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The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings, 5th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-88085-2
688 pages
August 2017
The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings, 5th Edition (1118880854) cover image

Description

The detailed, highly illustrated, comprehensive guide to architectural working drawings

The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings is a complete guide to the skills you need to create a set of drawings that clearly and effectively communicate your design. Covering everything from site, floor, framing, and foundation plans to building sections and elevations, this book presents crucial concepts and real-world techniques architects rely on every day. You'll learn the standards, customs, regulations, and symbols, alongside computer-generated drawings, 3D modeling, Building Information Modeling, and other architectural technology. This new fifth edition includes updated information on sustainability concepts, layering systems in line with AIA standards, deeper explorations of dimensioning, more sample ADA drawings, and a new selection of case studies that offer a real-world glimpse into how these topics relate to the architect's everyday work. Hundreds of drawings demonstrate important skills and concepts, and online ancillary materials offer a robust set of resources to students and instructors.

Architectural drawings must be precise, accurate, and complete; they must follow certain standards that make them universally understood in the proper context. This book teaches you how to produce professional-level drawings that leave no room for questions or confusion.

  • Create architectural drawings that effectively communicate your design
  • Learn techniques used in both residential and light commercial projects
  • Investigate BIM, 3D modeling, and other architectural technologies
  • Understand dimensioning, sustainability, ADA standards, and more

Architects use drawings as a second language, to effectively communicate ideas to clients, contractors, builders, and other design professionals throughout all stages of the project. The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings teaches you how to become fluent in the visual language of architecture, to communicate more effectively with all project stakeholders.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

PART I PROFESSIONAL FOUNDATIONS 1

Chapter 1 Professional Foundations 3

The Physical Office 4

Office Structure 4

Resource Library 6

Architect/Client Relationship 7

Building 13

Building Information Modeling on Building Design 15

Chapter 2 Standards and Techniques, Hand Drafting, Computer-Aided Drafting, and Metrification 17

Standards and Techniques Introduction 18

Office Standards 31

The Dimensional Reference System 35

Freehand and Hand Drafting 36

Office Standards 44

National CAD Standards 65

Metrics 66

Conclusion 73

Chapter 3 Human Concerns and Building Information Modeling (BIM) 75

Introduction 76

Human Considerations 76

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 76

Building Information Modeling (BIM) 85

Chapter 4 Sustainable/Green Architecture 93

Environmental and Human Considerations 94

Sustainable Architecture 95

Natural Impact 95

Impact of Man 104

Mold 114

Energy Sources 115

Green Architecture 119

Future of Energy Sources 119

Chapter 5 Construction Materials and Methods 123

Building Materials 124

Wood as a Material 124

Wood Floor Systems 129

Wood Wall Systems 133

Wood Roof Systems 137

Concrete 142

Steel System 151

Steel Stud Wall Framing System 155

Steel Decking Roof System 155

Light Steel Roof Framing System 155

Masonry System 156

Composite Systems and Combinations of Materials 160

Chapter 6 Initial Preparation Phase for Construction Documents 169

Guidelines for Construction Documents 170

Transitioning from Schematic Drawings to Construction Documents 171

Building Code Requirements 172

Selecting the Primary Structural System 173

Requirements of Consultants 173

Regional Considerations 174

Energy Conservation 175

Project Programming 176

Interrelationship of Drawings 176

Project Book 183

PART II DOCUMENT EVOLUTION 207

Chapter 7 Site Analysis and Site Documents 209

Introduction 210

Site Analysis Defined 210

Site Analysis Applied 212

Soils and Geology Map 216

Site Plan 217

Grading Plan 223

Site and Grading Plan 230

Drainage Plan 234

Erosion and Sediment Control Plans 235

The Utility Plan 236

Circulation Plan 236

Landscape, Irrigation, and Drainage Plans 237

Conclusion 237

Chapter 8 Floor Plan 245

Floor Plans 246

Types of Floor Plans 249

Symbols 260

Other Floor-Plan Considerations 265

Drawing a Floor Plan with a Computer 269

Case Studies: Working Drawing Development 277

Chapter 9 Foundation and Roof Plans, Floor, and Roof Framing Systems 301

Introduction 302

Types of Foundations 302

Examples 311

Summary of Typical Conventions for Foundation Plan 317

Exterior and Interior Walls 318

A Steel Structure 319

Case Studies: Working Drawing Development 322

Roof Plans and Framing Systems 333

Floor Framing 355

Case Studies: Working Drawing Development 359

Chapter 10 Building Sections 379

Building Sections Defined 380

Drafting a Building Section 383

Types of Building Sections 385

Chapter 11 Exterior and Interior Elevations 401

Exterior Elevations 402

Material Designations 412

Drafting an Exterior Elevation 419

Weatherproofing 421

Drawing an Elevation with and without a Model 423

Case Studies: Working Drawing Development 425

Interior Elevations 431

Dimensions and Intersections 440

Drafting an Interior Elevation: Examples 441

Computers and Interior Elevations 443

Evolution of a Set of Interior Elevations 443

Case Studies: Working Drawing Development 450

Chapter 12 Schedules: Door, Windows, and Finish 453

Schedules Defined 454

Pictorial Schedules: Doors and Windows 455

Interior Finish Schedules 456

Additional Schedules 459

Structural Schedules 460

CAD-Generated and Computer-Drafted Schedules 461

Schedules Using BIM 463

Chapter 13 Architectural Details and Vertical Links (Stairs/Elevators) 469

Architectural Details 470

Freehand Detail Sketches 470

PART III TENANT IMPROVEMENT, ADDITIONS AND ALTERATION, HISTORICAL RESTORATION, BIM VIA REVIT, AND INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN 505

Chapter 14 Additions/Alterations, Historical Preservation (Restoration), and Tenant Improvements 507

Additions/Alterations 508

Tenant Improvement Introduction 512

Existing Buildings 512

Existing Floor Level—Madison-B Building 512

Development of Working Drawings—Keim Building 514

Working Drawings 525

Chapter 15 BIM via Revit 537

Building Information Modeling (BIM) 538

Architectural Working Drawings 539

Floor Plan 540

Pre-Revit 544

Revit 545

Revit—Working Drawings 549

PART IV CASE STUDIES 559

Chapter 16 One-Story Conventional Wood-Framed Structures 561

Introduction 562

Design and Schematic Drawings 563

Evolution of the Working Drawings 563

Chapter 17 Construction Documents for a Two-Story, Wood-Framed Residence with BIM 585

Introduction 586

BIM-Drawn Two-Story Wood-Framed Residence 619

Chapter 18 Clay Theater—Steel/Masonry Structure; Margaux—Masonry Structure 643

Introduction 644

Conceptual Design: Site and Client Requirements for Clay Theater 644

Design Development Punch List 644

Initial Schematic Studies 644

Margaux—Masonry Building 648

Index 665

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Author Information

OSAMU A. WAKITA, HON. AIA, is a retired professor of architecture and former department chair at Los Angeles Harbor College. An award-winning educator of over 50 years, Osamu is recognized by the California Council of the American Institute of Architects as a leading authority on perspective drawing.

NAGY R. BAKHOUM is a licensed architect and principal of Obelisk Architects in Torrance, California, and a Professor of Architecture in the Los Angeles Community College system. Nagy has worked on high-end residential and commercial projects around the world, and has over 20 years of experience as an educator.

RICHARD M. LINDE, AIA, was a licensed architect and past president of the American Institute of Architects.

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