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The Architect in Practice, 11th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-90773-3
512 pages
January 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
The Architect in Practice, 11th Edition (1118907736) cover image

Description

Throughout its many editions, The Architect in Practice has remained a leading textbook used in the education of architects. While the content of the book has developed, the message and philosophy has remained constant: to provide students of architecture and young practitioners with a readable guide to the profession, outlining an architect's duties to their client and contractor, the key aspects of running a building contract, and the essentials of management, finance and drawing office procedure.

The eleventh edition follows in that tradition. The text has been brought up to date to ensure it follows the new RIBA Plan of Work 2013 as the guide to the architect’s workflow. In addition, a number of changes to standard forms of contract were made with the publication of the JCT 2011 suite of contracts, and the RIBA Standard Form for the Appointment of an Architect 2010 (2012 Revision). These new forms are fully covered. In addition, the opportunity has been taken to reorganise the layout so that the content flows in a way that is more consistent with current architectural practice, and to deal with the increasing use of BIM. The eleventh edition of The Architect in Practice continues to provide the guidance and advice all students and practising architects need in the course of their studies and in their profession.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xvii

Abbreviations and Acronyms xix

Part 1 Practice 1

A THE PRACTITIONER 3

1 The Construction Industry 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Significance of the construction industry 3

1.3 A changing industry 4

1.4 Clients 6

1.5 Contractors 7

1.6 Consultants 9

1.7 Clerk of works 13

1.8 Construction industry bodies 14

References and notes 21

2 Academic and Professional Qualifications 22

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 Relevant bodies 24

2.3 Architectural education and training 29

2.4 Examination of professional practice 36

2.5 Approval of educational programmes 36

2.6 Practising in the United Kingdom 41

2.7 Practising in Ireland 42

2.8 Practising in Egypt, Nigeria and Malaysia 43

2.9 Maintenance of standards, regulation and codes of conduct 46

2.10 ARB’s standards of professional conduct and practice 47

2.11 RIBA code of professional conduct 53

2.12 The RIAI code of conduct 55

2.13 Continuing professional development 55

References and notes 57

3 Employment Opportunities 59

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Private practice 60

3.3 Local authority 62

3.4 Other public sector organisations 63

3.5 Large companies 64

3.6 Contractors 64

3.7 Manufacturers 65

3.8 Academia 66

3.9 Other specialisation 67

3.10 Adjudicator, arbitrator or expert witness 68

References and notes 69

4 Employment 71

4.1 Finding employment 71

4.2 Acceptable job titles 88

4.3 Employment 89

4.4 Job description 92

4.5 Hours of work 93

4.6 Overtime 95

4.7 Salary 96

4.8 Benefits 97

4.9 Professional activities 98

4.10 Expenses 99

4.11 Leave 100

4.12 Disciplinary and grievance procedure 103

4.13 Notice and dismissal 104

4.14 Spare time practice 105

4.15 Monitoring of telephone calls and e-mails 107

4.16 Discrimination 107

References and notes 109

5 Types of Practice 110

5.1 Sole principal 110

5.2 Partnerships 111

5.3 Incorporation 117

5.4 Co-operative 121

5.5 Group practice 121

5.6 Developer/architect/contractor 122

References and notes 123

6 Setting Up in Practice 124

6.1 Sole principal 124

6.2 The decision 124

6.3 Timing 125

6.4 Practical points to decide 126

6.5 Business plan 131

6.6 Enlarging the practice 132

References and notes 134

B PRACTICE MANAGEMENT 135

7 Management Principles 135

7.1 Objectives 135

7.2 Leadership 136

7.3 Communication 137

7.4 Delegation 138

7.5 Motivation 139

References and notes 140

8 General Office Practice 141

8.1 Introduction 141

8.2 Telephone, facsimile (fax) and e-mail 141

8.3 Information technology 144

8.4 Letter writing 145

8.5 Reports 146

8.6 Filing 147

8.7 Office-based meetings 149

8.8 Drawing office practice 149

8.9 Computer-aided design 153

8.10 Presentation 154

8.11 Reproduction 155

8.12 Work programming 155

8.13 Sources of information 156

References and notes 165

9 Marketing 168

9.1 Active marketing 168

9.2 Brochure 170

9.3 Website 171

9.4 Social media 172

9.5 Advertising 173

9.6 Contacts 173

9.7 Competitions 174

9.8 Frameworks 175

9.9 Retaining clients and recommendations 175

References and notes 176

10 Insurance 177

10.1 Introduction 177

10.2 Premises and contents 179

10.3 Public liability 180

