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Sustainable Surface Water Management: A Handbook for SUDS

ISBN: 978-1-118-89768-3
432 pages
September 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Sustainable Surface Water Management: a handbook for SUDS addresses issues as diverse as flooding, water quality, amenity and biodiversity but also mitigation of, and adaptation to, global climate change, human health benefits and reduction in energy use. Chapters are included to cover issues from around the world, but they also address particular designs associated with the implementation of SUDS in tropical areas, problems with retrofitting SUDS devices, SUDS modelling, water harvesting in drought-stricken countries using SUDS and the inclusion of SUDS in the climate change strategies of such cities as Tokyo, New York and Strasbourg.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xv

About the Editors xix

Section 1 Introduction to the Book 1

Chapter 1 An Overture of Sustainable Surface Water Management 3
Colin A. Booth and Susanne M. Charlesworth

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Surface Water Management 3

1.3 Sustainable Surface Water Management 5

1.4 Organisation of the Book 5

References 9

Section 2 Sustainable Surface Water Management in Context 11

Chapter 2 Back to the Future? History and Contemporary Application of Sustainable Drainage Techniques 13
Susanne M. Charlesworth, Luis Angel Sañudo Fontaneda and Larry W. Mays

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 ‘Sustainability’? 14

2.3 Rainwater Harvesting in Antiquity 15

2.4 Water Quality Improvement 19

2.5 Water Quantity Reduction: Sub?-Surface Drainage 23

2.6 Water Storage 24

2.7 Reduction in Water Demand: Greywater Recycling 24

2.8 Reducing Water Velocity 25

2.9 Non?-Structural Approaches to Sustainable Water Management 26

2.10 Conclusions 28

References 28

Chapter 3 Surface Water Strategy, Policy and Legislation 31
Frank Warwick

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Legislative Hierarchies 32

3.3 Case Study – The United Kingdom 33

3.4 Comparison of UK Approaches with Other Countries 41

3.5 Conclusions 42

References 42

Chapter 4 Sustainable Drainage Systems: Operation and Maintenance 45
Neil Berwick

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 What is Operation and Maintenance and Why is it Important? 46

4.3 Inspection, Reporting and Maintenance 47

4.4 Maintenance Schedules and Planned Maintenance 50

4.5 Other Considerations that Will Impact on Maintenance 52

4.6 Conclusions 54

References 55

Section 3 Functions of Sustainable Drainage Systems 57

Chapter 5 Water Quantity: Attenuation of the Storm Peak 59
Craig Lashford, Susanne M. Charlesworth and Frank Warwick

5.1 Introduction 59

5.2 Conventional Drainage, Water Flow and Volume 59

5.3 Existing Flood Management 60

5.4 Water Quantity 61

5.5 History of SuDS Implementation 62

5.6 The Management Train 65

5.7 Retrofit 70

5.8 New Build 71

5.9 Flow Control 72

5.10 Conclusions 72

References 74

Chapter 6 Urban Water and Sediment Quality 79
Lian Lundy

6.1 Introduction 79

6.2 Sources of Pollutants Mobilised by Urban Runoff 79

6.3 Quality of Urban Runoff Originating from a Range of Land Use Types 80

6.4 Quality and Behaviour of Sediment in Urban Receiving Water Bodies 82

6.5 Treatment of Urban Runoff Using SuDS 83

6.6 Pollutant Removal Processes that Occur in SuDS 85

6.7 Quality and Behaviour of Sediment in SuDS 87

References 88

Chapter 7 Sustainable Drainage Systems: Delivering Multiple Benefits for People and Wildlife 91
Andy Graham

7.1 Introduction 91

7.2 Getting Better SuDS 92

7.3 SuDS and How They Support Biodiversity 93

7.4 Involving People 95

7.5 Designing SuDS for People and Wildlife 96

7.6 SuDS Management Trains and Their Wildlife Benefits 98

7.7 Community Managed and Wildlife?-Rich SuDS – a Case Study of Springhill Cohousing, Stroud, Gloucestershire 103

References 104

Chapter 8 Amenity: Delivering Value for Society 105
Stella Apostolaki and Alison Duffy

8.1 Emergence of the Amenity Concept 105

8.2 Amenity, Recreation and Biodiversity in the Built Environment 107

8.3 SuDS Amenity and Sustainable Development 110

8.4 Reviewing the Public Perception of the Concept of Amenity and SuDS 111

8.5 Conclusions 112

References 112

Chapter 9 Biodegradation in Green Infrastructure 115
Alan P. Newman and Stephen J. Coupe

9.1 Introduction 115

9.2 Environmental Conditions and Requirements for Biodegradation 116

9.3 Biofilms: What They Are, What They Do and How They Work 118

9.4 Biodegradation in Green SuDS 119

9.5 Nitrogen in Green SuDS 122

9.6 Conclusions 123

References 124

Chapter 10 Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Hard Infrastructure 127
Stephen J. Coupe, Alan P. Newman and Luis Angel Sañudo Fontaneda

