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Ethnopharmacology

Michael Heinrich (Editor), Anna K. Jager (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-93074-8
462 pages
October 2015, Wiley-Blackwell
Ethnopharmacology (1118930746) cover image

Description

Ethnopharmacology is one of the world’s fastest-growing scientific disciplines encompassing a diverse range of subjects. It links natural sciences research on medicinal, aromatic and toxic plants with socio-cultural studies and has often been associated with the development of new drugs. The Editors of Ethnopharmacology have assembled an international team of renowned contributors to provide a critical synthesis of the substantial body of new knowledge and evidence on the subject that has emerged over the past decade.

Divided into three parts, the book begins with an overview of the subject including a brief history, ethnopharmacological methods, the role of intellectual property protection, key analytical approaches,  the role of ethnopharmacology in primary/secondary education and links to biodiversity and ecological research. Part two looks at ethnopharmacological contributions to modern therapeutics across a range of conditions including CNS disorders, cancer, bone and joint health and parasitic diseases. The final part is devoted to regional perspectives covering all continents, providing a state-of-the –art assessment of the status of ethnopharmacological research globally.

  • A comprehensive, critical synthesis of the latest developments in ethnopharmacology.
  • Includes a section devoted to ethnopharmacological contributions to modern therapeutics across a range of conditions.  
  • Contributions are from leading international experts in the field. 

This timely book will prove invaluable for researchers and students across a range of subjects including ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, medicinal plant research and natural products research.

Ethnopharmacology- A Reader is part of the ULLA Series in Pharmaceutical Sciences www.ullapharmsci.org

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Table of Contents

Contributors xvii

Series Foreword xxi

Preface xxiii

Abbreviations xxvii

Ethnopharmacology: The Fundamental Challenges

1 Ethnopharmacology: A Short History of a Multidisciplinary Field of Research 3
Michael Heinrich

1.1 Introduction 3

Acknowledgements 8

References 8

2 Medicinal Plant Research: A Reflection on Translational Tasks 11
Anna K Jäger

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Translational research: preclinical research 12

2.3 Translational research: clinical research 13

2.4 Reaching the patient 14

2.5 A ‘developed’ traditional medicine system 14

References 16

3 The Anthropology of Ethnopharmacology 17
Ina Vandebroek and Daniel E. Moerman

3.1 Introduction 17

3.2 Primary example: Traditional medicine in New York City 18

3.3 An example from ancient Roman architecture 22

3.4 An example from native North America 23

3.5 Comparative ethnobotany 24

3.6 Conclusions 26

References 27

4 Quantitative and Comparative Methods in Ethnopharmacology 29
Marco Leonti and Caroline S. Weckerle

4.1 Introduction 29

4.2 Research questions 31

4.3 Field research 33

4.4 Analyzing the data 34

4.5 Pharmacological research 35

4.6 Contextualization 36

4.7 Conclusion 37

References 37

5 Biodiversity, Conservation and Ethnopharmacology 41
Vernon H. Heywood

5.1 Introduction 41

5.2 Changing attitudes to the ownership of biodiversity 42

5.3 Medicinal and aromatic plants as resources 43

5.4 How many species? 44

5.5 Chemical diversity 45

5.6 Wild harvesting and over-collection 45

5.7 Medicinal plant conservation 46

5.8 Conservation approaches 46

5.9 Protected areas 47

5.10 Community conservation 47

5.11 Genetic conservation 47

5.12 Cultivation 48

5.13 Conclusions 48

References 49

6 Ecopharmacognosy 53
Geoffrey A. Cordell

6.1 Introduction 53

6.2 Sustainable medicines and pharmacognosy 54

6.3 Ecopharmacognosy: background 55

6.4 Ecopharmacognosy practices 55

6.5 Conclusions 60

Acknowledgements 60

References 60

7 NMR-based Metabolomics and Hyphenated NMR Techniques: A Perfect Match in Natural Products Research 63
Joachim Møllesøe Vinther, Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet and Dan Staerk

