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The Effects of Sound on People

ISBN: 978-1-118-89568-9
208 pages
March 2016
The Effects of Sound on People (1118895681) cover image

Description

Provides a summary of current research results on the physiological and psychological effects of sound on people

  • Covers how the operation of the hearing mechanism affects our reactions to sounds
  • Includes research results from studies on noise sources of public concern such as transportation, public utility, and recreational sources, with emphasis on low frequency sound and infrasound
  • Covers sounds that affect some but not others, how sounds can be controlled on a practical level, and how and what sounds are regulated
  • Includes coverage of both positive and negative effects of sound
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Table of Contents

List of Figures xi

List of Tables xiv

About the Author xv

Series Preface xvi

Preface xvii

1 Acoustic Parameters 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Sound generation 1

1.2.1 Frequency 2

1.2.2 Wavelength 4

1.3 Sound Propagation 5

1.3.1 Unimpeded divergence 6

1.3.2 Impeded Propagation 7

Reflection 8

Refraction 8

Diffraction 9

Diffusion 10

1.3.3 Sound Behavior Indoors 10

Echo 11

Room modes 11

Reverberation 13

1.3.4 Sound Behavior Outdoors 14

Atmospheric absorption 14

Atmospheric refraction 15

Ground effects 16

Vegetation effects 17

References 18

2 Sound Description 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 The Decibel Scale 19

2.3 Frequency Weighting Networks 21

2.3.1 Loudness 21

2.3.2 Weighting scales 24

2.4 Frequency Band Analysis 26

2.4.1 Noise by color 28

2.5 Common Sound Descriptors 29

2.5.1 Environmental descriptors 29

2.5.2 Sound propagation in terms of sound levels 32

Divergence 32

Refraction and diffraction 33

Reverberation 33

Sound fields 34

References 35

3 Sound Perception 36

3.1 Introduction 36

3.2 Human Hearing Apparatus and mechanism 36

3.2.1 Outer ear 37

3.2.2 Middle ear 38

3.2.3 Inner ear 40

3.2.4 Signal processing in the brain 44

Localization 44

Masking and audibility 45

3.2.5 Vestibular system 46

3.3 Alternate Sound Perception Mechanisms 47

3.3.1 Bone conduction 47

3.3.2 Cartilage hearing 47

3.3.3 Tinnitus 48

3.3.4 Electromagnetic hearing 48

3.4 Hypersensitivities 49

3.4.1 Hyperacusis/misophonia 50

3.4.2 Electrohypersensitivity 50

3.5 Low‐frequency and Infrasound Perception 51

References 53

4 Physiological Effects of Sound Exposure 57

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Body Resonance and Damage Potential 57

4.3 Hearing Loss 59

4.3.1 Presbycusis 59

4.3.2 Noise‐induced Hearing Loss 61

4.3.3 Hearing Loss from Illness or Agents 65

4.4 Cardiovascular Disease 66

4.4.1 Hypertension 68

4.4.2 Ischemic Diseases 70

4.5 Vibroacoustic Disease 71

4.6 Low‐frequency Noise Concerns 72

4.7 Infrasound Concerns 74

References 76

5 Psychological Effects of Sound Exposure 81

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Annoyance 81

5.3 Stress 85

5.4 Sleep Disturbance 86

5.5 Learning Disabilities 89

5.5.1 Cognitive Development/School Performance 91

5.5.2 Office/Occupational 93

5.6 Emotional Effects 96

References 97

6 Sound Sources Associated with Negative Effects 102

6.1 Introduction 102

6.2 Transportation Sources 102

6.2.1 Roadway Traffic 104

6.2.2 Aircraft 106

Fixed wing 107

Rotary wing 108

6.2.3 Rail 109

6.3 Industry and Utilities 109

6.3.1 Power Plants 110

6.3.2 Wind Farms 111

6.3.3 Electrical Power Systems 116

6.4 Personal/Recreational Sources 116

6.4.1 Firearms 117

6.4.2 Public performances 117

6.4.3 Toys/personal Listening Devices 118

6.4.4 Appliances/Tools 119

6.5 Hums 119

6.6 Acoustic Weapons 121

References 122

7 Positive Effects of Sound 126

7.1 Introduction 126

7.2 Music Psychology 126

7.3 Sound Therapies 129

7.4 Natural Sources/Soundscapes 130

7.5 Using Sound to Influence People 133

References 136

8 Sound Control and Regulation 140

8.1 Introduction 140

8.2 Sound Control Fundamentals 140

8.2.1 Absorption 141

8.2.2 Transmission Control 143

8.2.3 Partial Barriers 149

8.2.4 Cancellation 152

8.2.5 Control at the Source 153

8.2.6 Control in the Path between the Source and Listener 154

8.2.7 Control at the Listener 156

Acoustic Privacy 157

8.3 Regulations and Guidelines 158

8.3.1 Occupational 159

8.3.2 Environmental 161

National 161

Local 165

8.4 Current and Future Research 166

References 167

Glossary 169

Index 181

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