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Software Defined Mobile Networks (SDMN): Beyond LTE Network Architecture

Madhusanka Liyanage (Editor), Andrei Gurtov (Editor), Mika Ylianttila (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-90026-0
440 pages
June 2015
Software Defined Mobile Networks (SDMN): Beyond LTE Network Architecture (111890026X) cover image

Description

This book describes the concept of a Software Defined Mobile Network (SDMN), which will impact the network architecture of current LTE (3GPP) networks. SDN will also open up new opportunities for traffic, resource and mobility management, as well as impose new challenges on network security. Therefore, the book addresses the main affected areas such as traffic, resource and mobility management, virtualized traffics transportation, network management, network security and techno economic concepts. Moreover, a complete introduction to SDN and SDMN concepts. Furthermore, the reader will be introduced to cutting-edge knowledge in areas such as network virtualization, as well as SDN concepts relevant to next generation mobile networks. Finally, by the end of the book the reader will be familiar with the feasibility and opportunities of SDMN concepts, and will be able to evaluate the limits of performance and scalability of these new technologies while applying them to mobile broadb and networks.
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Table of Contents

Editors xv

Contributors xvii

Foreword xxvii

Ulf Ewaldsson

Foreword xxix

Lauri Oksanen

Preface xxxi

Acknowledgments xxxvii

Abbreviations xxxix

Part I Introduction

1 Overview 3
Madhusanka Liyanage, Mika Ylianttila, and Andrei Gurtov

1.1 Present Mobile Networks and Their Limitations 4

1.2 Software Defined Mobile Network 5

1.3 Key Benefits of SDMN 7

1.4 Conclusion 9

References 9

2 Mobile Network History 11
Brian Brown, Rob Gonzalez, and Brian Stanford

2.1 Overview 11

2.2 The Evolution of the Mobile Network 12

2.2.1 Sharing Resources 13

2.2.2 Orchestration 14

2.2.3 Scalability 15

2.3 Limitations and Challenges in Current Mobile Networks 15

2.4 Requirement in Future Mobile Networks 18

Reference 19

3 Software Defined Networking Concepts 21
Xenofon Foukas, Mahesh K. Marina, and Kimon Kontovasilis

3.1 Introduction 21

3.2 SDN History and Evolution 23

3.2.1 Early History of Programmable Networks 23

3.2.2 Evolution of Programmable Networks to SDN 25

3.3 SDN Paradigm and Applications 28

3.3.1 Overview of SDN Building Blocks 28

3.3.2 SDN Switches 30

3.3.3 SDN Controllers 31

3.3.4 SDN Programming Interfaces 34

3.3.5 SDN Application Domains 37

3.3.6 Relation of SDN to Network Virtualization and Network Function Virtualization 38

3.4 Impact of SDN to Research and Industry 39

3.4.1 Overview of Standardization Activities and SDN Summits 40

3.4.2 SDN in the Industry 41

3.4.3 Future of SDN 41

References 42

4 Wireless Software Defined Networking 45
Claude Chaudet and Yoram Haddad

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 SDN for Wireless 47

4.2.1 Implementations: OpenRoads and OpenRadio 49

4.2.2 SDR versus SDN 50

4.3 Related Works 50

4.4 Wireless SDN Opportunities 51

4.4.1 Multinetwork Planning 51

4.4.2 Handovers and Off?]Loading 53

4.4.3 Dead Zone Coverage 55

4.4.4 Security 55

4.4.5 CDN and Caching 56

4.5 Wireless SDN Challenges 56

4.5.1 Slice Isolation 56

4.5.2 Topology Discovery and Topology?]Related Problems 56

4.5.3 Resource Evaluation and Reporting 57

4.5.4 User and Operator Preferences 57

4.5.5 Nontechnical Aspects (Governance, Regulation, Etc.) 58

