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Mechanism of Plant Hormone Signaling under Stress

ISBN: 978-1-118-88876-6
1104 pages
March 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Plant hormone signaling plays an important role in many physiological and developmental processes including stress response. With the advent of new post-genomic molecular techniques, the potential for increasing our understanding of the impact of hormone signaling on gene expression and adaptive processes has never been higher. Unlocking the molecular underpinnings of these processes shows great promise for the development of new plant biotechnologies and improved crop varieties.

The topics included in this book emphasize on genomics and functional genomics aspects, to understand the global and whole genome level changes upon particular stress conditions. With the functional genomics tools, the mechanism of phytohormone signaling and their target genes can be defined in a more systematic manner. The integrated analysis of phytohormone signaling under single or multiple stress conditions may prove exceptional to design stress tolerant crop plants in the field conditions.

Bringing together the latest advances, as well as the work being done to apply these findings to plant and crop science, Mechanism of Plant Hormone Signaling Under Stress will prove extremely useful to plant and stress biologists, plant biotechnology researchers, as well as students and teachers.

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Table of Contents

Volume I

Part I Action of Phytohormones in Stress 1

1 Auxin as a Mediator of Abiotic Stress Responses 3
Branka Salopek-Sondi, Iva Pavlovic, Ana Smolko, and Dunja Šamec ´

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Auxin: A Short Overview of Appearance, Metabolism, Transport, and Analytics 4

1.3 How Auxin Homeostasis Shifts with Diverse Abiotic Stresses 9

1.4 How Does Auxin Signaling Respond to Abiotic Stress? 13

1.5 Auxin and Redox State During Abiotic Stress 15

1.6 Auxin-Stress Hormones Crosstalk in Stress Conditions 18

1.7 Promiscuous Protein Players of Plant Adaptation: Biochemical and Structural Views 21

1.8 Conclusion 24

Acknowledgment 24

References 25

2 Mechanism of Auxin Mediated Stress Signaling in Plants 37
Lekshmy S, Krishna G.K., Jha S.K., and Sairam R.K.

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Auxin Biosynthesis, Homeostasis, and Signaling 37

2.3 Auxin Mediated Stress Responses in Model and Crop Plants 40

2.4 Regulation of Root System Architecture under Drought and Nutrient Stresses 41

2.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 45

References 46

3 Integrating the Knowledge of Auxin Homeostasis with Stress Tolerance in Plants 53
Shivani Saini, Isha Sharma, and Pratap Kumar Pati

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Auxin Biosynthesis and its Role in Plant Stress 53

3.3 Auxin Transport and its Role in Plant Stress 57

3.4 Auxin Signaling and its Role in Plant Stress 60

3.5 Auxin Conjugation and Degradation and its Role in Plant Stress 61

3.6 Conclusions 63

References 63

4 Cytokinin Signaling in Plant Response to Abiotic Stresses 71
Nguyen Binh Anh Thu, Xuan Lan Thi Hoang, Mai Thuy Truc, Saad Sulieman, Nguyen Phuong Thao, and Lam-Son Phan Tran

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 CK Metabolism 72

4.3 The Components of the CK Signaling Pathway 77

4.4 CK Signaling in Plant Responses to the Abiotic Stresses 81

4.5 Genetic Engineering of CK Content for Improvement of Plant Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses 82

4.6 Conclusions 88

Acknowledgments 88

References 88

5 Crosstalk Between Gibberellins and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Machinery in Plants 101
Ashutosh Sharan, Jeremy Dkhar, Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek, and Ashwani Pareek

5.1 Introduction 101

5.2 Gibberellins: Biosynthesis, Transport, and Signaling 102

5.3 GA Metabolism and Signaling During Abiotic Stress 106

5.4 Crosstalk between GA and Other Plant Hormones in Response to Abiotic Stresses 114

5.5 Applications in Crop Improvement 117

5.6 Conclusion 118

Acknowledgment 119

References 119

6 The Crosstalk of GA and JA: A Fine-Tuning of the Balance of Plant Growth, Development, and Defense 127
Yuge Li and Xingliang Hou

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 GA Pathway in Plants 128

6.3 JA Pathway in Plants 129

6.4 GA Antagonizes JA-Mediated Defense 131

6.5 JA Inhibits GA-Mediated Growth 133

6.6 GA and JA Synergistically Mediate Plant Development 134

6.7 Conclusions 136

Acknowledgments 136

References 136

7 Jasmonate Signaling and Stress Management in Plants 143
Sirhindi Geetika, Mushtaq Ruqia, Sharma Poonam, Kaur Harpreet, and Ahmad Mir Mudaser

