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Applying the Building Code: Step-by-Step Guidance for Design and Building Professionals

ISBN: 978-1-118-92077-0
464 pages
February 2016
Applying the Building Code: Step-by-Step Guidance for Design and Building Professionals (1118920775) cover image

Description

No other resource—not even the building code—presents the exact code information you need, when you need it at design stage

The International Building Code (IBC) is a model building code developed by the International Code Council (ICC). The IBC and its complementary codes provide design and construction professionals with a complete set of comprehensive, coordinated building safety and fire prevention regulations in order to safeguard the public health and general welfare of the occupants of new and existing buildings and structures. Adopted throughout most of the United States and its territories, it is referenced by federal agencies, such as the General Services Administration, National Park Service, Department of State, U.S. Forest Service, and the Department of Defense. For architects and other design and construction professionals, it is particularly important that they understand how to apply the IBC and how code officials view buildings, so that they integrate code-required provisions in the earliest design stages of any project.

Applying the IBC, as well as its companion codes, to building design is a process that is uniquely different to that of applying the building code during a planning review. Whereas other guide books explain the IBC in sequential order, from cover to cover, chapter by chapter, and section by section, Applying the Building Code explains the requirements of the IBC as they would apply during the common phases of design: from schematic design through to the preparation of construction documents. This effectively highlights applicable requirements of the building code at the appropriate stage of design based on available information.

  • The book provides a 28-step process that is organized according to the three phases of architectural design: schematic design, design development, and construction documents
  • Each step explains the application of the IBC, as well as other codes and standards referenced by the IBC (i.e. International Fire Code, International Energy Conservation Code, and ANSI A117.1) based on available project information
  • Illustrations and examples are provided throughout that explain the code fundamentals associated with each step
  • A single example project is used throughout the step-by-step process to illustrate how each step is applied and builds upon code and project information obtained through previous steps
  • Guidance is also provided on the International Existing Building Code and how the step-by-step process is applied to projects involving existing buildings
  • The role of the building department and its staff in regard to plan reviews and code enforcement is discussed
  • A detailed code data information template is provided that can help organize code-related information for construction documents
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Table of Contents

Preface xix

About This Book xix

How to Use This Book xix

References xx

Terminology xxi

Example Project xxi

Acknowledgments xxiii

PART I Code Basics  1

BUILDING CODE ORGANIZATION 3

Other Codes and Regulations 4

Things to Look Out For 6

Know the Definitions 6

TYPES OF FIRE-RESISTIVE ASSEMBLIES AND CONSTRUCTION 8

Fire Walls (IBC Section 706) 9

Fire Barriers (IBC Section 707) 9

Fire Partitions (IBC Section 708) 10

Smoke Barriers (IBC Section 709) 10

Horizontal Assemblies (IBC Section 711) 10

Exterior Walls 11

Interior Bearing Walls 11

Structural Frame 11

TYPES OF AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS AND STANDPIPES 12

