Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots: Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, 4th EditionISBN: 9781118923368
624 pages
June 2016

Description
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies.
This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including:
 Properties of nonparabolic energy bands
 Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrödinger equations
 Critical thickness of strained materials
 Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities
 Density matrix transport modelling
 Thermal modelling
Written by wellknown authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this userfriendly guide is presented in a lucid style with easy to follow steps, illustrative examples and questions and computational problems in each chapter to help the reader build solid foundations of understanding to a level where they can initiate their own theoretical investigations. Suitable for postgraduate students of semiconductor and condensed matter physics, the book is essential to all those researching in academic and industrial laboratories worldwide.
Instructors can contact the authors directly (p.harrison@shu.ac.uk / a.valavanis@leeds.ac.uk) for Solutions to the problems.
Table of Contents
Dedication iii
List of Contributors xiii
Preface xv
Acknowledgements xix
Introduction xxiii
References xxiv
1 Semiconductors and heterostructures 1
1.1 The mechanics of waves 1
1.2 Crystal structure 3
1.3 The effective mass approximation 5
1.4 Band theory 5
1.5 Heterojunctions 7
1.6 Heterostructures 7
1.7 The envelope function approximation 10
1.8 Band nonparabolicity 11
1.9 The reciprocal lattice 13
Exercises 16
References 17
2 Solutions to Schrödinger’s equation 19
2.1 The infinite well 19
2.2 Inplane dispersion 22
2.3 Extension to include band nonparabolicity 24
2.4 Density of states 26
2.4.1 Densityofstates effective mass 28
2.4.2 Twodimensional systems 29
2.5 Subband populations 31
2.5.1 Populations in nonparabolic subbands 33
2.5.2 Calculation of quasiFermi energy 35
2.6 Thermalised distributions 36
2.7 Finite well with constant mass 37
2.7.1 Unbound states 43
2.7.2 Effective mass mismatch at heterojunctions 45
2.7.3 The infinite barrier height and mass limits 49
2.8 Extension to multiplewell systems 50
2.9 The asymmetric single quantum well 53
2.10 Addition of an electric field 54
2.11 The infinite superlattice 57
2.12 The single barrier 63
2.13 The double barrier 65
2.14 Extension to include electric field 71
2.15 Magnetic fields and Landau quantisation 72
2.16 In summary 74
Exercises 74
References 76
3 Numerical solutions 79
3.1 Bisection rootfinding 79
3.2 Newton–Raphson root finding 81
3.3 Numerical differentiation 83
3.4 Discretised Schrödinger equation 84
3.5 Shooting method 84
3.6 Generalized initial conditions 86
3.7 Practical implementation of the shooting method 88
3.8 Heterojunction boundary conditions 90
3.9 Matrix solutions of the discretised Schrödinger equation 91
3.10 The parabolic potential well 94
3.11 The Pöschl–Teller potential hole 98
3.12 Convergence tests 98
3.13 Extension to variable effective mass 99
3.14 The double quantum well 103
3.15 Multiple quantum wells and finite superlattices 104
3.16 Addition of electric field 106
3.17 Extension to include variable permittivity 106
3.18 Quantum confined Stark effect 108
3.19 Field–induced anticrossings 108
3.20 Symmetry and selection rules 110
3.21 The Heisenberg uncertainty principle 110
3.22 Extension to include band nonparabolicity 113
3.23 Poisson’s equation 114
3.24 Matrix solution of Poisson’s equation 118
3.25 Selfconsistent Schrödinger–Poisson solution 119
3.26 Modulation doping 121
3.27 The highelectronmobility transistor 122
3.28 Band filling 123
Exercises 124
References 125
4 Diffusion 127
4.1 Introduction 127
4.2 Theory 129
4.3 Boundary conditions 130
4.4 Convergence tests 131
4.5 Numerical stability 133
4.6 Constant diffusion coefficients 133
4.7 Concentration dependent diffusion coefficient 135
4.8 Depth dependent diffusion coefficient 136
4.9 Time dependent diffusion coefficient 138
4.10 δdoped quantum wells 138
4.11 Extension to higher dimensions 141
