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Intelligent Transport Systems: Technologies and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-118-89478-1
368 pages
December 2015
Intelligent Transport Systems: Technologies and Applications (1118894782) cover image

Description

The book provides a systematic overview of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). First, it includes an insight into the reference architectures developed within the main EU research projects. Then, it delves into each of the layers of such architectures, from physical to application layer, describing the technological issues which are being currently faced by some of the most important ITS research groups. The book concludes with some end user services and applications deployed by industrial partners.

This book is a well-balanced combination of academic contributions and industrial applications in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems. The most representative technologies and research results achieved by some of the most relevant research groups working on ITS, collated to show the chances of generating industrial solutions  to be deployed in real transportation environments.

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Table of Contents

About the Editors xv

List of Contributors xvii

Foreword xxiii

Acknowledgements xxxii

Part 1 Intelligent Transportation Systems 1

1 Reference ITS Architectures in Europe 3
Begoña Molinete, Sergio Campos, Ignacio (Iñaki) Olabarrieta and Ana Isabel Torre

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 FRAME: The European ITS Framework Architecture 3

1.2.1 Background 4

1.2.2 Scope 5

1.2.3 Methodology and Content 6

1.3 Cooperative Systems and Their Impact on the European ITS Architecture Definition 7

1.3.1 Research Projects and Initiatives 7

1.3.2 Pilots and Field Operational Tests 8

1.3.3 European Policy and Standardization Framework 9

1.3.4 Impact on FRAME Architecture 9

1.4 Experiences in ITS Architecture Design 10

1.4.1 Cybercars‐2: Architecture Design for a Cooperative Cybernetics Transport System 10

1.4.2 MoveUs Cloud‐Based Platform Architecture 13

References 17

2 Architecture Reference of ITS in the USA 18
Clifford D. Heise

2.1 Introduction 18

2.2 National ITS Architecture in the USA 19

2.3 Origins of ITS Architecture in the USA 19

2.4 US National ITS Architecture Definition 20

2.4.1 The Development Process 20

2.4.2 User Services 22

2.4.3 Logical Architecture 22

2.4.4 Physical Architecture 23

2.4.5 Services 25

2.4.6 Standards Mapping 25

2.5 Impact on ITS Development in USA 26

2.5.1 Architecture and Standards Regulation 27

2.5.2 ITS Planning 28

2.5.3 ITS Project Development 29

2.5.4 Tools 32

2.6 Evolution of the National ITS Architecture 34

References 35

Part 2 Wireless Vehicular Communications 37

3 Wireless Communications in Vehicular Environments 39
Pekka Eloranta and Timo Sukuvaara

3.1 Background and History of Vehicular Networking 39

3.2 Vehicular Networking Approaches 46

3.3 Vehicular Ad‐hoc Networking 48

3.3.1 Vehicle‐to‐infrastructure Communication 50

3.3.2 Vehicle‐to‐vehicle Communication 51

3.3.3 Combined Vehicle‐to‐vehicle and Vehicle‐to‐infrastructure Communication 52

3.3.4 Hybrid Vehicular Network 53

3.3.5 LTE and Liquid Applications 54

References 55

4 The Case for Wireless Vehicular Communications Supported by Roadside Infrastructure 57
Tiago Meireles, José Fonseca and Joaquim Ferreira

4.1 Introduction 57

4.1.1 Rationale for Infrastructure‐based Vehicle Communications for Safety Applications 59

4.2 MAC Solutions for Safety Applications in Vehicular Communications 61

4.2.1 Infrastructure‐based Collision‐free MAC Protocols 63

4.2.2 RT‐WiFi – TDMA Layer 65

4.2.3 Vehicular Deterministic Access (VDA) 65

4.2.4 Self‐organizing TDMA (STDMA) 66

4.2.5 MS‐Aloha 66

4.3 Vehicular Flexible Time‐triggered Protocol 68

4.3.1 Model for RSU Deployment in Motorways 68

4.3.2 RSU Infrastructure Window (IW) 69

4.3.3 V‐FTT Protocol Overview 71

4.3.4 Synchronous OBU Window (SOW) 74

4.4 V‐FTT Protocol Details 75

4.4.1 Trigger Message Size 75

4.4.2 Synchronous OBU Window Length (lsow) 77

4.4.3 V‐FTT Protocol Using IEEE 802.11p/WAVE / ITS G‐5 78

4.5 Conclusions 80

References 81

5 Cyber Security Risk Analysis for Intelligent Transport Systems and In‐vehicle Networks 83
Alastair R. Ruddle and David D. Ward

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Automotive Cyber Security Vulnerabilities 84