NFPA 13 (IBC Section 903.3.1.1) 13

NFPA 13R (IBC Section 903.3.1.2) 13

NFPA 13D (IBC Section 903.3.1.3) 14

ALTERNATIVEMATERIALS/METHODS ANDMODIFICATIONS 15

PART II Schematic Design 17

Step 1. DETERMINE APPLICABLE BUILDING CODE 19

1.1. Identifying the Authority Having Jurisdiction 19

1.2. Adopted Codes and Amendments 20

1.3. Code Alternates 20

Step 2. OBTAIN ESSENTIAL BUILDING DATA 21

2.1. Total Building Area 21

2.2. Number of Stories 22

2.2.1. Grade Plane 24

2.2.2. Mezzanines 25

2.3. Building Area per Story 25

2.4. Building Height in Feet 25

2.5. Type of Sprinkler System 26

2.6. Proposed Construction Materials 28

2.7. Climate Zone 28

2.8. Flood Hazard Area 28

Step 3. DETERMINE OCCUPANCY GROUP OR GROUPS 31

3.1. Introduction to Occupancy Groups 32

3.2. Assembly Group A (IBC Section 303) 32

3.3. Business Group B (IBC Section 304) 32

3.4. Educational Group E (IBC Section 305) 33

3.5. Factory Group F (IBC Section 306) 33

3.6. High-Hazard Group H (IBC Section 307)  33

3.7. Institutional Group I (IBC Section 308) 34

3.8. Mercantile Group M (IBC Section 309) 35

3.9. Residential Group R (IBC Section 310) 35

3.10. Storage Group S (IBC Section 311) 36

3.11. Utility and Miscellaneous Group U (IBC Section 312) 36

3.12. Incidental Uses (IBC Section 509) 36

Step 4. DETERMINE CONSTRUCTION TYPE BASED ON ANTICIPATED MATERIALS 39

4.1. Introduction to Construction Types 39

4.2. Type I Construction 40

4.3. Type II Construction 40

4.4. Type III Construction 41

4.5. Type IV Construction 41

4.6. Type V Construction 41

Step 5. DETERMINE HOWMIXED USES AND OCCUPANCIES WILL BE HANDLED 43

5.1. Introduction to Mixed Occupancies 43

5.2. Separated Occupancies 44

5.3. Nonseparated Occupancies 44

5.4. Accessory Occupancies 45

5.5. Combination of Options 45

5.6. Deciding Which Method to Use 47

Step 6. DETERMINE SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY IF APPLICABLE  50

6.1. Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings (IBC Section 402) 51

6.2. High-Rise Buildings (IBC Section 403) 52

6.3. Atriums (IBC Section 404) 55

6.4. Underground Buildings (IBC Section 405) 56

6.5. Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies (IBC Section 406) 57

6.5.1. Private Garages and Carports (IBC Section 406.3) 57

6.5.2. Public Parking Garages (IBC Section 406.4) 57

6.5.2.1. Open Parking Garages (IBC Section 406.5) 58

6.5.2.2. Enclosed Parking Garages (IBC Section 406.6) 59

6.5.3. Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities (IBC Section 406.7) 60

6.5.4. Repair Garages (IBC Section 406.8) 60

6.6. Group I-2 (IBC Section 407) 61

6.7. Group I-3 (IBC Section 408) 61

6.8. Motion Picture Projection Rooms (IBC Section 409) 62

6.9. Stages, Platforms, and Technical Production Areas (IBC Section 410) 62

6.9.1. Stages (IBC Section 410.3) 62

6.9.2. Platforms (IBC Section 410.4) 63

6.10. Special Amusement Buildings (IBC Section 411) 63

6.11. Aircraft-Related Occupancies (IBC Section 412) 63

6.11.1. Airport Traffic Control Towers (IBC Section 412.3) 64

6.11.2. Aircraft Hangars (IBC Section 412.4) 64

6.11.3. Residential Aircraft Hangars (IBC Section 412.5) 65

6.11.4. Aircraft Paint Hangars (IBC Section 412.6) 65

6.11.5. Aircraft Manufacturing Facilities (IBC Section 412.7) 65

6.11.6. Heliports and Helistops (IBC Section 412.8) 65

6.12. Combustible Storage (IBC Section 413) 66

6.13. Hazardous Materials (IBC Section 414) 66

6.14. Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, and H-5 (IBC Section 415) 67

6.15. Application of Flammable Finishes (IBC Section 416) 68

6.16. Drying Rooms (IBC Section 417) 69

6.17. Organic Coatings (IBC Section 418) 69

6.18. Live/Work Units (IBC Section 419) 69

6.19. Groups I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3, and R-4 (IBC Section 420) 70

6.20. Hydrogen Fuel Gas Rooms (IBC Section 421) 70

6.21. Ambulatory Care Facilities (IBC Section 422) 71

6.22. Storm Shelters (IBC Section 423) 71

6.23. Children’s Play Structures (IBC Section 424) 71

6.24. Hyperbaric Facilities (IBC Section 425) 72

6.25. Combustible Dusts, Grain Processing, and Storage (IBC Section 426) 72

6.26. Special Construction 73

6.26.1. Membrane Structures (IBC Section 3102) 73

6.26.2. Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels (IBC Section 3104) 74

