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Building Systems for Interior Designers, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-92554-6
432 pages
January 2016
Building Systems for Interior Designers, 3rd Edition (1118925548) cover image

Description

The ultimate interior designer's guide to building systems and safety

Building Systems for Interior Designers, Third Edition is the single-source technical reference that every designer needs, and an ideal solution for NCIDQ exam preparation. Now in its third edition, this invaluable guide has been updated to better address the special concerns of the interior designer within the context of the entire design team. New coverage includes the latest information on sustainable design and energy conservation, expanded coverage of security and building control systems, and a new and expanded art program with over 250 new illustrations. Covering systems from HVAC to water to waste to lighting, this book explains technical building systems and engineering issues in a clear and accessible way to help interior designers communicate more effectively with architects, engineers, and contractors.

Professional interior design is about much more than aesthetics and decorating, and technical knowledge is critical. Before the space is planned, the designer must consider the mechanical and electrical equipment, structural system, and building components, and how they impact the space. This book shows you how to evaluate these complex factors, and how each affects your work throughout the building.

  • Consider how site conditions and structural systems affect interior design
  • Design functionally for human health and safety
  • Factor water, electrical, and thermal systems into your design plans
  • Examine the ways in which lighting and acoustics affect the space

The comfort, safety, and ultimate success of a project depend upon your knowledge of building system and your coordination with architects and engineers. Building Systems for Interior Designers, Third Edition provides the comprehensive yet focused information you need to excel at what you do best.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xii

PART I THE BUILDING, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND HEALTH AND SAFETY