7.1 Introduction 63

7.2 Metabolomics 64

7.3 Principles of NMR-based metabolomics 65

7.4 NMR-based metabolomics in natural products research 66

7.5 Hyphenated NMR techniques 68

7.6 Principle of HPLC-SPE-NMR 69

7.7 High-resolution bioassay-coupled HPLC-SPE-NMR 70

7.8 Combining metabolomics and hyphenated NMR techniques 71

7.9 Perspectives in ethnopharmacology 72

7.10 Conclusions 72

References 72

8 New Medicines Based On Traditional Knowledge: Indigenous and Intellectual Property Rights from an Ethnopharmacological Perspective 75
Michael Heinrich

8.1 Introduction 75

8.2 The legal framework 76

8.3 Industrial research in an ethnopharmacological context 77

8.4 Some case studies 79

8.5 Conclusions 83

Note 84

References 84

9 Ethnopharmacology and Intellectual Property Rights 87
Alan Hesketh

9.1 Introduction 87

9.2 Indigenous community rights and traditional knowledge 88

9.3 Identifying a partner 89

9.4 Hurdles in considering IP 91

9.5 Building an effective IP portfolio 91

9.6 The patentability of products of nature 93

9.7 Conclusion 95

References 95

10 Ethnopharmacology in Elementary, Primary and Secondary Education: Current
Perspectives and Future Prospects 97
Alonso Verde, Diego Rivera, José Ramón Vallejo, José Fajardo, Concepción Obón and Arturo Valdés

10.1 Introduction 97

10.2 Ethnopharmacology: a multidisciplinary subject for education 99

10.3 Developing an ethnopharmacological curriculum: some strategies 101

10.4 Conclusions 104

References 105

The Pharmacological Angle

11 Anti-infective Agents: The Example of Antibacterial Drug Leads 111
Maíra Bidart de Macedo, Sofie Clais, Ellen Lanckacker, Louis Maes, Emerson Silva Lima and Paul Cos

11.1 Introduction 111

11.2 Bacterial resistance 112

11.3 Plant-derived antibacterial agents 112

11.4 Basic requirements for successful antimicrobial drug discovery (Cos et al., 2006) 118

11.5 Conclusion 119

References 120

12 Searching for New Treatments of Malaria 123
Colin W. Wright

12.1 Introduction 123

12.2 Traditional herbal remedies as a source of antimalarial lead compounds 123

12.3 Developments from established antimalarials 126

12.4 Non-traditional medicine sources of potential antimalarials 127

12.5 Alternative strategies in the search for natural antimalarial compounds 129

12.6 Herbal preparations for the treatment of malaria 130

12.7 Conclusion and future prospects 132

References 132

13 CNS Disorders 135
Anna K Jäger

13.1 Introduction 135

13.2 Epilepsy 135

13.3 Depression and anxiety 137

13.4 Insomnia 139

13.5 Sedatives 139

13.6 Dementia 139

13.7 Conclusion 142

References 142

14 Respiratory Conditions 147
Adolfo Andrade-Cetto and Jorge García-Alvarez

14.1 Introduction 147

14.2 Case studies 151

14.3 Conclusions 155

Acknowledgments 156

References 156

15 Can there be an Ethnopharmacology of Inflammation? 159
Michael Heinrich and Anthony Booker

15.1 Introduction 159

15.2 Ethnopharmacology of inflammation: some examples 161

15.3 Conclusions 166

References 166

16 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors and Downstream Signalling Pathways as Cancer Treatment Targets for Medicinal Plants 169
Ean-Jeong Seo, Ching-Fen Wu, Henny J. Greten and Thomas Efferth

16.1 Role of epidermal growth factor receptors for cancer biology 169

16.2 Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signalling by phytochemicals and medicinal plants 171

16.3 Conclusions and perspectives 173

References 174

17 From Ethnopharmacological Field Study to Phytochemistry and Preclinical Research: The Example of Ghanaian Medicinal Plants for Improved Wound Healing 179
Andreas Hensel, Emelia Kisseih, Matthias Lechtenberg, Frank Petereit, Christian Agyare and Alex Asase

17.1 Introduction 179

17.2 Results 180

17.3 Conclusion 196

References 196

18 Gynaecological, Andrological and Urological Problems: An Ethnopharmacological Perspective 199
Tinde van Andel, Hugo de Boer and Alexandra Towns