10.1 Introduction 127

10.2 Hard SuDS Structure, Design and Related Technologies 128

10.3 Evidence of Biodegradation in Hard SuDS 130

10.4 Hard SuDS Microbiology and Biofilms 132

10.5 Design and Diversification from Standard Hard SuDS 134

10.6 Other Hard SuDS Biodegradation Studies 135

10.7 Design Optimisation for Catastrophic Pollution Events 136

10.8 Conclusions 138

References 139

Chapter 11 Use of Geosynthetics for Sustainable Drainage 142
Luis Angel Sañudo Fontaneda, Elena Blanco?-Fernández, Stephen J. Coupe, Jaime Carpio, Alan P. Newman and Daniel Castro?-Fresno

11.1 Introduction to Geosynthetics 142

11.2 Classifications, Functions and Applications of Geosynthetics 143

11.3 Application of Geotextiles in SuDS 145

11.4 Secondary Uses for Urban Water 150

11.5 Conclusions 151

References 152

Section 4 Multiple Benefits of Sustainable Drainage Systems 157

Chapter 12 Natural Flood Risk Management and its Role in Working with Natural Processes 159
Tom Lavers and Susanne M. Charlesworth

12.1 Introduction 159

12.2 Defining NFRM 159

12.3 Examples of NFRM Studies 161

12.4 Significance of NFRM in Meeting Policy Agendas 171

12.5 Conclusions 172

References 172

Statuses 176

Chapter 13 Sustainable Drainage Systems and Energy: Generation and Reduction 177
Amal Faraj?-Lloyd, Susanne M. Charlesworth and Stephen J. Coupe

13.1 Introduction 177

13.2 Ground Source Heat Extraction 178

13.3 Pervious Paving Systems 178

13.4 Results of Monitoring the EcoHouse 182

13.5 The Hanson Stewartby Office, Bedford, UK 184

13.6 Reducing Energy Use: The Use of Green and Blue Infrastructure on Buildings 186

13.7 Conclusions 188

References 189

Chapter 14 Carbon Sequestration and Storage: The Case for Green Roofs in Urban Areas 193
Brad Rowe

14.1 Introduction 193

14.2 The Importance of Carbon Sequestration 193

14.3 Coupling the Stormwater Management Benefits of Green Roofs with Carbon Sequestration 195

14.4 Carbon Sequestration on Green Roofs 197

14.5 Embodied Energy 198

14.6 Improving Carbon Sequestration Potential 199

14.7 Conclusions 201

References 201

Chapter 15 Dual?-Purpose Rainwater Harvesting System Design 205
Peter Melville?-Shreeve, Sarah Ward and David Butler

15.1 Introduction 205

15.2 RWH and SuDS in England and Wales 206

15.3 Approaches to Stormwater Source Control Using RwH in England and Wales 207

15.4 Integrating Stormwater Source Control into RwH System Design 209

15.5 Conclusions 215

Acknowledgements 216

References 216

Chapter 16 Progress with Integration of Ecosystem Services in SuDS 218
Mark Everard, Robert J. McInnes and Hazem Gouda

16.1 Introduction 218

16.2 Potential Contribution of SuDS Types to Ecosystem Services 220

16.3 Analysis of Ecosystem Service Outcomes from SuDS Schemes 221

16.4 Recognising the Multi?-Functional Opportunities of SuDS 228

16.5 Conclusions and Recommendations 230

References 230

Section 5 Integrating Sustainable Surface Water Management into the Built Environment 233

Chapter 17 Whole Life Costing and Multiple Benefits of Sustainable Drainage 235
Jessica E. Lamond

17.1 Introduction 235

17.2 Whole Life Costing 236

17.3 Multiple Benefits of SuDS 238

17.4 Conclusions 241

Acknowledgement 242

References 242

Chapter 18 Green Roof and Permeable Paving Retrofit to Mitigate Pluvial Flooding 245
Sara Wilkinson, David G. Proverbs and Jessica E. Lamond

18.1 Introduction 245

18.2 Types of Green Roof for Stormwater Management 246

18.3 Building Retrofit Characteristics 247

18.4 Drivers and Barriers to the Uptake of SuDS in Melbourne 253

18.5 Estimation of Runoff Under Different Scenarios 255

18.6 Conclusions and Further Research 255

Acknowledgements 256

References 256

Chapter 19 Contemporary Landscapes and Buildings of Motorway Service Areas 259
Colin A. Booth and Anne?-Marie McLaughlin

19.1 Introduction 259

19.2 Motorway Service Areas in the UK 259

19.3 Exemplar Motorway Service Areas 260

19.4 Conclusions 267

References 267

Chapter 20 Modelling for Design 270
Craig Lashford, Susanne M. Charlesworth and Frank Warwick

