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Hydroprocessing for Clean Energy: Design, Operation, and Optimization

ISBN: 978-1-118-92135-7
576 pages
January 2017
Hydroprocessing for Clean Energy: Design, Operation, and Optimization (1118921356) cover image

Description

Provides a holistic approach that looks at changing process conditions, possible process design changes, and process technology upgrades

  • Includes process integration techniques for improving process designs and for applying optimization techniques for improving operations focusing on hydroprocessing units.
  • Discusses in details all important aspects of hydroprocessing – including catalytic materials, reaction mechanism, as well as process design, operation and control, troubleshooting and optimization 
  • Methods and tools are introduced that have a successful application track record at UOP and many industrial plants in recent years
  • Includes relevant calculations/software/technologies hosted online for purchasers of the book
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Table of Contents

PREFACE xiii

PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1

1 Overview of This Book 3

1.1 Energy Sustainability, 3

1.2 ULSD – Important Part of the Energy Mix, 4

1.3 Technical Challenges for Making ULSD, 7

1.4 What is the Book Written for, 8

References, 8

2 Refinery Feeds, Products, and Processes 9

2.1 Introduction, 9

2.2 ASTM Standard for Crude Characterization, 10

2.3 Important Terminologies in Crude Characterization, 12

2.4 Refining Processes, 13

2.5 Products and Properties, 15

2.6 Biofuel, 20

3 Diesel Hydrotreating Process 23

3.1 Why Diesel Hydrotreating?, 23

3.2 Basic Process Flowsheeting, 25

3.3 Feeds, 28

3.4 Products, 30

3.5 Reaction Mechanisms, 36

3.6 Hydrotreating Catalysts, 40

3.7 Key Process Conditions, 44

3.8 Different Types of Process Designs, 47

References, 48

4 Description of Hydrocracking Process 51

4.1 Why Hydrocracking, 51

4.2 Basic Processing Blocks, 53

4.3 Feeds, 58

4.4 Products, 59

4.5 Reaction Mechanism and Catalysts, 61

4.6 Catalysts, 67

4.7 Key Process Conditions, 70

4.8 Typical Process Designs, 75

References, 78

PART 2 HYDROPROCESSING DESIGN 79

5 Process Design Considerations 81

5.1 Introduction, 81

5.2 Reactor Design, 81

5.3 Recycle Gas Purity, 98

5.4 Wash Water, 102

5.5 Separator Design, 107

5.6 Makeup Gas Compression, 115

References, 121

6 Distillate Hydrotreating Unit Design 123

6.1 Introduction, 123

6.2 Number of Separators, 123

6.3 Stripper Design, 127

6.4 Debutanizer Design, 135

6.5 Integrated Design, 136

References, 147

7 Hydrocracking Unit Design 149

7.1 Introduction, 149

7.2 Single-stage Hydrocracking Reactor Section, 150

7.3 Two-stage Hydrocracking Reactor Section, 155

7.4 Use of a Hot Separator in Hydrocracking Unit Design, 158

7.5 Use of Flash Drums, 160

7.6 Hydrocracking Unit Fractionation Section Design, 161

7.7 Fractionator First Flow Scheme, 161

7.8 Debutanizer First Flow Scheme, 163

7.9 Stripper First Fractionation Flow Scheme, 166

7.10 Dual Zone Stripper Fractionation Flow Scheme, 168

7.11 Dual Zone Stripper – Dual Fractionator Flow Scheme, 170

7.12 Hot Separator Operating Temperature, 171

7.13 Hydrogen Recovery, 174

7.14 LPG Recovery, 175

7.15 HPNA Rejection, 177

7.16 Hydrocracking Unit Integrated Design, 181

References, 187

PART 3 ENERGY AND PROCESS INTEGRATION 189

8 Heat Integration for Better Energy Efficiency 191

8.1 Introduction, 191

8.2 Energy Targeting, 191

8.3 Grassroots Heat Exchanger Network (Hen) Design, 202

8.4 Network Pinch for Energy Retrofit, 206

Nomenclature, 213

References, 213

9 Process Integration for Low-Cost Design 215

9.1 Introduction, 215

9.2 Definition of Process Integration, 216

9.3 Grand Composite Curves (GCC), 218

9.4 Appropriate Placement Principle for Process Changes, 219

9.5 Dividing Wall Distillation Column, 225

9.6 Systematic Approach for Process Integration, 228

9.7 Applications of the Process Integration Methodology, 230

9.8 Summary of Potential Energy Efficiency Improvements, 246

References, 247

10 Distillation Column Operating Window 249

10.1 Introduction, 249

10.2 What is Distillation?, 249

10.3 Why Distillation is the Most Widely Used?, 251

10.4 Distillation Efficiency, 253

10.5 Definition of Feasible Operating Window, 255

10.6 Understanding Operating Window, 256

10.7 Typical Capacity Limits, 275