5.2.1 Information Security 85

5.2.2 Electromagnetic Vulnerabilities 85

5.3 Standards and Guidelines 86

5.3.1 Risk Analysis Concepts 86

5.3.2 Functional Safety Standards 87

5.3.3 IT Security Standards 87

5.3.4 Combining Safety and Security Analysis 88

5.4 Threat Identification 88

5.4.1 Use Cases 88

5.4.2 Security Actors 89

5.4.3 Dark‐side Scenarios and Attack Trees 90

5.4.4 Identifying Security Requirements 93

5.5 Unified Analysis of Security and Safety Risks 93

5.5.1 Severity Classification 93

5.5.2 Probability Classification 95

5.5.3 Controllability Classification 95

5.5.4 Risk Classification 95

5.5.5 Evaluating Risk from Attack Trees 97

5.5.6 Prioritizing Security Functional Requirements 100

5.5.7 Security Assurance and Safety Integrity Requirements 101

5.6 Cyber Security Risk Management 102

5.7 Conclusions 103

Acknowledgements 104

References 104

6 Vehicle Interaction with Electromagnetic Fields and Implications for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Development 107
Lester Low and Alastair R. Ruddle

6.1 Introduction 107

6.2 In‐vehicle EM Field Investigation and Channel Characterization 109

6.3 Field Simulation Tools and Techniques 112

6.4 In‐vehicle EM Field Measurement 116

6.5 Simulation of Field Distribution and Antenna Placement Optimization 118

6.6 Occupant Field Exposure and Possible Field Mitigation Methods 122

6.6.1 Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields 122

6.6.2 Field Mitigation Methods 125

6.7 Conclusions 127

Acknowledgements 128

References 128

7 Novel In‐car Integrated and Roof‐mounted Antennas 131
Rus Leelaratne†

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Antennas for Broadcast Radio 132

7.2.1 Roof‐mounted Radio Antennas 132

7.2.2 Hidden Glass Antennas 134

7.2.3 Hidden and Integrated Antennas 136

7.3 Antennas for Telematics 137

7.3.1 Roof‐mounted Telematics Antennas 137

7.3.2 Hidden Telematics Antennas 140

7.3.3 Future Trend of Telematics Antennas 141

7.4 Antennas for Intelligent Transportation Systems 141

7.4.1 Car2Car Communication Antennas 141

7.4.2 Emergency Call (E‐Call) Antennas 143

7.4.3 Other ITS Antennas 144

7.5 Intelligent and Smart Antennas 145

7.5.1 Intelligent Antenna for Broadcast Radio 145

7.5.2 Intelligent Antenna for GNSS 146

7.6 Conclusions 147

References 147

Part 3 Sensors Networks and Surveillance at ITS 149

8 Middleware Solution to Support ITS Services in IoT‐based Visual Sensor Networks 151
Matteo Petracca, Claudio Salvadori, Andrea Azzarà, Daniele Alessandrelli, Stefano Bocchino, Luca Maggiani and Paolo Pagano

8.1 Introduction 151

8.2 Visual Sensor Networks and IoT Protocols 153

8.2.1 Visual Sensor Networks 153

8.2.2 Internet of Things 156

8.3 Proposed Middleware Architecture for IoT‐based VSNs 158

8.3.1 RESTful Web Service 159

8.3.2 Configuration Manager 160

8.3.3 Resource Processing Engine 160

8.4 Middleware Instantiation for the Parking Lot Monitoring Use Case 161

8.4.1 Use Case Scenario, Exposed Resources and Their Interaction 161

8.4.2 Middleware Implementation 163

8.5 Conclusions 164

References 165

9 Smart Cameras for ITS in Urban Environment 167
Massimo Magrini, Davide Moroni, Gabriele Pieri and Ovidio Salvetti

9.1 Introduction 167

9.2 Applications to Urban Scenarios 169

9.3 Embedded Vision Nodes 171

9.3.1 Features of Available Vision Nodes 172

9.3.2 Computer Vision on Embedded Nodes 173

9.4 Implementation of Computer Vision Logics on Embedded Systems for ITS 175

9.4.1 Traffic Status and Level of Service 175

9.4.2 Parking Monitoring 178

9.5 Sensor Node Prototype 180

9.5.1 The Vision Board 181

9.5.2 The Networking Board 182

9.5.3 The Sensor 182

9.5.4 Energy Harvesting and Housing 182

9.5.5 The Board Layout 183

9.6 Application Scenarios and Experimental Results 184

9.7 Conclusions 185

References 187

Part 4 Data Processing Techniques at ITS 189

10 Congestion Prediction by Means of Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms 191
Xiao Zhang, Enrique Onieva, Victor C.S. Lee and Kai Liu

