
J. Lévesque, K. Inal, K. Neale, R. Mishra, and A. Luo

Atoms-to-Grains Corrosion Modeling for Magnesium Alloys 473
H. Kwak, J. Xiao, and S. Chaudhuri

Effect of Substituted Aluminum in Magnesium Tension Twin 479
K. Solanki, A. Moitra, and M. Bhatia

Part 8: Joining

Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys 487
R. Johnson and P. Threadgill

Welding and Weldability of AZ31B by Gas Tungsten Arc and Laser Beam Welding Processes 493
S. Lathabai, K. Barton, D. Harris, P. Lloyd, D. Vlano, and A. McLean

Microstructural and Mechanical Aspects of Reinforcement Welds for Lightweight Components Produced by Friction Hydro Pillar Processing 499
G. Pinheiro, J. dos Santos, N. Hort, and K. Kainer

Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel 505
S. Jana, Y. Hovanski, S. Pilli, D. Field, H. Yu, T. Pan, and M. Santella

Elevated Temperature and Varied Load Response of AS41 at Bolted Joint 511
O. Anopuo, G. Shen, S. Xu, N. Hort, and K. Kainer

Structure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Weld Joints of Magnesium Alloy AZ31 517
T. Nagasawa, M. Otsuka, T. Yokota, and T. Ueki

Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Die Castings 523
J. Skar, H. Gjestland, L. Oosterkamp, and D. Albright

The Effect of Process Parameters and Tool Geometry on Thermal Field Development and Weld Formation in Friction Stir Welding of the Alloys AZ31 and AZ61 529
R. Zettler, A. Blanco, J. dos Santos, and S. Marya

Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Oil Pan 545
F. Hunt, Q. Yang, H. Badarinarayan, K. Okamoto, and D. Platt

Fatigue Evaluation of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Magnesium Sheets 551
J. Jordon, M. Horstemeyer, J. Grantham, and H. Badarinarayan

An International Benchmark Test in the "Magnesium Front End Research and Development" Project 557
H. Badarinarayan, S. Behravesh, S. Bhole, D. Chen, J. Grantham, M. Horstemeyer, H. Jahed, J. Jordon, S. Lambert, H. Patel, X. Su, and Y. Yang

Part 9: Corrosion, Surface Treatment, and Coating

An Hydrogen Evolution Method for the Estimation of the Corrosion Rate of Magnesium Alloys 565
G. Song, A. Atrens, and D. StJohn

A Novel Technique to Evaluate the Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloys 573
B. Tiwari and J. Bommarito

Corrosion Phenomenon Evaluation of Mg Alloys Using Surface Potential Difference Measured by SKPFM 581
R. Takei, H. Fukuda, H. Imai, J. Umeda, and K. Kondoh

Emerging Trends in Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Die-Castings 585
J. Skar and D. Albright

Evaluation of Corrosion Protection Methods for Magnesium Alloys in Automotive Applications 593
P. Blanchard, D. Hill, G. Bretz, and R. McCune

Advanced Conversion Coatings for Magnesium Alloys 599
S. Nibhanupudi and A. Manavbasi

Improved Corrosion Performance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Coated with the KeroniteTM Process 603
S. Shrestha, A. Sturgeon, P. Shashkov, and A. Shatrov

Adhesive Bonding and Corrosion Protection of a Die Cast Magnesium Automotive Door 609
G. Bretz, K. Lazarz, D. Hill, and P. Blanchard

Parametric Study of Laser Cladding of AS 21 Magnesium Alloy with Aluminium Silicon/Tungsten Carbide Powder 617
M. Mandagie, M. Brandt, Y. Durandet, and M. Jahedi

Corrosion, Surface Modification, and Biocompatibility of Mg and Mg Alloys 625
S. Virtanen, and B. Fabry

Author Index 629

Subject Index 633

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