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Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-87449-3
376 pages
September 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare, 4th Edition (1118874498) cover image

Description

Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare is an invaluable resource for those who carry out qualitative research in the healthcare arena. It is intended to assist:

  • Professionals and academics in the healthcare field who undertake or teach research in clinical or educational settings;
  • Postgraduates who are undertaking qualitative research and want to revise qualitative research approaches and procedures before going on to more specialist texts; and
  • Undergraduates in their last year who wish to learn about qualitative perspectives or carry out a project using these approaches.

Fully updated from the earlier editions by Holloway and Wheeler, it reflects recent developments in nursing research. This new edition provides clear explanations of abstract ideas in qualitative research as well as practical procedures. Structured into four sections, the book looks at the initial stages, methods of data collection, qualitative approaches and analysis of collected data. It also contains a chapter on writing up and publishing qualitative research.

With applied and practical examples throughout, Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare is essential reading for those who are looking for a comprehensive introduction to qualitative research.  

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Table of Contents

Preface, xi

About the Authors, xiii

Acknowledgements, xv

Part One: Introduction to Qualitative Research: Starting Out

1 The Main Features and Uses of Qualitative Research, 3

What is qualitative research?, 3

The characteristics of qualitative research, 3

The place of theory in qualitative research, 10

The use of qualitative research in healthcare, 12

Choosing an approach for health research, 14

Problematic issues in qualitative research, 15

Conclusion, 17

Summary, 18

References, 18

Further Reading, 20

2 The Paradigm Debate: The Place of Qualitative Research, 21

Theoretical frameworks and ontological position, 21

The paradigm debate, 23

Conflicting or complementary perspectives?, 27

Final comment, 29

References, 29

Further Reading, 30

3 Initial Steps in the Research Process, 31

Selecting and formulating the research question, 31

The literature review, 36

Writing a research proposal, 39

Access and entry to the setting, 45

Summary, 48

References, 48

Further Reading, 49

4 Ethical Issues, 51

The basic ethical framework for research, 52

Ethics in qualitative research, 55

Researching one’s peers, 62

The research relationship, 62

Research in the researcher’s workplace, 64

The role of research ethics committees, 65

Summary, 69

References, 69

Further Reading, 71

5 Supervision of Qualitative Research, 73

The responsibilities of supervisor and student, 74

Writing and relationships, 76

Practical aspects of supervision, 77

Single or joint supervision, 79

Problems with supervision, 80

Summary, 82

References, 83

Further Reading, 83

Part Two: Data Collection and Sampling

6 Interviewing, 87

Interviews as sources of data, 87

The interview process, 88

Types of interview, 89

Probing, prompting and summarising, 93

The social context of the interview, 94

Unexpected outcomes: qualitative interviewing and therapy, 95

Length and timing of interviews, 95

Recording interview data, 96

The interviewer–participant relationship, 98

Problematic issues and challenges in interviewing, 99

Interviewing through electronic media, 100

Ethical issues in interviewing, 103

Strengths and weaknesses of interviewing, 103

Summary, 105

References, 105

Further Reading, 106

7 Participant Observation and Documents as Sources of Data, 107

Participant observation, 107

The origins of participant observation, 108

Immersion in culture and setting, 108

Documentary sources of data, 118

Images as sources of data, 121

Summary, 122

References, 122

Further Reading, 123

8 Focus Groups as Qualitative Research, 125

What is a focus group?, 125

The origin and purpose of focus groups, 127

Sample size and composition, 128

Conducting focus group interviews, 131

Analysing and reporting focus group data, 133

Advantages and limitations of focus groups, 135

Critical comments on focus group interviews in healthcare, 136

Summary, 137

References, 137

Further Reading, 139

9 Sampling Strategies, 141

Sampling decisions, 141

Purposeful (or purposive) sampling, 143

A variety of sampling types, 145

Giving a label to the participants, 152

Summary, 153

References, 154

Further Reading, 155

Part Three: Approaches in Qualitative Research

10 Ethnography, 159

The development of ethnography, 160

Ethnographic methods, 162

Ethnography in healthcare, 163

The main features of ethnography, 165

Fieldwork, 169

Doing and writing ethnography, 172

Pitfalls and problems, 175

Summary, 175

References, 176

Further Reading, 177

11 Grounded Theory, 179

History and origin, 179

The main features of grounded theory, 181

Data collection, theoretical sampling and analysis, 182

Pitfalls and problems, 191

Glaser’s critique and further development, 192

Constructivist grounded theory, 194

Which approach for the health researcher?, 195

Summary, 195

References, 196

Further Reading, 197

12 Narrative Inquiry, 199

The nature of narrative and story, 199

Narrative research, 200

Illness narratives, 205

Narrative interviewing, 208

Narrative analysis, 210

Problematic issues, 213

Conclusion, 214

Summary, 215

References, 215

Further Reading, 217

13 Phenomenology, 219

Intentionality and the early stages of phenomenology, 220

Schools of phenomenology, 225

The phenomenological research process: doing phenomenology, 226

Phenomenology and health research, 229

Choice of approach: descriptive or interpretive phenomenology, 230

Procedures for data collection and analysis, 232

Summary, 235

References, 235

Further Reading, 238

14 Action Research, 239

The origins of action research, 240

Action research in healthcare, 242

The main features of action research, 243

Practical steps, 246

Trustworthiness in AR, 247

Problems and critique, 248

Summary, 250

References, 250

Further Reading, 252

15 Additional Approaches, 253

Case Study Research (CSR), 253

Overview, 253

Features and purpose of case study research, 254

Conversation analysis, 256

Critical incident technique, 259

Discourse analysis, 261

Performative social science, 265

Summary, 268

References, 268

16 Mixing Methods, 273

The nature of mixed methods studies, 273

Doing mixed methods research, 275

Types of mixed methods research, 275

The place and purpose of the literature, 279

Triangulation, 280

Critique of MMR, 280

Conclusion, 281

Summary, 281

References, 282

Further Reading, 283

Part Four: Data Analysis and Completion

17 Data Analysis: Procedures, Practices and Use of Computers, 287

Coding and categorising, 292

Problems of QDA, 294

Computer-aided analysis of qualitative data, 295

Summary, 301

References, 301

Further Reading, 302

18 Establishing Quality: Trustworthiness and Validity, 303

Quality, 303

An alternative perspective: trustworthiness, 309

Strategies to ensure trustworthiness, 310

Quality and creativity, 316

Summary, 317

References, 317

Further Reading, 319

19 Writing up Qualitative Research, 321

The research account, 321

Use of the first person, 322

The format of the report, 323

Introduction, 327

Critical assessment and evaluation, 334

Guide to research evaluation, 334

Publishing and presenting the research, 335

Summary, 338

References, 339

Further Reading, 340

Final Note, 341

Glossary, 343

Index, 349

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