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 JA Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate 144

7.3 JA Signaling Network 146

7.4 Physiological Role of JAs 151

7.5 JA Regulated Stress Responses 156

7.6 Conclusion 159

References 159

8 Mechanism of ABA Signaling in Response to Abiotic Stress in Plants 173
Ankush Ashok Saddhe, Kundan Kumar, and Padmanabh Dwivedi

8.1 Introduction 173

8.2 Signal Perception and ABA Receptors 175

8.3 Negative Regulators of ABA Signaling: Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C) 178

8.4 Positive Regulators of ABA Signaling: SnRK2 179

8.5 ABA Signaling Regulating Transcription Factor 181

8.6 Crosstalk Between Various ABA Responsive Pathways in Abiotic Stress 186

8.7 Summary and Future Prospects 187

Acknowledgments 188

Abbreviations 188

References 188

9 Abscisic Acid Signaling and Involvement of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases During Plant Abiotic Stress 197
Aryadeep Roychoudhury and Aditya Banerjee

9.1 Introduction 197

9.2 ABA Signaling in Plants 198

9.3 The Signalosome and Signaling Responses Mediated by ABA: Structural Alterations in ABA by PYR/PYL/RCAR 207

9.4 Structural Alterations During PP2C Inhibition by ABA 208

9.5 The abi1-1 Mutation Mystery Solved 208

9.6 Basic Leucine Zipper (bZIP) TFs in ABA Signaling 209

9.7 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Cascades and Regulation of Downstream Signaling 210

9.8 Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) 219

9.9 MAPK-CDPK Crosstalk 225

9.10 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 226

Acknowledgments 227

References 227

10 Abscisic Acid Activates Pathogenesis-Related Defense Gene Signaling in Lentils 243
Rebecca Ford, David Tan, Niloofar Vaghefi, and Barkat Mustafa

10.1 Plant Host Defense Mechanisms 243

10.2 Phytoalexins and Pathogenesis-Related (PR) Proteins 247

10.3 The Role of Plant Hormones in Pathogen Defense 247

10.4 The Lentil Ascochyta lentis Pathosystem 251

10.5 Key Defense-Related Genes Involved in Ascochyta lentis Defense 252

10.6 The Effect of Exogenous Hormone Treatment on PR4 and PR10 Transcription in Lentils 253

10.7 Conclusions 259

References 261

11 Signaling and Modulation of Non-Coding RNAs in plants by Abscisic Acid (ABA) 271
Raj Kumar Joshi, Swati Megha, Urmila Basu, and Nat N.V. Kav

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Biogenesis of Non-Coding RNAs in Plants 273

11.3 Mode of Action of ncRNAs in Plants 274

11.4 ABA Signaling in Plants 276

11.5 Non-Coding RNAs and ABA Response 280

11.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects 285

References 286

12 Ethylene and Stress Mediated Signaling in Plants: A Molecular Perspective 295
Priyanka Agarwal, Gitanjali Jiwani, Ashima Khurana, Pankaj Gupta, and Rahul Kumar

12.1 Introduction 295

12.2 Types of Stress 295

12.3 Overview of Stress Signaling 298

12.4 Conclusion 316

Acknowledgment 316

References 317

13 Regulatory Function of Ethylene in Plant Responses to Drought, Cold, and Salt Stresses 327
Haixia Pei, Honglin Wang, Lijuan Wang, Fangfang Zheng, and Chun-Hai Dong

13.1 Functional Roles of Ethylene in Plant Drought Tolerance 328

13.2 Ethylene Signaling in Plant Cold Tolerance 330

13.3 Ethylene Signaling and Response to Salt Stress 333

13.4 Conclusion 336

References 337

14 Plant Nitric Oxide Signaling Under Environmental Stresses 345
Ione Salgado, Halley Caixeta Oliveira, and Marília Gaspar

14.1 Introduction 345

14.2 Mechanisms of NO Action in Plants 346

14.3 The Control of NO Homeostasis in Plants 348

14.4 NO and the Response to Abiotic Stresses 351

14.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects 358

References 360

15 Cell Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants Under Abiotic Stress Conditions 371
Yuliya A. Krasylenko, Alla I. Yemets, and Yaroslav B. Blume