20.1 Introduction 270

20.2 One?-Dimensional Modelling 270

20.3 Two?-Dimensional Flood Modelling 271

20.4 One?-Dimensional and Two?-Dimensional Modelling 271

20.5 Three?-Dimensional Modelling 271

20.6 Modelling Uncertainty 271

20.7 Validation of Models: Monitoring of SuDS Management Trains 272

20.8 Scale of Drainage Modelling 272

20.9 Issues with SuDS Modelling 274

20.10 Case Study: Modelling the Impacts of a SuDS Management Train at Prior Deram Park, Coventry, UK, Using Microdrainage® 276

20.11 Case Study: Decision Support Tool for Coventry, UK 278

20.12 Site Design 280

20.13 Conclusions 281

References 281

Chapter 21 Public Perceptions of Sustainable Drainage Devices 285
Glyn Everett

21.1 Introduction 285

21.2 Public Preferences and Understanding of Flood Risk Management 286

21.3 The Sustainability of SuDS 286

21.4 Attitudes and Behaviour: Portland, Oregon, USA 288

21.5 Co?-development and Co?-ownership 292

21.6 Conclusions 293

References 293

Section 6 Global Sustainable Surface Water Management 299

Chapter 22 Sustainable Drainage Out of the Temperate Zone: The Humid Tropics 30
Susanne M. Charlesworth and Margaret Mezue

22.1 Introduction 301

22.2 Modification of the Urban Hydrological Cycle by Urbanisation in Tropical Countries 303

22.3 Vegetated Devices 303

22.4 Case Study: Sustainable Drainage in Malaysia 308

22.5 Conclusions 312

References 313

Chapter 23 Sustainable Drainage Systems in Brazil 315
Marcelo Gomes Miguez and Aline Pires Veról

23.1 Introduction 315

23.2 The History of SuDS in Brazil – an Academic Perspective 316

23.3 Legal Framework 319

23.4 Case Examples 320

23.5 Concluding Remarks 325

References 326

Chapter 24 Interim Measures Towards Sustainable Drainage in the Informal Settlements of South Africa 328
Kevin Winter

24.1 Introduction 328

24.2 Overview of the Development of Informal Settlements in South Africa 330

24.3 Co?-Management of Drainage 330

24.4 Langrug: A Case Study of an Informal Settlement 331

24.5 Research?-Led Efforts: First Approach 333

24.6 Discussion on Research?-Led Approach to Drainage 335

24.7 Building Partnerships: A Second Approach 337

24.8 Provincial Government Intervention 339

24.9 Biomimicry at Work: Greywater Swales 339

24.10 Sustainable Urban Drainage Centre 339

24.11 Discussion 341

24.12 Conclusions 343

References 343

Chapter 25 Low Impact Development in the USA 345
Bruce K. Ferguson

25.1 Introduction 345

25.2 Unifying Legislation 345

25.3 Stormwater Management Practices 346

25.4 Low?-Impact Development 348

25.5 Stormwater and Urban Agendas 350

25.6 Choices in Challenging Urban Districts 352

References 354

Chapter 26 Sustainable Drainage Systems in Spain 355
Valerio C. Andrés?-Valeri, Sara Perales?-Momparler, Luis Angel Sañudo Fontaneda, Ignacio Andrés?-Doménech, Daniel Castro?-Fresno and Ignacio Escuder?-Bueno

26.1 Introduction 355

26.2 SuDS Case Studies in the Northern Regions of Spain 357

26.3 Integration of SuDS into New Urban Developments 361

26.4 SuDS Retrofitting Case Studies in the Mediterranean Region 362

26.5 Conclusions 366

References 368

Chapter 27 Sustainable Drainage at the City Scale: A Case Study in Glasgow, Scotland 370
Neil McLean

27.1 Introduction 370

27.2 SuDS and Legislation 371

27.3 The Importance of Multi?-Functionality 372

27.4 Design Studies 373

27.5 Nitshill Design Study 375

27.6 City Centre Surface Water Management 376

27.7 Funding 377

27.8 The Future 378

References 378

Chapter 28 Water Sensitive Design in Auckland, New Zealand 380
Robyn Simcock

28.1 Introduction 380

28.2 WSD in Auckland: Drivers of Design 382

28.3 Case Study: Wynyard Quarter 388

28.4 Conclusions and Parting Thought 389

References 390

Section 7 Summary of the Book 393

Chapter 29 Challenges for the Future: Are Sustainable Drainage Systems Really Sustainable? 395
Susanne M. Charlesworth and Colin A. Booth

29.1 Introduction 395

29.2 Barriers and Drivers 396

29.3 What is the Future for SuDS? 398

29.4 Conclusions 399

References 399

Index 400

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Author Information

Susanne Charlesworth is a Reader in Urban Physical Geography at Coventry University in the department of Geography, Environment and Disaster Management. She is Director of a Sustainable Drainage (SUDS) Applied Research Group at Coventry University.

Colin Booth is Associate Professor of Sustainability, Associate Head of Research and Scholarship and Director of the Construction and Property Research Centre at the University of the West of England, Bristol.

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