Step 7. DETERMINE ALLOWABLE AREA AND HEIGHT 75

7.1. Introduction to Area and Height Requirements 75

7.2. Determining Allowable Height (IBC Section 504) 76

7.2.1. Allowable Height in Feet 76

7.2.2. Allowable Height in Stories 77

7.2.3. Allowable Height for Mixed Occupancies 77

7.3. Determining Allowable Area (IBC Section 506)  77

7.3.1. Calculating Frontage Increase 78

7.3.2. Allowable Area of Single-Occupancy and Nonseparated Mixed-Occupancy Buildings 80

7.3.3. Allowable Area of Separated Mixed-Occupancy Buildings 84

7.3.4. Unlimited Area Buildings (IBC Section 507) 88

7.4. Special Provisions (IBC Section 510) 88

7.5. Design Options 93

Step 8. CALCULATE OCCUPANT LOAD 99

8.1. Introduction to Occupant Loads 99

8.2. Calculating Occupant Loads 100

8.2.1. Calculating Occupant Loads for Mall Buildings 101

8.3. Organizing Occupant Load Data 104

Step 9. ESTABLISH POINTS OF EGRESS 106

9.1. Introduction to the Means of Egress System 106

9.2. Number of Egress Doors 107

9.2.1. Number of Doorways from Spaces 107

9.2.2. Number of Egress Points from Stories 107

9.2.2.1. One Exit from Stories of Group R-2 Dwelling Units—IBC Table 1006.3.2(1) 108

9.2.2.2. One Exit from Stories of Other Occupancies—IBC Table 1006.3.2(2) 108

9.2.2.3. One Exit for Mixed Occupancies 108

9.3. Separation of Exit and Exit Access Doorways 110

9.4. Door Operation 112

Step 10. CHECK EGRESS PATHWAYS 116

10.1. General Requirements  116

10.2. The Exit Access (IBC Section 1016) 118

10.2.1. Exit Access Travel Distance (IBC Section 1017) 119

10.2.2. Common Path of Egress Travel (IBC Section 1006) 123

10.2.3. Aisles (IBC Sections 1018 and 1029) 125

10.2.4. Exit Access Stairways and Ramps (IBC Section 1019) 127

10.2.5. Corridors (IBC Section 1020) 128

10.2.6. Egress Balconies (IBC Section 1021) 129

10.3. The Exit (IBC Section 1022) 130

10.3.1. Interior Exit Stairways and Ramps (IBC Section 1023) 130

10.3.2. Exit Passageways (IBC Section 1024) 131

10.3.3. Horizontal Exits (IBC Section 1026) 131

10.3.4. Exterior Exit Stairways and Ramps (IBC Section 1027) 133

10.4. The Exit Discharge (IBC Section 1028) 134

10.4.1. Egress Courts (IBC Section 1028.4) 134

10.5. Accessible Means of Egress (IBC Section 1009) 135

10.5.1. Stairways (IBC Section 1009.3) 135

10.5.2. Elevators (IBC Section 1009.4) 136

10.5.3. Areas of Refuge (IBC Section 1009.6) 136

10.5.4. Exterior Areas for Assisted Rescue (IBC Section 1009.7) 137

10.5.5. Platform Lifts (IBC Section 1009.5) 137

10.6. Minimum Egress Pathway Capacities 137

Step 11. DETERMINE FIXTURE COUNTS 142

11.1. Introduction to Plumbing Fixtures 142

11.1.1. Occupant Load for Plumbing Fixtures 143

11.1.2. Plumbing Fixture Access and Location 144

11.2. Basic Fixture Count Calculations  145

11.3. Fixture Count Calculations for Mixed Occupancies 147

11.4. Substitutions 148

11.5. Toilet Room Planning 149

Step 12. IDENTIFY FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS ROADS 153

12.1. Minimum Requirements  153

12.2. Access Road Design  155

Step 13. IDENTIFY ACCESSIBLE ROUTES AND REQUIREMENTS 158

13.1. Introduction to Accessibility in the Building Code 158

13.2. Scoping Requirements (IBC Section 1103) 160

13.3. Accessible Routes (IBC Section 1104 and ICC/ANSI A117.1 Chapters 4 and 5) 161

13.3.1. Technical Requirements for Accessible Routes 162

13.3.2. Technical Requirements for Accessible Site Elements 166

13.4. Dwelling and Sleeping Units (IBC Section 1107 and ICC/ANSI A117 1 Chapter 10) 166

13.5. Toilet and Bathing Facilities (IBC Section 1109.2 and ICC/ANSI A117.1 Chapter 6) 167

PART III Design Development 173

Step 14. CONFIRM STEPS 2 THROUGH 13 175

14.1. Review of Changes 175

14.2. Changes to Building Area and/or Height 176

14.3. Changes in Function and/or Size of Spaces 176

14.4. Changes in Building Structural Materials 178

14.5. Changes in Space Arrangement 178

14.6. Changes in Location on Site 179

Step 15. IDENTIFY LOCATIONS OF FIRE-RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION, ASSEMBLIES, AND OPENINGS 186