15.1 Introduction 371

15.2 Duality of RNS: Key Secondary Messengers in Plant Cells versus Nitrosative Stress Agents 373

15.3 Tyrosine Nitration as a Hallmark of Nitrosative Stress and Regulatory Post-Translational Modification 376

15.4 NO and Environmental Abiotic Challenges 380

15.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 388

Acknowledgments 389

References 389

16 S-Nitrosylation in Abiotic Stress in Plants and Nitric Oxide Interaction with Plant Hormones 399
Ankita Sehrawat and Renu Deswal

16.1 Introduction 399

16.2 S-Nitrosylation in Abiotic Stress 400

16.3 Nitric Oxide and Plant Hormone Interaction 407

16.4 Conclusions and Future Areas of Research 409

References 409

17 Salicylic Acid Signaling and its Role in Responses to Stresses in Plants 413
Pingzhi Zhao, Gui-Hua Lu, and Yong-Hua Yang

17.1 Introduction 413

17.2 Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism in Plants 414

17.3 Salicylic Acid: A Central Molecule in Plant Responses to Stress 417

17.4 Salicylic Acid in Relation to Other Phytohormones in Response to Plant Stress Status 427

17.5 Conclusion 429

References 429

18 Glucose and Brassinosteroid Signaling Network in Controlling Plant Growth and Development Under Different Environmental Conditions 443
Manjul Singh, Aditi Gupta, and Ashverya Laxmi

18.1 Introduction 443

18.2 Glucose Homeostasis and Signaling in Plants 444

18.3 Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis and Signaling 447

18.4 Role of Glc in Plant Adaptation to Changing Environmental Conditions 452

18.5 Role of BR in Plant Adaptation to Changing Environmental Conditions 454

18.6 Glc-BR Crosstalk and its Adaptive Significance in Plant Development 458

18.7 Conclusion and Future Perspective 459

References 459

Index 471

Volume II

Part II Interaction of Other Components with Phytohormones 1

1 Interaction between Hormone and Redox Signaling in Plants: Divergent Pathways and Convergent Roles 3
Srivastava AK, Redij T, Sharma B, and Suprasanna P

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Redox-Hormone Crosstalk in Plants 4

1.3 Auxin 4

1.4 Abscisic Acid 9

1.5 Ethylene 11

1.6 Jasmonic Acid 11

1.7 Salicylic Acid 12

1.8 Brassinosteroids 14

1.9 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 15

References 15

2 Redox Regulatory Networks in Response to Biotic Stress in Plants: A New Insight Through Chickpea-Fusarium Interplay 23
Anirban Bhar, Sumanti Gupta, Moniya Chatterjee, and Sampa Das

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Production and Scavenging of ROS: The Balance versus Perturbations 24

2.3 Role of ROS in Plants: Ease and Disease 28

2.4 Reactive Oxygen Species Networks in Plants 28

2.5 ROS Signaling in Chickpea-Fusarium Interplay 34

2.6 Concluding Remarks 36

Acknowledgments 37

References 37

3 Ca2+, The Miracle Molecule in Plant Hormone Signaling During Abiotic Stress 45
Swatismita Dhar Ray

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Intricacies of Hormonal Signaling in Abiotic Stress 46

3.3 Ca2+ Regulated Hormonal Signaling 50

3.4 Calreticulin (CRT) 67

3.5 Conclusion 67

Acknowledgment 68

Abbreviations 68

References 69

4 Phosphoglycerolipid Signaling in Response to Hormones Under Stress 91
Igor Pokotylo, Martin Janda, Tetiana Kalachova, Alain Zachowski, and Eric Ruelland

4.1 Main Players in Phosphoglycerolipid Signaling Machinery 91

4.2 Lipid Signaling, An Important Component of Plant Stress Responses 97

4.3 Involvement of Phosphoglycerolipids in Phytohormone Signaling 104

4.4 Stresses Can Affect Responses to Hormones by Altering Phosphoglycerolipid Machinery 111

4.5 Conclusion 113

Acknowledgments 113

References 113

5 The Role of the Plant Cytoskeleton in Phytohormone Signaling under Abiotic and Biotic Stresses 127
Yaroslav B. Blume, Yuliya A. Krasylenko, and Alla I. Yemets