18.1 Introduction 199

18.2 Menstrual disorders 200

18.3 Postpartum use 201

18.4 Vaginal applications 202

18.5 Female infertility 204

18.6 Andrology 204

18.7 Urology 206

References 207

19 Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Bone and Joint Health 213
Elizabeth M. Williamson

19.1 Introduction 213

19.2 Current views of bone and joint disorders 214

19.3 Traditional views of bone disorders 216

19.4 Conclusions 224

References 224

20 Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders: An Ethnopharmacological Perspective 227
Adolfo Andrade Cetto

20.1 Introduction 227

20.2 Type-2 diabetes 228

20.3 Metabolic syndrome 230

20.4 Case studies 231

20.5 Conclusions 236

Acknowledgments 236

References 237

21 The Ethnopharmacology of the Food–Medicine Interface: The Example of Marketing Traditional Products in Europe 239
Gunter P. Eckert

21.1 Introduction 239

21.2 Medicinal products for human use 241

21.3 Food 243

21.4 Consumer protection - security and protection against fraud 245

21.5 Intended normal use: the distinction between medicinal products and foods 247

21.6 Conclusion 248

References 248

22 Retrospective Treatment-Outcome as a Method of Collecting Clinical Data in Ethnopharmacological Surveys 251
Bertrand Graz, Merlin Willcox and Elaine Elisabetsky

22.1 Introduction 251

22.2 Key concepts: clinical data, outcome and patient progress 252

22.3 Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of traditional medicines 253

22.4 The role of ethnopharmacologists and ethnobotanists 254

22.5 Collection of clinical data during ethnopharmacological field studies 255

22.6 Example of a method for gathering clinical data during field surveys 255

22.7 Conclusion: clinical data and field surveys for a positive impact on health 259

References 260

Ethnopharmacology: Regional Perspectives

23 Ethnopharmacology in Sub-Sahara Africa: Current Trends and Future Perspectives 265
Mack Moyo, Adeyemi O. Aremu and Johannes van Staden

23.1 Introduction 265

23.2 Role of traditional medicine in Africa 266

23.3 Ethnopharmacological research in sub-Saharan Africa 267

23.4 Challenges of traditional medicine in Africa 269

23.5 Future perspectives 272

23.6 Conclusions 273

Acknowledgements 273

References 273

24 Ethnopharmacology and Integrative Medicine: An Indian Perspective 279
Pulok K. Mukherjee, Sushil K. Chaudhary, Shiv Bahadur and Pratip K. Debnath

24.1 Ethnopharmacology and the development of traditional medicine in India 279

24.2 Biological wealth and ancient wisdom 281

24.3 Indian systems of medicine 281

24.4 Ayurveda: the Indian system of medicine 282

24.5 Siddha 286

24.6 Unani 287

24.7 Traditional knowledge digital library 287

24.8 Integrated approaches for the development of Indian traditional medicine 288

24.9 Conclusion 289

Acknowledgements 290

References 290

25 Chinese Medicine: Contentions and Global Complexities 293
Anthony Booker

25.1 Introduction 293

25.2 Ancient concepts meet scientific understanding 294

25.3 Traditional and modern dosage forms and application 296

25.4 Medicinal plant production in China 296

25.5 Quality and safety 297

25.6 Aristolochic acids 298

25.7 Regulatory requirements 298

25.8 Training practitioners of TCM 299

25.9 Future prospects 300

References 301

26 Chinese Medicinal Processing: A Characteristic Aspect of the Ethnopharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine 303
Ping Guo, Eric Brand and Zhongzhen Zhao

26.1 Introduction 303

26.2 Definition, methods and historical changes in Chinese medicinal processing 304

26.3 Present state of Chinese medicinal processing 310

26.4 Prospect for future developments in Chinese medicinal processing 315

References 315

27 A South-East Asian Perspective on Ethnopharmacology 317
Pravit Akarasereenont, Marianne J.R. Datiles, Natchagorn Lumlerdkij, Harisun Yaakob, Jose M. Prieto and Michael Heinrich