10.4 Employer’s liability 181

10.5 Professional indemnity 181

10.6 Latent defects insurance 183

10.7 Other insurances 184

References and notes 184

11 Finance and Accounts 185

11.1 Introduction 185

11.2 Accounts 185

11.3 Profit and loss account 185

11.4 Balance sheet 186

11.5 Assets 188

11.6 Liabilities 188

11.7 Capital 189

11.8 Cash-flow forecasting and budgeting 190

11.9 Books of account 191

11.10 Fee invoicing 191

11.11 Value added tax (VAT) 191

11.12 Computerisation 192

11.13 Annual accounts/auditing 192

11.14 Staff time records 193

References and notes 195

Part 2 Running a Project 197

12 The RIBA Plan ofWork 2013 199

12.1 Sequential framework and Plan ofWork 199

12.2 The Plan ofWork explained 202

12.3 Building information modelling (BIM) 208

12.4 BIM overlay to the Plan ofWork 209

12.5 Green principles 209

12.6 Green overlay to the Plan ofWork 210

12.7 New words and phrases 211

References and notes 212

13 Stage 0: Strategic Definition – Appointment 214

13.1 Introduction 214

13.2 Scope of services 215

13.3 Determination of the fee 233

13.4 Terms of appointment 240

13.5 Consultants 243

13.6 Project managers 245

References and notes 248

14 Stage 0: Strategic Definition – Terms 250

14.1 Standard forms of agreement 250

14.2 Standard Agreement 2010 (2012 revision): Architect 251

14.3 Duty of care agreements (collateral warranties) 280

References and notes 287

15 Stage 1: Preparation and Brief 288

15.1 Feasibility studies 288

15.2 Site and building acquisition 293

15.3 Surveys 295

15.4 The brief 301

15.5 Reporting 302

References and notes 303

16 Stage 2: Concept Design 304

16.1 Design data 304

16.2 Concept design and its development 305

16.3 Cost estimates and planning 306

16.4 Procurement paths and implications for the professional 307

16.5 Contract selection and implications 317

16.6 Guaranteed maximum price 320

16.7 PFI Contracts 322

16.8 Partnering 323

References and notes 325

17 Stage 3: Developed Design 327

17.1 General 327

17.2 Planning applications and approvals 328

17.3 Other approvals 353

17.4 Property 353

References and notes 361

18 Stage 4: Technical Design 363

18.1 Technical design 363

18.2 Production information 366

18.3 Building regulations 2010 (as amended) 369

References and notes 379

19 Stage 4: Technical Design: Tender Documentation and Tender Action 380

19.1 Introduction 380

19.2 Co-ordinated project information 381

19.3 Bills of quantities 383

19.4 Specifications 390

19.5 Schedules of work 393

19.6 Activity schedules 393

19.7 Tendering 393

19.8 Preparing the contract documents 403

References and notes 404

20 Stage 5: Construction 405

20.1 Contractor’s programme 405

20.2 Meetings 408

20.3 Site inspections 413

20.4 Safety 414

20.5 Architect’s instructions and variations 415

20.6 Variations and their valuation 418

20.7 Controlling costs 422

20.8 Workmanship and materials 423

20.9 Certificates and payments 426

20.10 Delays and extensions of time 435

20.11 Financial claims 438

20.12 Termination 440

References and notes 443

21 Stage 6: Handover and Close Out 446

21.1 Practical completion 446

21.2 Rectification period 451

21.3 Adjustment of contract sum 454

21.4 Final certificate 457

References and notes 461

22 Stage 7: In Use 463

22.1 Review of project 463

22.2 Architect’s review 464

22.3 Client review 466

22.4 Review of building in use 467

References and notes 467

Table of Cases 468

Index 473

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Author Information

David Chappell BA(Hons Arch), MA(Arch), MA(Law), PhD, RIBA has 50 years of experience in the construction industry having worked as an architect in the public and private sectors, as contracts administrator, as a lecturer in construction law and contracts procedure and as a construction contracts consultant. He was Professor of Architectural Practice and Management Research at The Queen’s University of Belfast and Visiting Professor of Practice Management and Law at the University of Central England in Birmingham. The author of many books for the construction industry, he is Director of David Chappell Consultancy Limited, is a specialist advisor to the RIBA and RSUA and regularly acts as an adjudicator. 

Michael H. Dunn FRICS FCIArb BSc (Hons) LLB LLM is a quantity surveyor with over 25 years of experience in the construction industry, having worked in both the public and private sectors.  He was a lecturer and course leader at Leeds Metropolitan University on its Construction Law & Arbitration postgraduate course, and is now a director with Rex Procter & Partners. He is a visiting lecturer on Birmingham City University’s  and the RIBA’s (Chester, Hong Kong & Dubai) Part 3 professional practice courses, and at Leeds Beckett University on its Construction Law & Dispute Resolution postgraduate course.

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