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Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals

ISBN: 978-1-118-91792-3
544 pages
October 2015
Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals (1118917928) cover image

Description

A guide to treating mental health issues in children and adolescents

Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals is a resource tailored to the particular needs of current and future counselors, behavioral healthcare clinicians, and other helping professionals working with this vulnerable population. With in-depth content broken into two sections, this book first provides a foundation in the diagnostic process by covering the underlying principles of diagnosis and treatment planning, and then applies this framework to the DSM-5 categories related to children and adolescents. With research continually reshaping our understanding of mental health, it is critical mental health professionals make decisions based on evidence-based pathways that include the specialized research around children and adolescents. The leading experts who contributed to this book share contemporary perspectives on developmental considerations, assessment information, presenting symptoms, comorbidity, levels of severity, prevalence data, and other relevant factors.

  • Structured content of chapters provides a crosswalk between the DSM-5 and this book
  • Updated content based upon the changes, additions, and revisions to the DSM-5 that affect diagnosis, assessment, and treatment
  • Pedagogical features, such as learning objectives, case studies, guided practice exercises, and additional resources, to support effective learning

Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Clinical and School Settings is a critical resource for mental health practitioners and graduate students working toward a career in a mental health profession.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgements xiii

About the Editors xv

List of Contributors xvii

PART I STAGES OF THE COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS 1

CHAPTER 1 CONCEPTUALIZING DSM-5 DISORDERS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS 3
Brandé Flamez, Jason H. King, and Joshua D. Francis

Introduction 3

Defining a Mental Disorder 4

The Clinical Significance Criterion in Diagnosis 7

The Developmental Process 8

Age-Related Factors 11

Neurodevelopment and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 14

Changes in Diagnostic Categories from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-5 20

Summary 25

References 26

CHAPTER 2 EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR ASSESSING DSM-5 DISORDERS 28
Joshua D. Francis and Laura R. Haddock

Introduction 28

Diagnostic Challenges and Special Consideration When Working with Children and Adolescents 28

Classification Models 33

Identifying Sources of Information 35

Assessment Strategies 38

Establishing Diagnostic Validity 44

Assessment Instrument Validity and Reliability 46

Conducting a Differential Diagnosis 47

Clinical Case Formulation 48

Comprehensive Case Study 49

Summary 51

References 52

CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING CLIENT TREATMENT PLANS 55
Laura R. Haddock, Michelle Perepiczka, and Ruth Ouzts Moore

Introduction 55

Assessment Measures for Children (6–17) in the DSM-5 55

Case Conceptualization 63

Diagnosing 64

Components of a Comprehensive Treatment Plan 68

Challenges in the Treatment Planning Process 71

Strategies to Maximize Treatment Plan Effectiveness 75

Treatment Plan Development 76

Summary 78

References 79

CHAPTER 4 ADDRESSING CLIENT DIVERSITY THROUGHOUT THE DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS 81
Jacob J. Levy and Shawn L. Spurgeon

Introduction 81

Culture and Multiculturalism 81

Culture and Diagnostic Decision Making 83

Cultural Concepts of Distress 86

Culture and the DSM 87

The Process of Multicultural Assessment 88

Case Example: Alon 92

Summary 96

References 97

PART II DIAGNOSTIC CATEGORIES OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS 101

CHAPTER 5 AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER 103
Joshua John Diehl, Christina G. McDonnell, and Kristin Valentino

Introduction 103

Description of the Disorder 103

Differential Diagnosis 110

Assessment Strategies 112

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 115

Evaluation Strategies 117

Diagnostic Challenges 118

Summary 120

References 122

CHAPTER 6 ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER 128
Jason D. Kushner

Introduction 128

Description of the Disorder 131

DSM-5 Criteria 132

Differential Diagnosis 134

Assessment Strategies 135

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 137

Evaluation Strategies 141

Diagnostic Challenges 143

Summary 145

References 146

CHAPTER 7 SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS 148
Tara Chandrasekhar, Lindsey M. Hazzard, and Linmarie Sikich

Introduction 148

Description of Disorder 149

DSM-5 Criteria 156

Differential Diagnosis 161

Assessment Strategies 165

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 167

Psychosocial Interventions 169

Evaluation Strategies 173

Diagnostic Challenges 173

Summary 174

References 175

CHAPTER 8 BIPOLAR AND RELATED DISORDERS 177
Gregory T. Hatchett and Nicole R. Motley

Introduction 177

Description of the Disorders 179

DSM-5 Criteria 180

Differential Diagnosis 184

Assessment Strategies 191

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 193

Evaluation Strategies 195

Diagnostic Challenges 196

Summary 197

References 199

CHAPTER 9 DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS 203
Carlos P. Zalaquett and SeriaShia Chatters-Smith

Introduction 203

How to Distinguish between Childhood Moodiness and Depression 206

Description of Depressive Disorders 206

Differential Diagnosis 216

Assessment Strategies 216

Treatment and Intervention Strategies 223

Evaluation Strategies 226

Diagnostic Challenges 227

Summary 228

References 229

CHAPTER 10 ANXIETY DISORDERS 235
Dee C. Ray, Hayley L. Stulmaker, and Sue C. Bratton

