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Ethics in the University

ISBN: 978-1-118-87213-0
320 pages
September 2016
Ethics in the University (1118872134) cover image

Description

It is the continuous reports of unethical behavior in the form of data manipulation, cheating, plagiarism, and other forms of unacceptable behavior that draw attention to the issues of misconduct.  The causes of misconduct are manifold whether it is the need to advance in a chosen discipline or to compete successfully for and obtain research funding.  Disappointingly, individuals who are oriented to any form of dishonesty are individuals who had previously displayed little or no consideration for the feelings of others and are therefore more interested in themselves, at the expense of the students, and others recognizing them by any means necessary. 

This ground-breaking and honest examination of ethics in the university setting is unabashed in its descriptions of misconduct in the academic world.  The text is well furbished with numerous citations that point to academic misconduct and the final chapter deals with the means by which misconduct can be mitigated, a strong reminder to everyone in the academic community that above board conduct must be part of our overall message of learning and part of the whole point of education in the first place.

A must-have for academics and non-academics alike, this text is the second in a series of books on ethics by James G. Speight, and it is useful to anyone, in any industry, who is interested in ethical behavior and how to navigate the sometimes murky depths of our professional lives.

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 The Concept of Ethics 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Professionalism and Ethics 6

1.3 Morals and Values 9

1.4 Codes of Ethics and Ethical Standards 12

1.5 Academic Freedom 15

References 19

2 Codes of Ethics 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Codes of Ethics 29

2.3 Ethics in the University 37

2.4 Ethics and Research 43

References 45

3 Academia 49

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Definitions 51

3.3 The Faculty 52

3.3.1 Professor 53

3.3.2 Associate Professor 55

3.3.3 Assistant Professor 56

3.3.4 Lecturer 57

3.3.5 Teaching Assistant 58

3.3.6 Other Faculty Positions 59

3.3.6.1 Adjunct Faculty 59

3.3.6.2 Research Professor 60

3.3.6.3 Professor Emeritus 60

3.3.6.4 Endowed Chair 60

3.3.6.5 Reader 61

3.3.6.6 Docent 62

3.4 Faculty Leave 62

3.5 Nonacademic Staff 64

3.5.1 The Personnel Office 64

3.5.2 The Finance Office 65

3.6 Tenure and Tenure Track 65

3.7 The Student 71

3.8 Research Funding 73

References 73

4 Integrity in Academia 77

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Faculty Evaluation 80

4.3 Faculty Conduct and Misconduct 82

4.3.1 Reporting Research Data 82

4.3.2 Misrepresenting Credentials 84

4.4 Faculty Relationships 84

4.4.1 Faculty-Student Relationships 84

4.4.2 Faculty-Graduate Student Relationships 85

4.4.2.1 The Master’s Degree 86

4.4.2.2 The Doctoral Degree 88

4.4.2.3 The Research Fellowship 92

4.4.3 Faculty-Faculty Relationships 92

4.4.4 Faculty-Staff Relationships 93

4.4.5 Dating Relationships 94

4.4.5.1 Student-Professor Dating 94

4.4.5.2 Student-Teaching Assistant Dating 95

4.5 A Matter of Control 95

References 99

5 Integrity in Teaching 103

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 The Learning Path 107

5.2.1 Degree Courses 108

5.2.2 Graduate Degree Courses 111

5.2.2.1 The Master’s Degree 112

5.2.2.2 The Doctorate 113

5.3 The Impact of the Professor 116

5.4 Professionalism 118

5.5 Morals and Values 119

References 122

6 Integrity in Research 127

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 The Nature and Conduct of Research 134

Contents vii

6.3 Collecting Research Data 139

6.3.1 Bias in Analytical Methods 139

6.3.2 Misuse of the Data 140

6.3.3 Falsifi cation and Fabrication of Data 141

6.3.4 Plagiarism and Theft 142

6.4 Controls 143

6.5 Intellectual Property 146

References 150

7 Publication and Communication 155

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 The Literature 158

7.3 The Journals 159

7.4 Data for Publication 164

7.5 Peer Reviewers and Their Duties 166

7.5.1 The Department Head 168

7.5.2 The Dean 170

7.5.3 The Journal Editor 171

References 173

8 Data Manipulation 177

8.1 Introduction 177

8.2 Misuse of Data 179

8.2.1 Examinations and Pass Rate 183

8.2.2 Research Data 184

8.2.2.1 Flawed Research 185

8.2.2.2 Stretching Data 186

8.2.2.3 Distorting Data 187

8.2.2.4 Rejecting or Ignoring Data 187

8.2.3 False Claims 188

8.2.4 Use of Mathematical Models 189

8.2.5 Collapsing Data 190

8.2.6 Use of Statistics 191

8.2.6.1 Use of Inadequate or Nonrepresentative Data 192

8.2.6.2 Inadequate Reasoning on the

Basis of the Data 193

8.2.6.3 Misleading Visualization of the Data 194

8.3 Misuse of Research Funds 195

References 197

9 Harassment: Sexual and Otherwise 201

9.1 Introduction 201

9.2 Title IX 205

9.3 Harassment Situations 210

9.4 Effect on the Victim 213

9.5 Effect on the University 217

References 219

10 The Sporting Megalopolis 223

10.1 Introduction 223

10.2 Why University Sports? 233

10.2.1 Fairness 235

10.2.2 Responsibility 235

10.2.3 Respect 236

10.3 Athletes and Scholarships 237

10.4 To be Paid or Not to be Paid 238

10.5 Passing Grades of Athletes 239

10.6 Sports After the University 241

References 242

11 Enforcement of Codes of Ethics 247

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Following a Code of Ethics 249

11.2.1 Disregard for Teaching and Research Programs 249

11.2.2 Conflict of Interest 250

11.2.3 Data Manipulation 251

11.2.4 The White Lie 253

11.2.5 Costs to the Student 254

11.3 Reporting Misconduct 255

11.3.1 Mechanisms for Reporting Misconduct 256

11.3.2 Whistleblowers 256

11.3.3 Persecution of Whistleblowers 257

11.4 Enforcing a Code of Ethics 258

11.4.1 The Ethics Committee 259

11.4.2 Punishment for Misconduct 259

11.4.3 Success of the Code 262

11.5 Necessary Actions 264

References 266

Glossary 271

Index 289

About the Author 293

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Author Information

James G. Speight, PhD, has more than forty-five years of experience in energy, environmental science, and ethics.  He is the author of more than 65 books in petroleum science, petroleum engineering, biomass and biofuels, and environmental sciences.  Although he has always worked in private industry which focused on contract-based work, Dr. Speight has served as Adjunct Professor in the Department of Chemical and Fuels Engineering at the University of Utah and in the Departments of Chemistry and Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Wyoming.  In addition, he was a Visiting Professor in the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq and has also been a Visiting Professor in Chemical Engineering at the University of Missouri-Columbia, the Technical University of Denmark, and the University of Trinidad and Tobago. 

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