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Phytohormone-Mediated Perception of Abiotic Factors via the Cytoskeleton 131

5.3 Cytoskeleton Regulation in Plant Interactions with Pathogens/Symbionts: Jasmonic and Salicylic Acids, and Strigolactones 162

5.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 169

Acknowledgments 169

Abbreviations 169

References 170

6 Proteins in Phytohormone Signaling Pathways for Abiotic Stress in Plants 187
Sasikiran Reddy Sangireddy, Zhujia Ye, Sarabjit Bhatti, Xiao Bo Pei, Muhammad Younas Khan Barozai, Theodore Thannhauser, and Suping Zhou

6.1 Introduction 187

6.2 Metabolic Pathways of Phytohormones and Stress-Induced Protein Expression Affecting their Biosynthesis Process 187

6.3 Proteins for Intra- and Inter-Cellular Transport of Phytohormones 190

6.4 Hormone Signaling Systems, Hormone Crosstalk, and Stress Responses 191

6.5 The Application of Proteomics in the Identification of Hormone Signaling Pathways 193

6.6 Conclusion and Prospective 194

References 194

7 Perturbation and Disruption of Plant Hormone Signaling by Organic Xenobiotic Pollution 199
Anne-Antonella Serra, Diana Alberto, Fanny Ramel, Gwenola Gouesbet, Cécile Sulmon, and Ivan Couée

7.1 Introduction 199

7.2 Plant-Hormone-Interfering Naturally-Occurring Organic Compounds Play Important Roles in the Chemical Ecology of Plants 204

7.3 Transcriptome Profiling Reveals the Wide-Ranging Molecular Effects of Plant-Organic Xenobiotic Interactions 205

7.4 The Wide-Ranging Molecular Effects of Plant-Organic Xenobiotic Interactions Emphasize the Involvement of Regulatory Processes 206

7.5 Specifically Designed Organic Xenobiotics Directly Interact with Plant Hormone Systems 209

7.6 Organic Xenobiotics Can Cause Biological Effects that Interfere with Plant Hormone Dynamics and Signaling 210

7.7 The Diversity of Organic Xenobiotic Occurrences in Environmental Pollutions Can Induce Plant Hormone Perturbations in Non-Target Plant Communities 212

7.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 214

Acknowledgments 214

Abbreviations 214

References 214

8 Plant Hormone Signaling Mediates Plant Growth Plasticity in Response to Metal Stress 223
Xiangpei Kong, Huiyu Tian, and Zhaojun Ding

8.1 Introduction 223

8.2 Cadmium (Cd) 224

8.3 Aluminum (Al) 226

8.4 Other Metals 228

Acknowledgments 229

References 229

Part III Transcriptional Regulators of Phytohormones 237

9 Transcription Factors and Hormone-Mediated Mechanisms Regulate Stomata Development and Responses Under Abiotic Stresses: An Overview 239
Marco Landi, Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, and Claudio Pugliesi

9.1 Introduction 239

9.2 Stomata Development 240

9.3 Stomatal Response to Drought/Salinity and Waterlogging/Anoxia Constraints 253

9.3.1 Root-to-Shoot Communication 253

9.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 262

Acknowledgments 264

References 264

10 Convergence of Stress-Induced Hormone Signaling Pathways on a Transcriptional Co-Factor 285
Nidhi Dwivedi, Vinay Kumar, and Jitendra K. Thakur

10.1 Introduction 285

10.2 Mediator Complex 286

10.3 Role of Mediator in Transcription 289

10.4 Flexibility of Mediator 290

10.5 Phytohormone Signaling Under Stress 291

10.6 Effect of Hormone and Stress on the Expression of Mediator Subunit Genes 293

10.7 Involvement of Specific Mediator Subunits in Hormone Signaling and Stress Response 295

10.8 Convergence of Signaling Pathways on the Mediator Complex 303

10.9 Conclusion 304

Acknowledgment 305

References 305

11 Micro-Regulators of Hormones and Stress 319
Neha Sharma, Deepti Mittal, and Neeti-Sanan Mishra

11.1 Introduction 319

11.2 Plant microRNAs 320

11.3 Role of miRs in Hormone Signaling 325

11.4 miR Mediated Regulation of Abiotic Stress 332

11.5 Conclusions and Perspectives 335

References 336

Part IV Involvement of Multiple Phytohormones in Stress Responses 353

12 Signal Transduction Components in Guard Cells During Stomatal Closure by Plant Hormones and Microbial Elicitors 355
Srinivas Agurla, Gunja Gayatri, and Agepati S. Raghavendra