Introduction 235

Description of Anxiety Disorders 236

DSM-5 Criteria 237

Differential Diagnosis 246

Assessment Strategies 247

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 250

Evaluation Strategies 253

Diagnostic Challenges 254

Summary 255

References 256

CHAPTER 11 OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE AND RELATED DISORDERS 259
Nicole R. Hill, Torey Portrie-Bethke, Brooks Bastian Hanks, and Holly H. Wagner

Introduction 259

Description of the Disorder 260

DSM-5 Criteria 264

Differential Diagnosis 268

Assessment Strategies 270

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 276

Evaluation Strategies 280

Diagnostic Challenges 281

Summary 282

References 283

CHAPTER 12 TRAUMA- AND STRESSOR-RELATED DISORDERS 286
Gerard Lawson, Ryan M. Cook, and Claudia E. Howell

Introduction 286

Description of the Disorders 286

Adjustment Disorders 288

DSM-5 Criteria 288

Differential Diagnosis 296

Assessment Strategies 297

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 305

Acute Stress Disorder 309

Evaluation Strategies 309

Diagnostic Challenges 310

Summary 311

References 312

CHAPTER 13 FEEDING AND EATING DISORDERS 315
Laura H. Choate and Gary G. Gintner

Introduction 315

Description of Disorders 316

DSM-5 Criteria 317

Differential Diagnosis 325

Assessment Strategies 325

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 328

Evaluation Strategies 334

Diagnostic Challenges 335

Summary 336

References 337

CHAPTER 14 SLEEP-WAKE DISORDERS 340
Carl J. Sheperis, Tracy K. Calley, Kathleen Jones-Trebatoski, and Lisa A. Wines

Introduction 340

Description of the Disorders 342

DSM-5 Criteria 344

Differential Diagnosis 352

Assessment Strategies 353

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 356

Evaluation Strategies 360

Summary 360

References 361

CHAPTER 15 GENDER DYSPHORIA 366
Anneliese A. Singh and Varunee Faii Sangganjanavanich

Introduction 366

TGNC Children and the History of Gender Dysphoria 367

Description of Gender Dysphoria 370

DSM-5 Criteria 373

Differential Diagnosis 374

Assessment Strategies 376

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 379

Evaluation Strategies 381

Diagnostic Challenges and Other Specified and Unspecified Designations 382

Summary 383

References 384

CHAPTER 16 DISRUPTIVE, IMPULSE-CONTROL, AND CONDUCT DISORDERS 386
A. Stephen Lenz and Chloe Lancaster

Introduction 386

Oppositional Defiant Disorder 387

Intermittent Explosive Disorder 391

Conduct Disorder 396

Antisocial Personality Disorder 401

Pyromania 401

Kleptomania 404

Other Specified Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorder 407

Unspecified Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorder 407

Considerations for Assessment and Treatment 407

Summary 408

References 409

CHAPTER 17 SUBSTANCE-RELATED DISORDERS 413
Carl J. Sheperis, Timothy M. Lionetti, and Joy-Del Snook

Introduction 413

Description of the Disorders 413

DSM-5 Criteria 414

Differential Diagnosis 427

Assessment Strategies 428

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 429

Evaluation Strategies 430

Diagnostic Challenges 434

Summary 434

References 435

CHAPTER 18 MAJOR AND MILD NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS DUE TO TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY 441
Gregory S. Hupp, Richard J. Cicchetti, and Gary M. Szirony

Introduction 441

Description of the Disorder 442

DSM-5 Criteria 443

Differential Diagnosis 445

Assessment Strategies 447

Evaluation Strategies 449

Treatment Strategies and Interventions 454

Diagnostic Challenges 456

Summary 461

References 463

CHAPTER 19 OTHER CONDITIONS THAT MAY BE A FOCUS OF CLINICAL ATTENTION WHEN WORKING WITH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS 465
K. Michelle Hunnicutt Hollenbaugh, Julia L. Whisenhunt, and Lee A. Teufel-Prida

Introduction 465

Using Z Codes with Children and Adolescents 465

Differential Diagnosis 466

Focus and Progress of Treatment Related to Other Conditions 469

Description of the Clinical Issues 469

Child Maltreatment and Neglect Problems 472

Housing and Economic Problems 474

Treatment 482

Evaluation 487

Summary 487

References 488

AUTHOR INDEX 493

SUBJECT INDEX 505

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Author Information

BRANDÉ FLAMEZ, PHD, NCC, LPC is a licensed professional counselor and clinical professor in the Counseling and Special Populations department at Lamar University. She is also the CEO and Founder of the nonprofit Serving and Learning Together (SALT) world Inc., which provides volunteer services to developing countries.

CARL J. SHEPERIS, PHD, NCC, ACS, LMHC, LPC serves as Chair of the Department of Counseling and Special Populations at Lamar University. He is a Past-President of the Association for Assessment and Research in Counseling, Associate Editor for Quantitative Research for the Journal of Counseling and Development, and a Director for the National Board for Certified Counselors.

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