Exercises 142
References 142
5 Impurities 145
5.1 Donors and acceptors in bulk material 145
5.2 Binding energy in a heterostructure 147
5.3 Twodimensional trial wave function 152
5.4 Threedimensional trial wave function 158
5.5 Variablesymmetry trial wave function 164
5.6 Inclusion of a central cell correction 170
5.7 Special considerations for acceptors 171
5.8 Effective mass and dielectric mismatch 172
5.9 Band nonparabolicity 173
5.10 Excited states 173
5.11 Application to spinflip Raman spectroscopy 174
5.11.1 Diluted magnetic semiconductors 174
5.11.2 Spinflip Raman spectroscopy 176
5.12 Alternative approach to excited impurity states 178
5.13 The ground state 180
5.14 Position dependence 181
5.15 Excited states 181
5.16 Impurity occupancy statistics 184
Exercises 188
References 189
6 Excitons 191
6.1 Excitons in bulk 191
6.2 Excitons in heterostructures 193
6.3 Exciton binding energies 193
6.4 1s exciton 198
6.5 The twodimensional and threedimensional limits 202
6.6 Excitons in single quantum wells 206
6.7 Excitons in multiple quantum wells 208
6.8 Stark ladders 210
6.9 Selfconsistent effects 211
6.10 2s exciton 212
Exercises 214
References 215
7 Strained quantum wells 217
7.1 Stress and strain in bulk crystals 217
7.2 Strain in quantum wells 221
7.3 Critical thickness of layers 224
7.4 Strain balancing 226
7.5 Effect on the band profile of quantum wells 228
7.6 The piezoelectric effect 231
7.7 Induced piezoelectric fields in quantum wells 234
7.8 Effect of piezoelectric fields on quantum wells 236
Exercises 239
References 240
8 Simple models of quantum wires and dots 241
8.1 Further confinement 241
8.2 Schrödinger’s equation in quantum wires 243
8.3 Infinitely deep rectangular wires 245
8.4 Simple approximation to a finite rectangular wire 247
8.5 Circular crosssection wire 251
8.6 Quantum boxes 255
8.7 Spherical quantum dots 256
8.8 Nonzero angular momentum states 259
8.9 Approaches to pyramidal dots 262
8.10 Matrix approaches 263
8.11 Finite difference expansions 263
8.12 Density of states 265
Exercises 267
References 268
9 Quantum dots 269
9.1 0dimensional systems and their experimental realization 269
9.2 Cuboidal dots 271
9.3 Dots of arbitrary shape 272
9.3.1 Convergence tests 277
9.3.2 Efficiency 279
9.3.3 Optimization 281
9.4 Application to real problems 282
9.4.1 InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots 282
9.4.2 Working assumptions 282
9.4.3 Results 283
9.4.4 Concluding remarks 286
9.5 A more complex model is not always a better model 288
Exercises 289
References 290
10 Carrier scattering 293
10.1 Introduction 293
10.2 Fermi’s Golden Rule 294
10.3 Extension to sinusoidal perturbations 296
10.4 Averaging over twodimensional carrier distributions 296
10.5 Phonons 298
10.6 Longitudinal optic phonon scattering of twodimensional carriers 301
10.7 Application to conduction subbands 313
10.8 Mean intersubband LO phonon scattering rate 315
10.9 Ratio of emission to absorption 316
10.10 Screening of the LO phonon interaction 318
10.11 Acoustic deformation potential scattering 319
10.12 Application to conduction subbands 324
10.13 Optical deformation potential scattering 326
10.14 Confined and interface phonon modes 328
10.15 Carrier–carrier scattering 328
10.16 Addition of screening 336
10.17 Mean intersubband carrier–carrier scattering rate 337
10.18 Computational implementation 339
10.19 Intrasubband versus intersubband 340
10.20 Thermalized distributions 341
10.21 Augertype intersubband processes 342
10.22 Asymmetric intrasubband processes 343
10.23 Empirical relationships 344
10.24 A generalised expression for scattering of twodimensional carriers 345
10.25 Impurity scattering 346
10.26 Alloy disorder scattering 351
10.27 Alloy disorder scattering in quantum wells 354
10.28 Interface roughness scattering 355
10.29 Interface roughness scattering in quantum wells 359
10.30 Carrier scattering in quantum wires and dots 362
Exercises 362
References 364
11 Optical properties of quantum wells 367
11.1 Carrier–photon scattering 367
11.2 Spontaneous emission lifetime 372
11.3 Intersubband absorption in quantum wells 374
11.4 Bound–bound transitions 376