15.1. Identifying Fire-Resistive Assemblies and Construction 186

15.1.1. Fire Walls 187

15.1.1.1. Fire Wall Horizontal Continuity  187

15.1.1.2. Fire Wall Vertical Continuity 191

15.1.2. Fire Barriers 193

15.1.3. Smoke Barriers 194

15.1.4. Fire Partitions 194

15.1.5. Smoke Partitions 196

15.1.6. Horizontal Assemblies 197

15.1.7. Primary Structural Frame and Bearing Wall Structure 198

15.2. Opening Protection 199

Step 16. DEVELOP EXTERIORWALL AND EXPOSED FLOOR ASSEMBLIES 208

16.1. ExteriorWall Fire Resistance and Opening Protection 208

16.2. Projections 213

16.3. Thermal Performance 213

16.3.1. Commercial Thermal Performance 214

16.3.1.1. R-Value Method (IECC Section C402.1.3) 215

16.3.1.2. U-Factor, C-Factor, and F-Factor Method (IECC Section C402.1.4) 215

16.3.1.3. Component Performance Alternative Method (IECC Section C402.1.5)  216

16.3.2. Residential Thermal Performance  216

16.3.2.1. R-Value Computation Method (IECC Section R402.1.3) 216

16.3.2.2. U-Factor Alternative Method (IECC Section R402.1.4) 217

16.3.2.3. Total UA Alternative Method (IECC Section R402.1.5) 218

16.4. Air and Water Management 218

16.4.1. Air Management 218

16.4.2. Water Management 219

16.4.2.1. Above-Grade Exterior Walls 219

16.4.2.2. BasementWalls 220

16.5. ExteriorWall Materials 220

16.6. Fire Propagation 221

Step 17. DEVELOP ROOF ASSEMBLIES 229

17.1. Roof Assembly Performance  229

17.1.1. Fire Classification and Resistance 230

17.1.2. Wind Resistance  230

17.1.3. Thermal Performance 231

17.1.3.1. Commercial Buildings 231

17.1.3.2. Residential Buildings 233

17.2. Roof Openings and Penetrations 234

17.2.1. Fire Resistance 234

17.2.2. Skylights 234

17.2.3. Roof Hatches 236

17.3. Rooftop Structures and Equipment 236

17.4. Roof Construction Materials 236

17.4.1. Roof Coverings 236

17.4.2. Underlayments 238

17.4.3. Insulation 238

17.4.4. Flashings 238

Step 18. SELECT FINISHES 242

18.1. Introduction to Finishes 242

18.2. Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes 243

18.2.1. Flame and Smoke Performance 243

18.2.2. Sanitation 244

18.2.3. Moisture and Mold Resistance 244

18.3. Interior Floor Finishes 244

18.3.1. Flame and Smoke Performance 244

18.3.2. Sanitation 245

18.3.3. Slip Resistance 245

18.3.4. Firmness and Stability 246

18.4. Elevator Finishes 246

18.5. Decorations and Trim 246

Step 19. CHECK EGRESS WIDTHS 250

19.1. Calculation of Minimum Egress Width 250

19.1.1. ExitWidth from Buildings  253

19.1.2. ExitWidth from Stories 253

19.1.3. ExitWidth for Corridors 254

19.1.4. ExitWidth from Spaces 255

19.2. Calculation of Aisle and Aisle Accessway Widths 256

Step 20. CHECK ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS 264

20.1. Reach and Clearance Detail Requirements 264

20.2. Accessible Assembly Seating (IBC Section 1108.2 and ICC/ANSI A117.1 Section 802) 265

20.3. Kitchens (IBC Section 1109.4 and ICC/ANSI A117.1 Section 804) 267

20.4. Dwelling and Sleeping Units (ICC/ANSI A117.1 Chapter 10) 268

20.4.1. Toilet and Bathing Facilities in Dwelling and Sleeping Units 268

20.4.2. Kitchens in Dwelling and Sleeping Units 269

20.5. Recreational Facilities 269

Step 21. INTEGRATE SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS 277

21.1. Special Uses and Occupancies 277

21.2. Sound Transmission 277

21.2.1. Airborne Sound Transmission 279

21.2.2. Structure-Borne Sound Transmission 279

21.3. Emergency Escape and Rescue 280

21.3.1. Minimum Size of Openings 280

21.3.2. Window Wells for Below-Grade Openings 280

21.4. Elevators and Conveying Systems  281

21.4.1. General Elevator Requirements 281

21.4.1.1. Pits and Clearances  283

21.4.1.2. Machine Rooms. 283

21.4.1.3. Elevator Lobbies and Hoistway Opening Protection 284

21.4.2. Fire Service Access Elevators (IBC Section 3007)  284

21.4.3. Occupant Evacuation Elevators (IBC Section 3008) 285

21.4.4. Conveying Systems Other Than Elevators  285

21.5. Flood-Resistant Design 286

21.6. Special Construction  287

PART IV Construction Documents  291

Step 22. CONFIRM STEPS 14 THROUGH 21 293

22.1. Review of Changes 293

22.2. Changes in Function and/or Size of Spaces 294