4.6 Conclusion 59

References 59

5 Leveraging SDN for the 5G Networks: Trends, Prospects, and Challenges 61
Akram Hakiri and Pascal Berthou

5.1 Introduction 61

5.2 Evolution of the Wireless Communication toward the 5G 62

5.2.1 Evolution of the Wireless World 62

5.3 Software Defined Networks 64

5.4 NFV 65

5.5 Information?]Centric Networking 67

5.6 Mobile and Wireless Networks 68

5.6.1 Mobility Management 68

5.6.2 Ubiquitous Connectivity 69

5.6.3 Mobile Clouds 70

5.7 Cooperative Cellular Networks 71

5.8 Unification of the Control Plane 73

5.8.1 Bringing Fixed–Mobile Networking Together 73

5.8.2 Creating a Concerted Convergence of Packet–Optical Networks 74

5.9 Supporting Automatic QoS Provisioning 75

5.10 Cognitive Network Management and Operation 76

5.11 Role of Satellites in the 5G Networks 77

5.12 Conclusion 79

References 79

Part II SDMN Architectures and Network Implementation

6 LTE Architecture Integration with SDN 83
Jose Costa?]Requena, Raimo Kantola, Jesús Llorente Santos, Vicent Ferrer Guasch, Maël Kimmerlin, Antti Mikola and Jukka Manner

6.1 Overview 83

6.2 Restructuring Mobile Networks to SDN 84

6.2.1 LTE Network: A Starting Point 84

6.2.2 Options for Location of the SDMN Controller 86

6.2.3 Vision of SDN in LTE Networks 88

6.3 Mobile Backhaul Scaling 91

6.4 Security and Distributed FW 95

6.4.1 Customer Edge Switching 97

6.4.2 RG 97

6.5 SDN and LTE Integration Benefits 98

6.6 SDN and LTE Integration Benefits for End Users 100

6.7 Related Work and Research Questions 103

6.7.1 Research Problems 104

6.7.2 Impact 104

6.8 Conclusions 104

References 105

7 EPC in the Cloud 107
James Kempf and Kumar Balachandran

7.1 Introduction 107

7.1.1 Origins and Evolution of SDN 108

7.1.2 NFV and Its Application 109

7.1.3 SDN and Cross?]Domain Service Development 112

7.2 EPC in the Cloud Version 1.0 115

7.3 EPC in the Cloud Version 2.0? 117

7.3.1 UE Multihoming 117

7.3.2 The EPC on SDN: OpenFlow Example 119

7.4 Incorporating Mobile Services into Cross?]Domain Orchestration with SP?]SDN 123

7.5 Summary and Conclusions 125

References 126

8 The Controller Placement Problem in Software Defined Mobile Networks (SDMN) 129
Hakan Selvi, Selcan Güner, Gürkan Gür, and Fatih Alagöz

8.1 Introduction 129

8.2 SDN and Mobile Networks 130

8.3 Performance Objectives for SDMN Controller Placement 132

8.3.1 Scalability 133

8.3.2 Reliability 133

8.3.3 Latency 134

8.3.4 Resilience 135

8.4 CPP 136

8.4.1 Placement of Controllers 137

8.4.2 Number of Required Controllers 143

8.4.3 CPP and Mobile Networks 145

8.5 Conclusion 146

References 147

9 Technology Evolution in Mobile Networks 149
Antti Tolonen and Sakari Luukkainen

9.1 Introduction 149

9.2 Generic Technology Evolution 150

9.3 Study Framework 152

9.4 Overview on Cloud Computing 153

9.5 Example Platform: OpenStack 154

9.5.1 OpenStack Design and Architecture 155

9.5.2 OpenStack Community 156

9.6 Case Analysis 156

9.6.1 Openness 157

9.6.2 Added Value 157

9.6.3 Experimentation 158

9.6.4 Complementary Technologies 158

9.6.5 Incumbent Role 159

9.6.6 Existing Market Leverage 160

9.6.7 Competence Change 160

9.6.8 Competing Technologies 160

9.6.9 System Architecture Evolution 161

9.6.10 Regulation 161

9.7 Discussion 162

9.8 Summary 164

Acknowledgments 165

References 165

Part III Traffic Transport and Network Management

10 Mobile Network Function and Service Delivery Virtualization and Orchestration 169
Peter Bosch, Alessandro Duminuco, Jeff Napper, Louis (Sam) Samuel, and Paul Polakos

