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Aquaculture Nutrition: Gut Health, Probiotics and Prebiotics

Daniel L. Merrifield (Editor), Einar Ringo (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-89727-0
488 pages
August 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Aquaculture Nutrition: Gut Health, Probiotics and Prebiotics (1118897277) cover image

Description

Manipulation of the microbial gut content of farmed fishes and crustaceans can have a marked effect on their general health, growth, and quality. Expertly covering the science behind the use of prebiotics and probiotics this landmark book explains how the correct manipulation of the gut flora of farmed fishes and crustaceans can have a positive effect on their health, growth rates, feed utilization, and general wellbeing.

Aquaculture Nutrition: Gut Health, Probiotics and Prebiotics provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of the gut microbiomes of fish and their importance with respect to host-fish health and performance, providing  in-depth, cutting-edge fundamental and applied information.

Written by many of the world’s leading authorities and edited by Dr Daniel Merrifield and Professor Einar Ringø, this important book discusses in detail the common mechanisms for modulating microbiomes, particularly at the gut level (e.g. probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics). The book is a key resource for an understanding of the historical development of these products, their known mechanisms of action and their degree of efficacy as presently demonstrated in the literature.

The fundamental material provided on the gut microbiota itself, and more broad aspects of microbe-live feed interactions, provide essential reading for researchers, academics and students in the areas of aquaculture nutrition, fish veterinary science, microbiology, aquaculture, fish biology and fisheries. Those involved in the development and formulation of aquaculture feeds and those with broader roles within the aquaculture industry will find a huge wealth of commercially-important information within the book’s covers. All libraries in universities and research establishments where biological sciences, nutrition and aquaculture are studied and taught, should have copies of this excellent book on their shelves.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

1 The Gastrointestinal Tract of Fish 1
Arun Kumar Ray and Einar Ringo

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Anatomy of GI tract 2

1.3 Stomach and intestinal bulb 3

1.4 Pyloric caeca 5

1.5 Intestine 6

1.6 Endogenous inputs of digestive secreta 9

1.7 Luminal pH 10

1.8 Passage rate and residence time 10

1.9 Acknowledgements 10

2 Immune Defences of Teleost Fish 14
Andrew Foey and Simona Picchietti

2.1 Introduction 14

2.2 Innate immunity 15

2.3 Antigen-specific adaptive immunity 18

2.4 Cytokines drive immune responsiveness 22

2.5 Immune tissues 23

2.6 Mucosal immunity 32

2.7 Common pathogens infecting teleosts: what immune responses are required? 36

2.8 Future considerations 39

2.9 Conclusion 40

3 Gastrointestinal Pathogenesis in Aquatic Animals 53
Jarl Bogwald and Roy Ambli Dalmo

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Vibrio spp. 54

3.3 Aeromonas spp. 61

3.4 Yersinia ruckeri 63

3.5 Edwardsiella spp. 63

3.6 Piscirickettsia salmonis 64

3.7 Pseudomonas anguilliseptica 65

3.8 Photobacterium damsela subsp. Piscicida (Pasteurella Piscicida) 65

3.9 Streptococcosis 66

3.10 'Candidatus arthromitus' 66

3.11 Mycobacterium spp. 66

3.12 Conclusion 68

4 The Gut Microbiota of Fish 75
Jaime Romero, Einar Ringo and Daniel L. Merrifield

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 The importance of the microbiota 84

4.3 Composition of the microbiota in early life stages 86

4.4 Factors that influence microbiota composition 88

4.5 Conclusion 93

5 Methodological Approaches Used to Assess Fish Gastrointestinal Communities 101
Zhigang Zhou, Bin Yao, Jaime Romero, Paul Waines, Einar Ringo, Matthew Emery, Mark R. Liles and Daniel L. Merrifield

5.1 Culture-dependent approaches 102

5.2 Molecular techniques 106

5.3 Fluorescence based methods 115

5.4 Electron microscopy 115

5.5 Microbial activity and functionality 117

5.6 Summary 120

5.7 Acknowledgements 120

6 Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fish and Crustaceans 128
Daniel L. Merrifield, Jose Luis Balcazar, Carly Daniels, Zhigang Zhou, Oliana Carnevali, Yun-Zhang Sun, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar and Einar Ringo

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 Lactic acid bacteria 130

6.3 Salmonidae 130

6.4 Gadidae 141

6.5 Clupeidae 143

6.6 Anarhichadidae 143

6.7 Acipenseridae 143

6.8 Percidae and sciaenidae 144

6.9 Moronidae 145

6.10 Sparidae 145

6.11 Pleuronectiformes 146

6.12 Cyprinidae 146

6.13 Channidae 149

6.14 Siluriformes 150

6.15 Cichlidae 150

6.16 Serranidae 151

6.17 Rachycentridae 151

6.18 Mugilidae 152

6.19 Coastal Fish 152

6.20 Shellfish 153

6.21 Summary 156

7 Probiotics and Prebiotics: Concepts, Definitions and History 169
Helene L. Lauzon, Arkadios Dimitroglou, Daniel L. Merrifield, Einar Ringo and Simon J. Davies