10.1 Introduction 191

10.2 Hierarchical Fuzzy Rule‐based System (HFRBS) 193

10.3 Genetic Hierarchical Fuzzy Rule‐based System (GHFRBS) 194

10.3.1 Triple Coding Scheme 194

10.3.2 Genetic Operators 196

10.3.3 Chromosome Evaluation 197

10.3.4 Mechanism and Characteristics of the Algorithm Framework 197

10.4 Dataset Configuration and Simplification 197

10.5 Experimentation 199

10.5.1 Experimental Setup 199

10.5.2 Results 199

10.5.3 Analysis of the Results 201

10.6 Conclusions 202

Acknowledgment 203

References 203

11 Vehicle Control in ADAS Applications: State of the Art 206
Joshué Pérez, David Gonzalez and Vicente Milanés

11.1 Introduction 206

11.2 Vehicle Control in ADAS Application 206

11.3 Control Levels 207

11.4 Some Previous Works 208

11.5 Key Factor for Vehicle Control in the Market 210

11.6 ADAS Application From a Control Perspective 211

11.6.1 Lane Change Assistant Systems 212

11.6.2 Pedestrian Safety Systems 212

11.6.3 Forward‐looking Systems 213

11.6.4 Adaptive Light Control 213

11.6.5 Park Assistant 214

11.6.6 Night Vision Systems 215

11.6.7 Cruise Control System 215

11.6.8 Traffic Sign and Traffic Light Recognition 215

11.6.9 Map Supported Systems 216

11.6.10 Vehicle Interior Observation 217

11.7 Conclusions 217

References 218

12 Review of Legal Aspects Relating to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems 220
Alastair R. Ruddle and Lester Low

12.1 Introduction 220

12.2 Vehicle Type Approval 221

12.3 Trends in Vehicle Automation 223

12.3.1 EU Policy 223

12.3.2 Brake Assist Systems 223

12.3.3 Advanced Vehicle Systems 225

12.3.4 Advanced Driving Assistance Systems 226

12.3.5 Categorization of Vehicle Automation Levels 227

12.4 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic 227

12.4.1 Implications for Driving Assistance Systems 230

12.4.2 Proposed Amendments 231

12.4.3 Implications for Autonomous Driving 233

12.5 Liability Issues 234

12.5.1 Identifying Responsibilities 234

12.5.2 Event Data Recorders 236

12.6 Best Practice for Complex Systems Development 237

12.6.1 Safety Case 238

12.6.2 Safety Development Processes 239

12.6.3 ECWVTA Requirements 240

12.6.4 Cyber Security Issues 241

12.7 Conclusions 242

Acknowledgements 243

References 243

Part 5 Applications and Services for Users and Traffic Managers 247

13 Traffic Management Systems 249
António Amador, Rui Dias, Tiago Dias and Tomé Canas

13.1 Introduction 249

13.1.1 Objectives 249

13.1.2 Traffic Management 250

13.1.3 Traffic Environments 251

13.2 Traffic Management Framework 253

13.2.1 Inputs 255

13.2.2 Analysis 260

13.2.3 Outputs 265

13.3 Key Stakeholders 266

13.4 Traffic Management Centres 266

13.4.1 Scope 267

13.4.2 Operation Platforms 268

13.5 Conclusions 270

References 271

14 The Use of Cooperative ITS in Urban Traffic Management 272
Sadko Mandžuka, Edouard Ivanjko, Miroslav Vujić, Pero Škorput and Martin Gregurić

14.1 Introduction 272

14.2 Cooperative Ramp Metering 274

14.2.1 Ramp Metering 275

14.2.2 Cooperation between Local Ramp Meters 277

14.2.3 Cooperation between Ramp Metering and Other Traffic Management Systems 278

14.3 Incident Management in Urban Areas 280

14.4 Public Transport Cooperative Priorities 284

14.5 Conclusions 287

Acknowledgment 287

References 288

15 Methodology for an Intelligent in‐Car Traffic Information Management System 289
Nerea Aguiriano, Alfonso Brazalez and Luis Matey

15.1 Introduction 289

15.2 Validation Framework 291

15.3 HMI Design Methodology 292

15.3.1 Signal Model 295

15.3.2 Interpretation Model 296

15.3.3 Representation Model 302

15.4 Case Study 305

15.4.1 Signal Model for Received Messages 305

15.4.2 Interpretation Model 306

15.4.3 Representation Model 310

15.5 Conclusions 311

References 311

16 New Approaches in User Services Development for Multimodal Trip Planning 313
Asier Moreno, Itziar Salaberria and Diego López‐de‐Ipiña

16.1 Introduction 313

16.1.1 Multimodal Transport 314

16.1.2 Travel User Services 315

16.2 Travel Planning Information Systems 316

16.2.1 Standard Travel Planning Services 316

16.2.2 Transit Information Formats and Standards 319

16.2.3 New Trends in Transit Information 320

16.3 Integrating Linked Open Data for Multimodal Transportation 321

16.3.1 Related Work 323

16.3.2 Management and Provision of Multimodal Transport Semantic Information 324

16.4 Conclusions 328

References 329

Index 331

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