10.1 Introduction 169

10.2 NFV 170

10.2.1 The Functionality of the Architecture 170

10.2.2 Operation of the ETSI NFV System 174

10.2.3 Potential Migration and Deployment Paths 177

10.2.4 NFV Summary 182

10.3 SDN 182

10.4 The Mobility Use Case 183

10.5 Virtual Networking in Data Centers 185

10.6 Summary 186

References 186

11 Survey of Traffic Management in Software Defined Mobile Networks 189
Zoltán Faigl and László Bokor

11.1 Overview 189

11.2 Traffic Management in Mobile Networks 190

11.3 QoS Enforcement and Policy Control in 3G/4G Networks 191

11.3.1 QoS for EPS Bearers 193

11.3.2 QoS for Non?]3GPP Access 195

11.3.3 QoS Enforcement in EPS 195

11.3.4 Policy and Charging Control in 3GPP 195

11.3.5 Policy Control Architecture 196

11.4 Traffic Management in SDMNs 198

11.4.1 Open Networking Foundation 198

11.4.2 The OF Protocol 199

11.4.3 Traffic Management and Offloading in Mobile Networks 200

11.5 ALTO in SDMNs 201

11.5.1 The ALTO Protocol 202

11.5.2 ALTO–SDN Use Case 202

11.5.3 The ALTO–SDN Architecture 204

11.5.4 Dynamic Network Information Provision 205

11.6 Conclusions 206

References 206

12 Software Defined Networks for Mobile Application Services 209
Ram Gopal Lakshmi Narayanan

12.1 Overview 209

12.2 Overview of 3GPP Network Architecture 210

12.3 Wireless Network Architecture Evolution toward NFV and SDN 212

12.3.1 NFV in Packet Core 212

12.3.2 SDN in Packet Core 213

12.4 NFV/SDN Service Chaining 215

12.4.1 Service Chaining at Packet Core 215

12.4.2 Traffic Optimization inside Mobile Networks 217

12.4.3 Metadata Export from RAN to Packet CN 221

12.5 Open Research and Further Study 222

References 223

13 Load Balancing in Software Defined Mobile Networks 225
Ijaz Ahmad, Suneth Namal Karunarathna, Mika Ylianttila, and Andrei Gurtov

13.1 Introduction 225

13.1.1 Load Balancing in Wireless Networks 226

13.1.2 Mobility Load Balancing 227

13.1.3 Traffic Steering 227

13.1.4 Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Networks 227

13.1.5 Shortcomings in Current Load Balancing Technologies 227

13.2 Load Balancing in SDMN 229

13.2.1 The Need of Load Balancing in SDMN 230

13.2.2 SDN?]Enabled Load Balancing 233

13.3 Future Directions and Challenges for Load Balancing Technologies 244

References 244

Part IV Res ource and Mobility Management

14 QoE Management Framework for Internet Services in SDN?]Enabled Mobile Networks 249
Marcus Eckert and Thomas Martin Knoll