11.5 Bound–free transitions 377
11.6 Rectangular quantum well 379
11.7 Intersubband optical nonlinearities 382
11.8 Electric polarization 383
11.9 Intersubband second harmonic generation 384
11.10 Maximization of resonant susceptibility 387
Exercises 390
References 391
12 Carrier transport 393
12.1 Introduction 393
12.2 Quantum cascade lasers 393
12.3 Realistic quantum cascade laser 398
12.4 Rate equations 400
12.5 Selfconsistent solution of the rate equations 402
12.6 Calculation of the current density 404
12.7 Phonon and carrier–carrier scattering transport 404
12.8 Electron temperature 405
12.9 Calculation of the gain 408
12.10 QCLs, QWIPs, QDIPs and other methods 411
12.11 Density matrix approaches 412
12.11.1 Time evolution of the density matrix 415
12.11.2 Density matrix modelling of terahertz QCLs 416
Exercises 418
References 420
13 Optical waveguides 423
13.1 Introduction to optical waveguides 423
13.2 Optical waveguide analysis 425
13.2.1 The wave equation 425
13.2.2 The transfer matrix method 428
13.2.3 Guided modes in multilayer waveguides 431
13.3 Optical properties of materials 434
13.3.1 Semiconductors 434
13.3.2 Influence of freecarriers 436
13.3.3 Carrier mobility model 438
13.3.4 Influence of doping 439
13.4 Application to waveguides of laser devices 440
13.4.1 Double heterostructure laser waveguide 441
13.4.2 Quantum cascade laser waveguides 443
13.5 Thermal properties of waveguides 447
13.6 The heat equation 449
13.7 Material properties 450
13.7.1 Thermal conductivity 450
13.7.2 Specific heat capacity 451
13.8 Finite difference approximation to the heat equation 453
13.9 Steadystate solution of the heat equation 454
13.10 Timeresolved solution 457
13.11 Simplified RC thermal models 458
Exercises 461
References 462
14 Multiband envelope function (k.p) method 465
14.1 Symmetry, basis states and band structure 465
14.2 Valence band structure and the 6 × 6 Hamiltonian 466
14.3 4 × 4 valence band Hamiltonian 470
14.4 Complex band structure 471
14.5 Blockdiagonalization of the Hamiltonian 472
14.6 The valence band in strained cubic semiconductors 474
14.7 Hole subbands in heterostructures 476
14.8 Valence band offset 478
14.9 The layer (transfer matrix) method 479
14.10 Quantum well subbands 483
14.11 The influence of strain 484
14.12 Strained quantum well subbands 484
14.13 Direct numerical methods 485
Exercises 486
References 486
15 Empirical pseudopotential bandstructure 487
15.1 Principles and approximations 487
15.2 Elemental band structure calculation 488
15.3 Spin–orbit coupling 496
15.4 Compound semiconductors 498
15.5 Charge densities 501
15.6 Calculating the effective mass 504
15.7 Alloys 504
15.8 Atomic form factors 506
15.9 Generalization to a large basis 507
15.10 Spin–orbit coupling within the large basis approach 510
15.11 Computational implementation 511
15.12 Deducing the parameters and application 512
15.13 Isoelectronic impurities in bulk 515
15.14 The electronic structure around point defects 520
Exercises 520
References 521
16 Pseudopotential calculations of nanostructures 523
16.1 The superlattice unit cell 523
16.2 Application of large basis method to superlattices 526
16.3 Comparison with envelope function approximation 530
16.4 Inplane dispersion 531
16.5 Interface coordination 532
16.6 Strainlayered superlattices 533
16.7 The superlattice as a perturbation 534
16.8 Application to GaAs/AlAs superlattices 539
16.9 Inclusion of remote bands 541
16.10 The valence band 542
16.11 Computational effort 542
16.12 Superlattice dispersion and the interminiband laser 543
16.13 Addition of electric field 545
16.14 Application of the large basis method to quantum wires 549
16.15 Confined states 552
16.16 Application of the large basis method to tiny quantum dots 552
16.17 Pyramidal quantum dots 554
16.18 Transport through dot arrays 555
16.19 Recent progress 556
Exercises 556
References 557
Concluding remarks 559
A Materials parameters 561
B Introduction to the simulation tools 563
B.1 Documentation and support 564
B.2 Installation and dependencies 564
B.3 Simulation programs 565
B.4 Introduction to scripting 566
B.5 Example calculations 567