12.1 Introduction 355

12.2 Compounds or Signals that Regulate Stomatal Function 356

12.3 Guard Cell Turgor and Stomatal Closure: Ion Fluxes as the Basis 360

12.4 Experimental Approaches to Studying Signaling Components 360

12.5 Sensing Systems in Guard Cells 361

12.6 Signaling Components in Guard Cells 363

12.7 Validation with Arabidopsis Mutants 372

12.8 Concluding Remarks 374

Acknowledgments 375

References 375

13 Plants’ Defense and Survival Strategies versus Pathogens’ Anti-Defense and Infection Capabilities: The Hormone-Based Mechanisms 389
Pranav Pankaj Sahu, Namisha Sharma, and Manoj Prasad

13.1 Introduction 389

13.2 Modulation of Hormone Signaling Networks by Pathogens for Virulence 390

13.3 Alteration of the Hormone Signaling Network by Plants for Disease Resistance 400

13.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 405

Acknowledgment 405

References 405

14 Exploring Crossroads Between Seed Development and Stress Response 415
Sushma Naithani, Hiro Nonogaki, and Pankaj Jaiswal

14.1 Introduction 415

14.2 Genes, Proteins, and Pathways Involved in Seed Development 419

14.3 Genes at the Intersection of Seed Development and Stress Response 424

14.4 Exploring Bioinformatics Resources 425

14.5 Insights and Future Prospects 441

Acknowledgments 444

References 444

15 Role of Multiple Phytohormones in Regulating Stress Responses in Plants 455
Diwaker Tripathi, Bal Krishna Chand Thakuri, and Dhirendra Kumar

15.1 Introduction 455

15.2 Biotic Stress 456

15.3 Role of Hormones in Abiotic Stress 461

15.4 Interaction of SA with other Stress Hormones 466

15.5 SA/ABA Antagonism 467

15.6 Future Perspective and Challenges 467

Acknowledgments 468

References 468

16 Phytohormones and Drought Stress: Plant Responses to Transcriptional Regulation 477
Neha Pandey, Zahra Iqbal, Bhoopendra K. Pandey, and Samir V. Sawant

16.1 Introduction 477

16.2 Phytohormones: Role in Plant Growth and Development 479

16.3 Plant Hormonal Response to Stress Conditions 481

16.4 Hormonal Mediated Transcriptional Response to Stress Conditions 488

16.5 Phytohormone Mediated Signaling Response Under Stress Conditions 490

16.6 Significance of Phytohormones in Plant Genetic Engineering 493

16.7 Conclusion 493

References 493

17 Mechanisms of Hormone Signaling in Plants Under Abiotic and Biotic Stresses 505
Jogeswar Panigrahi, and Gyana Ranjan Rout

17.1 Introduction 505

17.2 Role of Hormones in Plant Growth and Development 506

17.3 Common Tenets in Hormone Signaling in Plants Under Abiotic and Biotic Stress 507

17.4 Role of ROS in Hormone Signaling Pathways 509

17.5 Role of MAPK in Hormone Signaling Pathways 511

17.6 Role of Jasmonic Acid and Cytokinin on Hormone Signaling Pathways 515

17.7 Role of Brassinosteroids on Hormone Signaling Pathways 516

17.8 The Crosstalk of Hormones and Hormone-Like Substances in Plants under Abiotic and Biotic Stress Responses 518

17.9 Conclusion 520

References 521

18 Transgenic Approaches to Improve Crop Productivity via Phytohormonal Research: A Focus on the Mechanisms of Phytohormone Action 533
Brijesh Gupta, Rohit Joshi, Ashwani Pareek, and Sneh L. Singla-Pareek

18.1 Introduction 533

18.2 Phytohormones and Crop Yield: Approaches and Vision for Genetic Improvement 535

18.3 Manipulation of Phytohormone Levels in Transgenic Plants to Improve Crop Productivity 541

18.4 Phytohormonal Crosstalks to Enhance Crop Productivity 550

18.5 Conclusion and Future Directions 552

Acknowledgments 553

References 554

Index 569

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Author Information

About the Editor
Girdhar K. Pandey, Professor, Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi, India

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