CHAPTER 1 Environmental Conditions and the Site 3

Introduction 3

Climate Change 4

Energy Sources 5

Electricity 5

Renewable Energy Sources 5

Non-Sustainable Energy Sources 9

Global Climate Change 10

Energy Consumption by Buildings 11

Building Site Conditions 12

Building Placement 12

Climates 12

Site Conditions 14

Interior Layout 18

Existing Buildings 18

CHAPTER 2 Designing for the Environment 19

Introduction 19

Building Envelope 19

History 20

Dynamic Building Envelope 20

Building Envelope and Codes 21

Exterior Walls 21

Roofs 22

Heat Flow and the Building Envelope 24

Terminology 24

Thermodynamics 24

Heat Flow and Building Envelope 25

Moisture Flow through Building Envelope 27

Envelope Thermal Performance 28

Insulation Materials 28

Air Films and Air Spaces 29

Insulation Types and Forms 30

Energy-Efficient Design 32

Passive Systems 32

Active Solar and Hybrid Systems 34

The Design Process 34

The Design Team 34

Integrated Design 36

Sustainable Design 36

Energy Efficiency and Conservation 36

Sustainability and Green Design 36

Energy and Materials 37

Setting Sustainability Goals 38

Sustainable Design Strategies 38

LEED System 39

High Performance Buildings 39

CHAPTER 3 Designing for Human Health and Safety 41

Introduction 41

Human Body and the Built Environment 41

Maintaining Thermal Equilibrium 41

Visual and Acoustic Comfort 44

Other Human Environmental Requirements 45

Hazardous Materials 46

Renovation Considerations 46

Lead 46

Asbestos 46

Mold 47

Building Codes and Standards 47

Building Codes 47

Standards and Organizations 48

Federal Codes and Regulations 49

Energy Efficiency Requirements 50

PART II BUILDING COMPONENTS

CHAPTER 4 Building Forms, Structures, and Elements 53

Introduction 53

History 53

Building Form 54

Structural System 54

Foundations 54

Building Loads 55

Types of Building Loads 56

Compression, Defl ection, and Tension 56

Spanning Openings 56

Vertical Supports 59

Lateral Forces 61

Shearing Forces 61

Grid Frameworks 62

Service Cores 62

Structural Types 63

Light Frame Structures 63

Post-and-Beam and Heavy Timber 63

Masonry Structures 64

Concrete Structures 67

Metal Structures 68

Other Structural Types 69

CHAPTER 5 Floor/Ceiling Assemblies, Walls, and Stairs 70

Introduction 70

Horizontal Structural Units 70

Floor/Ceiling Assemblies 70

Interior Design Concerns 72

Floor Systems 72

Wall Systems 74

Load-Bearing Walls and Frames 74

Interior Walls and Partitions 75

Stairs and Ramps 75

Stairs 75

Ramps 81

CHAPTER 6 Windows and Doors 83

Introduction 83

History 83

Windows 84

Window Selection 84

Window Types 85

Glazing 87

Window Frames 89

Storm Windows and Screens 89

Thermal Transmission 90

Shading and Solar Control 92

Toplighting and Skylights 94

Toplighting 94

Doors 96

Thermal Performance 96

Exterior Doors 96

Interior Doors 97

Door Types 99

Fire Doors 101

Door Hardware 102

PART III ACOUSTICS

CHAPTER 7 Acoustic Design Principles 105

Introduction 105

Sound Basics 105

Sound Propagation 105

Sound Waves 106

Frequency 106

Sound Magnitude 106

Hearing 107

Human Ear 107

Loudness 107

Sound Masking 108

Directivity and Discrimination 109

Sound Sources 109

Speech 109

Music 109

Noise 109

Vibration 110

Sound Paths 110

Attenuation 110

Reflected Sound 110

Natural Sound Reinforcement 112

Absorbed Sound 113

CHAPTER 8 Architectural Acoustics 114

Introduction 114

History 114

Acoustic Codes and Standards 115

Acoustic Design 115

Design Process 115

Room Acoustics 115

Building Noise Control 116

Controlling Exterior Noise 116

Controlling Interior Noise 117

Background Noise 118

Sound Transmission 118

Airborne and Structure-Borne Sound 118

Measuring Sound Transmission 120

Sound Absorption 121

Reducing Acoustic Energy 121

Measuring Sound Absorption 121

Reverberation 124

Sound Isolation 124

Mass 124

Resiliency 125

Tightness 125

Compound Barriers 125

Floor/Ceiling Assemblies 125

Special Acoustic Devices 126

Sound Transmission Between Spaces 126

Walls and Partitions 126

Flanking Paths 126

Impact Noise 129

Materials and Acoustics 130

Acoustic Products 130

Ceiling Products 130

Wall Panels 133

Flooring 133

Window Treatments and Upholstery 134

Acoustic Applications 134

Acoustic Criteria 135

Offices 135

Music Performance Spaces 138

Auditoriums 138

Lecture Rooms 139

Schools 139

Public Toilet Rooms 139

Residential Buildings 139

Electronic Sound Systems 141

Sound Reinforcement Systems 141

Sound Systems for Specifi c Spaces 141

PART IV WATER AND WASTE SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 9 Water Supply Systems 145

Introduction 145

History 145

Codes and Testing 146

Plumbing and Construction Drawings 146

Water Sources and Use 146

Water Use 146

Hydrologic Cycle 148

Precipitation 148

Surface Water, Groundwater, and Stormwater 149

Conservation 150

Protecting the Water Supply 151

Water Distribution 151

Well Water 151

Municipal Water Supply Systems 152

Water Quality 152

Distribution within Buildings 153

Hot Water 158

Hot Water Heaters 160

Chilled Water 163

Gas Supply and Distribution 163

CHAPTER 10 Waste and Reuse Systems 164

Introduction 164

History 165

Sanitary Waste Systems 165

Sanitary Piping Elements 165

Residential Waste Piping 170

Large Building Waste Piping 170

Treating and Recycling Wastewater 171

Recycled Water 171

Rural Sewage Treatment 172

Centralized Sewage Treatment Systems 174

Solid Waste Systems 174

Recycling 174

Small Building Solid Waste Collection 174

Large Building Solid Waste Collection 175

CHAPTER 11 Fixtures and Appliances 176

Introduction 176

History of Bathrooms 176

Plumbing Fixtures 177

General Code Requirements 177

Bathroom Fixtures 178

Water Closets 179

Urinals 182

Bidets 183

Lavatories and Sinks 184

Bathtubs 186

Showers 191

Steam Rooms and Saunas 194

Residential Bathroom Design 194

Bathroom Design History 195

Bathroom Planning 195

Designing Public Toilet Rooms 196

Toilet Room Accessibility 196

Drinking Fountains 196

Appliances and Equipment 197

Residential Kitchens 197

Residential Appliances 198

Laundry Areas 201

Compressed Air 202

PART V HEATING, COOLING, AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 12 Principles of Thermal Comfort 205

Introduction 205

History 205

Thermal Comfort 206

Designing for Thermal Comfort 206

Comfort Range 209

Principles of Heat Transfer 211

Thermal Energy Transfer 211

Air Temperature and Air Motion 214

Water Vapor and Heat Transfer 215

Thermal Capacity and Resistance 216

Thermal Mass 216

Thermal Conductivity 218

Thermal Resistance 218

Thermal Feel 218

Mechanical Engineering Design Process 219

Phases of Design Process 219

Thermal Comfort Zones 220

Heating and Cooling Loads 220

CHAPTER 13 Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation, and Moisture Control 222

Introduction 222

ASHRAE Standards and LEED 222

Indoor Air Quality 223

Illnesses Related to Buildings 223

Sources of Pollution 224

Indoor Air Quality Equipment 226

Plants and Indoor Air Quality 228

Controls for Indoor Air Quality 229

Infiltration and Ventilation 229

Infiltration 229

Ventilation 229

Natural Ventilation 230

Attic and Roof Ventilation 232

Mechanical Ventilation 233

Residential Ventilation Systems 233

Fans 235

Humidity and Moisture Control 239

Water Movement 239

Humidity 239

Condensation 240

Dehumidification 242

CHAPTER 14 Heating and Cooling 243

Introduction 243

Architectural and Engineering Considerations 243

HVAC Design Process 244

History 245

Building Energy Conservation 246

Codes and Standards 247

Heating Systems 247

Central Heating Systems 248

Building Heating Fuels 248

Solar Space Heating 249

Fireplaces and Wood-Burning Stoves 250

Mechanical Heating Systems 253

Radiant Heating 255

Electric-Resistance Heat 257

Natural Convection Heating Units 258

Warm-Air Heating 259

Cooling Systems 262

History of Cooling 262

Passive Cooling 263

Mechanical Cooling 263

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems 267

HVAC Zones 268

HVAC System Components 268

HVAC Distribution 269

Terminal Delivery Devices 270

Control Systems 271

PART VI ELECTRICAL AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 15 Electrical System Basics 275