14.1 Overview 249

14.2 Introduction 250

14.3 State of the Art 251

14.4 QoE Framework Architecture 252

14.5 Quality Monitoring 254

14.5.1 Flow Detection and Classification 254

14.5.2 Video Quality Measurement 255

14.5.3 Video Quality Rating 255

14.5.4 Method of Validation 257

14.5.5 Location?]Aware Monitoring 259

14.6 Quality Rules 259

14.7 QoE Enforcement (QEN) 260

14.8 Demonstrator 261

14.9 Summary 263

References 264

15 Software Defined Mobility Management for Mobile Internet 265
Jun Bi and You Wang

15.1 Chapter Overview 265

15.1.1 Mobility Management in the Internet 265

15.1.2 Integrating Internet Mobility Management and SDN 267

15.1.3 Chapter Organization 267

15.2 Internet Mobility and Problem Statement 268

15.2.1 Internet Mobility Overview 268

15.2.2 Problem Statement 271

15.2.3 Mobility Management Based on SDN 273

15.3 Software Defined Internet Mobility Management 274

15.3.1 Architecture Overview 274

15.3.2 An OpenFlow?]Based Instantiation 275

15.3.3 Binding Cache Placement Algorithm 277

15.3.4 System Design 281

15.4 Conclusion 285

References 285

16 Mobile Virtual Network Operators: A Software Defined Mobile Network Perspective 289
M. Bala Krishna

16.1 Introduction 289

16.1.1 Features of MVNO 291

16.1.2 Functional Aspects of MVNO 292

16.1.3 Challenges of MVNO 293

16.2 Architecture of MVNO: An SDMN Perspective 294

16.2.1 Types of MVNOs 294

16.2.2 Hierarchical MVNOs 294

16.3 MNO, MVNE, and MVNA Interactions with MVNO 296

16.3.1 Potential Business Strategies between MNOs, MVNEs, and MVNOs 299

16.3.2 Performance Gain with SDN Approach 300

16.3.3 Cooperation between MNOs and MVNOs 300

16.3.4 Flexible Business Models for Heterogeneous Environments 301

16.4 MVNO Developments in 3G, 4G, and LTE 303

16.4.1 MVNO User?]Centric Strategies for Mobility Support 303

16.4.2 Management Schemes for Multiple Interfaces 304

16.4.3 Enhancing Business Strategies Using SDN Approach 304

16.5 Cognitive MVNO 305

16.5.1 Cognitive Radio Management in MVNOs 305

16.5.2 Cognitive and SDN?]Based Spectral Allocation Strategies in MVNO 306

16.6 MVNO Business Strategies 307

16.6.1 Services and Pricing of MVNO 308

16.6.2 Resource Negotiation and Pricing 309

16.6.3 Pushover Cellular and Service Adoption Strategy 309

16.6.4 Business Relations between the MNO and MVNO 310

16.7 Conclusions 310

16.8 Future Directions 311

References 311

Part V Security and Economic Aspects

17 Software Defined Mobile Network Security 317
Ahmed Bux Abro

17.1 Introduction 317

17.2 Evolving Threat Landscape for Mobile Networks 318

17.3 Traditional Ways to Cope with Security

Threats in Mobile Networks 318

17.3.1 Introducing New Controls 318

17.3.2 Securing Perimeter 319

17.3.3 Building Complex Security Systems 320

17.3.4 Throwing More Bandwidth 320

17.4 Principles of Adequate Security for Mobile Network 320

17.4.1 Confidentiality 321

17.4.2 Integrity 321

17.4.3 Availability 321

17.4.4 Centralized Policy 321

17.4.5 Visibility 322

17.5 Typical Security Architecture for Mobile Networks 322

17.5.1 Pros 323

17.5.2 Cons 325

17.6 Enhanced Security for SDMN 325

17.6.1 Securing SDN Controller 325

17.6.2 Securing Infrastructure/Data Center 325

17.6.3 Application Security 326

17.6.4 Securing Management and Orchestration 326

17.6.5 Securing API and Communication 326

17.6.6 Security Technologies 326

17.7 SDMN Security Applications 327

17.7.1 Encryption: eNB to Network 327

17.7.2 Segmentation 327

17.7.3 Network Telemetry 329

References 329

18 Security Aspects of SDMN 331
Edgardo Montes de Oca and Wissam Mallouli

18.1 Overview 331

18.2 State of the Art and Security Challenges in SDMN Architectures 331

18.2.1 Basics 332

18.2.2 LTE?]EPC Security State of the Art 332

18.2.3 SDN Security in LTE?]EPC State of the Art 334

18.2.4 Related Work 339

18.3 Monitoring Techniques 344

18.3.1 DPI 347

18.3.2 NIDS 348

18.3.3 Software Defined Monitoring 349

18.4 Other Important Aspects 351

18.4.1 Reaction and Mitigation Techniques 351

18.4.2 Economically Viable Security Techniques for Mobile Networks 352

18.4.3 Secure Mobile Network Services and Security Management 353

18.5 Conclusion 354

References 355

19 SDMN: Industry Architecture Evolution Paths 357
Nan Zhang, Tapio Levä, and Heikki Hämmäinen

19.1 Introduction 357

19.2 From Current Mobile Networks to SDMN 358

19.2.1 Current Mobile Network Architecture 358

19.2.2 Evolutionary SDMN Architecture 359

19.2.3 Revolutionary SDMN Architecture 361

19.3 Business Roles of SDMN 362

19.4 Industry Architectures of Evolutionary SDMN 364

19.4.1 Monolithic MNO 364

19.4.2 Outsourced Subscriber Management 366

19.4.3 Outsourced Connectivity 368

19.5 Industry Architectures of Revolutionary SDMN 369

19.5.1 MVNO 369

19.5.2 Outsourced Interconnection 370

19.5.3 Outsourced Mobility Management 372

19.6 Discussion 372

References 374

Index 000

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