22.3. Changes in Space Arrangement 294

22.4. Changes in Building Structural Materials 294

22.5. Changes in Location on Site 295

22.6. Changes in Wall and Roof Assemblies 295

22.7. Changes in Interior Finish Materials 296

Step 23. INTEGRATE EGRESS DETAILS 297

23.1. Stairs, Ramps, Handrails, and Guards 297

23.1.1. Stairs (IBC Section 1011) 297

23.1.2. Ramps (IBC Section 1012) 298

23.1.3. Handrails (IBC Section 1014) 298

23.1.4. Guards (IBC Section 1015) 299

23.2. Unenclosed Exit Access Stairways and Ramps 299

23.3. Luminous Markings 300

Step 24. IDENTIFY LOCATIONS OF SAFETY GLAZING 304

24.1. Introduction to Safety Glazing 304

24.2. Human Impact Resistance 305

24.2.1. Glazing in Athletic Facilities 308

24.2.2. Glazing in Elevators 309

24.2.3. Wired Glass 309

24.3. Sloped Glazing Assemblies 310

Step 25. DETAIL FIRESTOPPING, FIRE-RESISTANT JOINTS, AND FIREPROOFING 311

25.1. Penetrations (IBC Section 714) 311

25.1.1. Penetrations in Fire-Resistance-RatedWalls (IBC Section 714.3) 312

25.1.2. Penetrations in Horizontal Assemblies (IBC Section 714.4) 313

25.2. Fire-Resistant Joint Systems (IBC Sections 715) 314

25.3. Fireproofing 315

25.4. Special Inspections (IBC Sections 1705.14, 1705.15, and 1705.17) 316

Step 26. LOCATE PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS AND CABINETS 318

26.1. Fire Extinguisher Requirements Overview (IBC Section 906) 318

26.2. Selection of Fire Extinguishers 319

26.3. Determining Number of Required Extinguishers 320

26.4. Location and Installation of Fire Extinguishers 320

Step 27. DETAIL CONSTRUCTION BASED ON SPECIFIC BUILDING MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 327

27.1. Code Requirements for Specific Materials  327

27.1.1. Concrete 327

27.1.2. Masonry 328

27.1.3. Steel 329

27.1.4. Wood 330

27.1.5. Gypsum and Plaster 330

27.2. Accessibility Details 331

Step 28. PREPARE CODE INFORMATION FOR CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 333

28.1. Submittal Documents Overview (IBC Section 107 and IECC Section C103) 333

28.2. Code Data on Construction Documents 335

28.2.1. Basic Code Data 336

28.2.2. Code Data on Drawings 337

28.2.3. Code Data in the Project Manual 338

PART V Existing Buildings 339

TYPES OF WORK 341

COMPLIANCE METHODS 342

Overview 342

Prescriptive Compliance Method 343

Additions 343

Alterations 343

Repairs 344

Fire Escapes 344

Glass and Window Replacement 344

Change of Occupancy 344

Historic Buildings 345

Other Requirements 345

Work Area Compliance Method 346

Performance Compliance Method 347

APPLYING THE STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS TO EXISTING BUILDINGS 349

Schematic Design 349

Design Development 351

Construction Documents 352

PART VI Code Enforcement 353

AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION 355

Statuatory AHJ 356

Contractual AHJ 356

THE DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 357

The Building Official 358

Plans Examiners 358

Inspectors 359

PLAN REVIEWS 361

CODE ENFORCEMENT AND THE BUILDING CODE APPLICATION PROCESS  363

Appendix 365

A. ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMFOR PRIVATIZED STUDENT HOUSING 367

B. CODE DATA INFORMATION TEMPLATE 370

C. CODE DATA INFORMATION FOR EXAMPLE PROJECT 400

References 417

Index 421

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Author Information

Ronald L. Geren, FCSI, AIA, CCS, CCCA, SCIP, is the owner of RLGA Technical Services, a building code and specifications consulting firm in Scottsdale, Arizona. He has over 30 years' experience in the construction industry with multiple building types, working in design firms and as an owner's representative. He is a professor of architecture at Taliesin, the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture, where he teaches building codes, building construction technology, construction documents, and architectural practice management. Ronald is also a certified building plans examiner, certified construction specifier, and a certified construction contract administrator.

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