10.8 Effects of Design Parameters, 275

10.9 Design Checklist, 278

10.10 Example Calculations for Developing Operating Window, 281

10.11 Concluding Remarks, 296

Nomenclature, 297

References, 299

PART 4 PROCESS EQUIPMENT ASSESSMENT 301

11 Fired Heater Assessment 303

11.1 Introduction, 303

11.2 Fired Heater Design for High Reliability, 304

11.3 Fired Heater Operation for High Reliability, 310

11.4 Efficient Fired Heater Operation, 315

11.5 Fired Heater Revamp, 321

Nomenclature, 322

References, 322

12 Pump Assessment 323

12.1 Introduction, 323

12.2 Understanding Pump Head, 324

12.3 Define Pump Head – Bernoulli Equation, 325

12.4 Calculate Pump Head, 329

12.5 Total Head Calculation Examples, 330

12.6 Pump System Characteristics – System Curve, 332

12.7 Pump Characteristics – Pump Curve, 333

12.8 Best Efficiency Point (Bep), 338

12.9 Pump Curves for Different Pump Arrangement, 338

12.10 NPSH, 340

12.11 Spillback, 345

12.12 Reliability Operating Envelope (ROE), 346

12.13 Pump Control, 347

12.14 Pump Selection and Sizing, 347

Nomenclature, 351

References, 351

13 Compressor Assessment 353

13.1 Introduction, 353

13.2 Types of Compressors, 354

13.3 Impeller Configurations, 357

13.4 Type of Blades, 358

13.5 How a Compressor Works, 358

13.6 Fundamentals of Centrifugal Compressors, 360

13.7 Performance Curves, 362

13.8 Partial Load Control, 364

13.9 Inlet Throttle Valve, 366

13.10 Process Context for a Centrifugal Compressor, 367

13.11 Compressor Selection, 368

Nomenclature, 369

References, 369

14 Heat Exchanger Assessment 371

14.1 Introduction, 371

14.2 Basic Concepts and Calculations, 371

14.3 Understand Performance Criterion – U Values, 374

14.4 Understand Fouling, 380

14.5 Understand Pressure Drop, 382

14.6 Effects of Velocity on Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop, and Fouling, 384

14.7 Heat Exchanger Rating Assessment, 385

14.8 Improving Heat Exchanger Performance, 396

Nomenclature, 399

References, 400

15 Distillation Column Assessment 401

15.1 Introduction, 401

15.2 Define a Base Case, 401

15.3 Calculations for Missing and Incomplete Data, 403

15.4 Building Process Simulation, 406

15.5 Heat and Material Balance Assessment, 408

15.6 Tower Efficiency Assessment, 411

15.7 Operating Profile Assessment, 414

15.8 Tower Rating Assessment, 417

15.9 Guidelines, 419

Nomenclature, 420

References, 420

PART 5 PROCESS SYSTEM EVALUATION 423

16 Energy Benchmarking 425

16.1 Introduction, 425

16.2 Definition of Energy Intensity for a Process, 426

16.3 The Concept of Fuel Equivalent for Steam and Power (FE), 427

16.4 Data Extraction, 429

16.5 Convert All Energy Usage to Fuel Equivalent, 432

16.6 Energy Balance, 432

16.7 Fuel Equivalent for Steam and Power, 435

16.8 Energy Performance Index (EPI) Method for Energy Benchmarking, 441

16.9 Concluding Remarks, 444

16.10 Nomenclature, 445

References, 446

17 Key Indicators and Targets 447

17.1 Introduction, 447

17.2 Key Indicators Represent Operation Opportunities, 448

17.3 Define Key Indicators, 451

17.4 Set Up Targets for Key Indicators, 456

17.5 Economic Evaluation for Key Indicators, 460

17.6 Application 1: Implementing Key Indicators into an “Energy Dashboard”, 463

17.7 Application 2: Implementing Key Indicators to Controllers, 465

17.8 It is Worth the Effort, 466

Nomenclature, 467

References, 467

18 Distillation System Optimization 469

18.1 Introduction, 469

18.2 Tower Optimization Basics, 470

18.3 Energy Optimization for Distillation System, 475

18.4 Overall Process Optimization, 481

18.5 Concluding Remarks, 489

References, 490

PART 6 OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES AND TROUBLESHOOTING 491

19 Common Operating Issues 493

19.1 Introduction, 493

19.2 Catalyst Activation Problems, 494

19.3 Feedstock Variations and Contaminants, 495

19.4 Operation Upsets, 496

19.5 Treating/Cracking Catalyst Deactivation Imbalance, 497

19.6 Flow Maldistribution, 500

19.7 Temperature Excursion, 501

19.8 Reactor Pressure Drop, 504

19.9 Corrosion, 506

19.10 HPNA, 509

19.11 Conclusion, 511

20 Troubleshooting Case Analysis 513

20.1 Introduction, 513

20.2 Case Study I – Product Selectivity Changes, 514

20.3 Case Study II – Feedstock Changes, 516

20.4 Case Study III – Catalyst Deactivation Balance, 523

20.5 Case Study IV – Catalyst Migration, 526

20.6 Conclusion, 536

INDEX 537

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