27.1 Introduction 317

27.2 Ethnopharmacology in Thailand 319

27.3 Ethnopharmacology in Malaysia 322

27.4 Ethnopharmacology in Indonesia 325

27.5 Ethnopharmacology in the Philippines 326

27.6 Ethnopharmacology in Vietnam 328

27.7 Ethnopharmacology in Myanmar, Lao PDR and Cambodia 328

27.8 Ethnopharmacology in Singapore and Brunei 328

27.9 Conclusion 328

Acknowledgement 329

References 329

28 Historical Approaches in Ethnopharmacology 333
Andreas Lardos

28.1 Introduction 333

28.2 Historical texts in ethnopharmacological research 334

28.3 Methodological aspects 335

28.4 Challenges in the analysis of historical texts 335

28.5 Opportunities offered by a historical approach 337

28.6 Conclusions 338

References 339

29 Medical Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology of Europe 343
Manuel Pardo-de-Santayana, Cassandra L. Quave, Renata Sõukand and Andrea Pieroni

29.1 Introduction 343

29.2 A brief history of European medicinal plants studies 344

29.3 Modern European medico-ethnobotanical studies 345

29.4 European ethnomedicinal flora 350

29.5 Adaptation, syncretism and resilience of traditional pharmacopoeias 351

29.6 Pharmacological studies of European medicinal plants 351

29.7 Concluding remarks 352

References 352

30 Ethnopharmacology in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: ‘The Sun Rises from the East, but Shines on the Eastern Mediterranean’ 357
Erdem Yesilada

30.1 Introduction 357

30.2 Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in the Balkan region 358

30.3 Modern ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in the Middle East 359

30.4 Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in Turkey 361

30.5 Concluding remarks 362

References 362

31 Ethnopharmacology in Australia and Oceania 365
Graham Lloyd Jones and Nicholas J. Sadgrove

31.1 Introduction 365

31.2 Ethnopharmacological ‘classics’ 367

31.3 Australian aromatic plants 369

31.4 Recent developments: aromatic plants 371

31.5 Recent developments: cancer and HIV 376

31.6 Conclusion 376

References 377

32 Ethnopharmacology in Central and South America 379
Salvador Cañigueral and Jaume Sanz-Biset

32.1 Introduction 379

32.2 The development of drugs 381

32.3 Beyond the development of new drugs 386

32.4 Bridging indigenous and western knowledge 387

32.5 Hallucinogens 388

32.6 Conclusion 389

References 389

33 Perspectives on Ethnopharmacology in Mexico 393
Robert Bye and Edelmira Linares

33.1 Introduction 393

33.2 Mexican tradition 394

33.3 Compilation of medicinal plants 396

33.4 Medicinal plant complex 398

33.5 Markets and medicinal plants 399

33.6 Bioprospection and conservation 399

33.7 Conclusions 401

Acknowledgements 401

References 401

34 Encounters with Elephants: A Personal Perspective on Ethnopharmacology 405
Peter J. Houghton

34.1 Introduction 405

34.2 The primacy of plants 406

34.3 Sources: dirty hands and databases 406

34.4 From cultural use to chemistry 407

34.5 Chemistry as a starter 407

34.6 Botany as a basis 408

34.7 Of mice and men and microwell plates 408

34.8 Aims and ethics 409

34.9 Molecules and mixtures 410

34.10 Tales of the unexpected 410

34.11 The end of the matter 411

References 411

Index 415

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Reviews

"Ethnopharmacology is a remarkable book that comprises cutting-edge research from a range of world-class authorities from many countries across the world. This makes it one of the most authoritative books ever written on this subject and on phytotherapy in general"...."in my opinion, the real appeal of the book is the diversity of the subjects covered, which include the comparative and quantitative methods of ethnopharmacological research; biodiversity, conservation, and ethnopharmacology; ecopharmacognosy; the use of novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in natural product research; and ethnopharmacology and intellectual property rights"....."Ethnopharmacology is indeed a valuable book for natural-product researchers, especially those interested in novel approaches for uncovering new leads for the development of essential medicines from plant and animal sources.I have no doubt in my mind that it will serve the purpose for which it is intended: a cutting-edge text meant to equip postgraduate students in pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, and other related disciplines, anywhere in the world, with sound knowledge of the newly developing field of ethnopharmacology" Bioscience, July 2016
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