7.1 Introduction 169

7.2 The probiotic concept and history 170

7.3 The prebiotic concept and definition 174

7.4 Synbiotics 180

7.5 Summary 180

8 Probiotic Modulation of the Gut Microbiota of Fish 185
Daniel L. Merrifield and Oliana Carnevali

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Bacillus spp. 187

8.3 Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) 192

8.4 Other probionts 206

8.5 Probiotic colonization? 210

8.6 Conclusion and future perspectives 213

8.7 Acknowledgements 214

9 Probiotic Applications in ColdWater Fish Species 223
Helene L. Lauzon, Tania Perez-Sanchez, Daniel L. Merrifield, Einar Ringo and Jose Luis Balcazar

9.1 Introduction 223

9.2 Salmonidae 225

9.3 Gadidae 234

9.4 Pleuronectiformes 240

9.5 Percidae 245

9.6 Conclusion 245

10 Probiotic Applications in Temperate and Warm Water Fish Species 253
Oliana Carnevali, Yun-Zhang Sun, Daniel L. Merrifield, Zhigang Zhou and Simona Picchietti

10.1 Introduction 253

10.2 European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) 255

10.3 Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) 258

10.4 Probiotic applications in sole spp. 262

10.5 Groupers 266

10.6 Tilapia 269

10.7 Carps 272

10.8 Zebrafish (danio rerio) 275

10.9 Catfishes 277

10.10 General conclusions 279

11 Probiotic Applications in Crustaceans 290
Mathieu Castex, Carly Daniels and Liet Chim

11.1 Introduction 290

11.2 Main microorganisms evaluated and used as probiotics in crustacean aquaculture 293

11.3 Probiotic modes of action 300

11.4 Related benefits in crustacean aquaculture 308

11.5 Conclusion 318

12 Can Probiotics Affect Reproductive Processes of Aquatic Animals? 328
Giorgia Gioacchini, Elisabetta Giorgini, Lisa Vaccari and Oliana Carnevali

12.1 Introduction 328

12.2 The fish reproductive system 329

12.3 Broodstock reproductive dysfunctions 331

12.4 Reproduction and metabolism 332

12.5 The effects of probiotic applications on fish reproduction 333

12.6 Concluding remarks 341

12.7 Acknowledgements 341

References 341

13 Issues with Industrial Probiotic Scale-up 347
Mathieu Castex, Henri Durand and Bernadette Okeke

13.1 Introduction 347

13.2 Scaling-up guidelines 349

13.3 Mode of administration 354

13.4 Probiotic registration 357

14 Prebiotics in Finfish: An Update 360
Einar Ringo, Arkadios Dimitroglou, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar and Simon J. Davies

14.1 Introduction 360

14.2 Salmonidae 361

14.3 Gadoids 365

14.4 Acipenseridae 365

14.5 Cyprinidae 369

14.6 Siluriformes 376

14.7 Moronidae 378

14.8 Sparidae 380

14.9 Cichlidae 384

14.10 Sciaenidae 384

14.11 Other fish species 387

14.12 Synbiotics 389

14.13 Concluding remarks and further perspectives 393

15 Prebiotic Applications in Shellfish 401
Carly Daniels and Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar

15.1 Introduction 401

15.2 Use of prebiotics in shellfish aquaculture 402

15.3 Prebiotic benefits 409

15.4 Conclusion 414

16 Live Feeds: Microbial Assemblages, Probiotics and Prebiotics 419
Jose Pintado, Miquel Planas and Pavlos Makridis

16.1 Introduction 419

16.2 Bacterial aspects of live feed 421

16.3 Bacterial control of live feed cultures 424

16.4 Enrichment of live feed and microbial implications 425

16.5 Probiotics in live feed production 425

16.6 Bioencapsulation of probiotics in live food and delivery to larvae 430

16.7 Prebiotics and synbiotics in live feed 435

16.8 Conclusions and future perspectives 436

References 437

Index 443

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Author Information

Daniel Merrifield is a Lecturer in Aquatic Biosciences at Plymouth University, UK. His research specialises on fish-microbe interactions and gut health, within the context of aquaculture and fish production. He has published over 50 peer-reviewed papers on the gut microbiomes of fish and associated applications for fortifying these microbial communities, in order to improve the health, welfare and growth performance of important farmed fish species and model organisms.

Einar Ringø is a Professor at the Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway. He is the author of numerous journal articles, reviews and book chapters. He received his M.S. degree (1982) in microbiology from the University of Tromsø and his Ph.D. degree (1994) in microbiology and lipid nutrition from the University of Tromsø.

 

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Reviews

“The book presents key, up to date information about the gut microbiota of aquatic animals, how they may be studied and about the possible applications of probiotics and prebiotics in aquaculture.  The book’s main advantage is that the information is collated within a single volume, so Aquaculture Nutrition: Gut health, probiotics and prebiotics is likely to find a niche as a source of reference that will be used by fish nutritionists and other aquaculture professionals.”  (Aquaculture International, 10 December 2014)

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