Introduction 275

History 275

Electrical System Design Process 276

Codes and Standards 276

Principles of Electricity 277

Types of Electricity 277

Electrical Current 278

Electrical Power Sources 280

Photovoltaic (PV) Power 281

Other Electrical Energy Sources 283

Electricity and Safety 283

Electrical Shocks 283

Grounding 284

Electrical Fire Safety 285

Circuit Protection 285

CHAPTER 16 Electrical Distribution 288

Introduction 288

Electrical System Design Procedure 288

Electrical Service Equipment 289

Electrical Power Distribution Systems 289

Interior Distribution 293

Branch Circuits 293

Electrical Wiring and Distribution 294

Interior Wiring Systems 295

Full Access Floors and Wiring 297

Low-Voltage Wiring 298

Power Line Carrier Systems 298

Electrical Emergency Systems 298

Wireless Systems 299

Electrical Design for Residences 299

Residential Code Requirements 299

Residential Branch Circuits 300

Wiring Devices 302

Outlet and Device Boxes 303

Electrical Plugs 304

Electrical Receptacles 304

Switches 305

Electrical Loads 306

Residential Appliances 307

Appliance Control and Energy Conservation 311

CHAPTER 17 Lighting Systems 313

Introduction 313

History of Lighting 313

Lighting Design Team 314

Lighting Calculation Methods 314

Lighting Design Process 315

Lighting Codes and Standards 316

Light and Vision 317

Physics of Light 318

Vision 319

Color and Light 321

Quantity of Light 322

Glare 322

Lighting Effects 324

Daylighting 324

History of Daylighting 324

Characteristics of Daylight 324

Daylighting Design 325

Daylighting and Fenestration 326

Electric Lighting 328

History of Electric Lighting 328

Electric Lighting Design 328

Electric Light Sources 329

Characteristics of Sources 330

Selecting Light Sources 330

Luminaire Light Control 334

Light Source Controls 335

Remote Source Lighting 335

Luminaires 336

Characteristics of Lighting Fixtures 336

Lighting Fixture Selection 338

Lighting Controls 340

Tuning and Maintenance 341

Emergency Lighting 342

Lighting Design Applications 343

Residential Applications 343

Commercial Applications 343

PART VII FIRE SAFETY, CONVEYANCE, SECURITY, AND COMMUNICATIONS

CHAPTER 18 Fire Safety Design 347

Introduction 347

History 347

Design for Fire Safety 348

Basic Principles 348

Fire Risk 348

Combustion 349

Fire Safety Codes 350

Construction Types 351

Occupancy Hazard Classifications 351

Means of Egress 352

Building Types 352

Means of Egress Components 353

Protecting the Building 359

Compartmentation 360

Construction Assemblies and Elements 361

Materials and Fire Protection 364

Codes and Standards 364

Finish Classes and Test Ratings 365

Firefi ghting 366

Smoke Management 366

Fire Detection 367

Residential Detectors 368

Fire Alarm Systems 369

Residential Alarm Systems 369

Commercial and Institutional Systems 370

Alarm System Operation 370

Fire Suppression 371

Sprinkler Systems 372

Other Fire Suppression Systems 374

Portable Fire Extinguishers 374

CHAPTER 19 Conveyance Systems 376

Introduction 376

History 376

Codes and Standards 377

Elevators 377

Elevator Design 377

Elevator Machines 381

Passenger Elevators 381

Freight Elevators 383

Service Cars and Special Elevators 383

Elevator Security 384

Elevator Systems 384

Elevator Lobbies 384

Escalators and Moving Walks 384

Escalators 384

Moving Walks and Ramps 387

Materials Handling 388

Dumbwaiters 388

Conveyors 388

Pneumatic Systems 389

Automated Container Delivery Systems 389

CHAPTER 20 Communications, Security, and Control Equipment 390

Introduction 390

Signal Systems 390

Communication Systems 391

Residential Communications 391

Office Building Communications 392

School Communication Systems, 392

Data and Communications Wiring 392

Premise Wiring 393

Television 393

Telecommunications 394

Security Systems 394

Security Equipment 395

Control and Automation Equipment 396

Automation 396

Intelligent Buildings 396

Building Controls 397

Bibliography 398

Index 399

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Author Information

CORKY BINGGELI, ASID, is a principal at Corky Binggeli Interior Design in Arlington, MA. A professional member of ASID and past president of ASID New England, she has taught at Wentworth Institute of Technology in Boston and Boston Architectural College. She is the author of Materials for Interior Designers, co-author with Francis D.K. Ching of Interior Design Illustrated, and editor of Interior Graphic Standards, Second Edition, all from Wiley.

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