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Wine Production and Quality, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-93455-5
326 pages
March 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Wine Production and Quality, 2nd Edition (1118934555) cover image

Description

Gourmand Award for the No. 1 Best Wine Book in the World for Professionals

Since the publication of Wine Production: Vine to Bottle (2005) and Wine Quality: Tasting and Selection (2009), there has been a great deal of change in the wine industry, and the perceptions of critics and expectations of consumers have shifted. Wine Production and Quality, Second Edition brings together its two predecessors in one updated and considerably expanded volume.

This comprehensive guide explores the techniques of wine production in the vineyard and winery, and considers their impact upon the taste, style and quality of wine in the bottle. Part 1 of the book provides a structured yet easily readable understanding of wine production, from vine to bottle. The impact of natural factors, including climate and soil, is considered, together with the decisions made and work undertaken in the vineyard and winery.  Part 2 looks at quality in wines: the concepts and techniques of tasting are detailed, along with the challenges in recognising and assessing quality. Also discussed are the steps producers may take, and the limitations they may face, in creating quality wines.

The book will prove valuable to beverage industry professionals, wine trade students, wine merchants, sommeliers, restaurateurs , and wine lovers as well as those entering (or thinking of entering) the highly competitive world of wine production.
 

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Table of Contents

Preface, xv

Preface, xv

Acknowledgements, xvii

Part 1 Introduction to Part 1 – Wine Production, 1

Chapter 1 Viticulture – the basics, 5

1.1 The grape vine, 5

1.2 Grape varieties, 6

1.3 The structure of the grape berry, 7

1.3.1 Stalks, 7

1.3.2 Skins, 8

1.3.3 Yeasts, 9

1.3.4 Pulp, 9

1.3.5 Pips, 10

1.4 Crossings, hybrids, clonal and massal selection, 10

1.4.1 Crossings, 10

1.4.2 Hybrids, 11

1.4.3 Clones and massal selection, 11

1.5 Grafting, 11

1.6 Phylloxera vastatrix, 12

1.7 Rootstocks, 13

1.8 The life of the vine, 15

Chapter 2 Climate, 16

2.1 World climate classifications, 16

2.2 Climatic requirements of the grape vine, 17

2.2.1 Sunshine, 17

2.2.2 Warmth, 17

2.2.3 Cold winter, 17

2.2.4 Rainfall, 18

2.3 Climatic enemies of the grape vine, 18

2.3.1 Frost, 18

2.3.2 Hail, 19

2.3.3 Strong winds, 20

2.3.4 Excessive heat, 21

2.3.5 Drought, 21

2.4 Mesoclimate and microclimate, 22

2.4.1 Water, 22

2.4.2 Altitude, 22

2.4.3 Aspect, 22

2.4.4 Woods and trees, 23

2.5 The concept of degree days, 23

2.6 Impact of climate, 24

2.7 Weather, 25

2.8 Climate Change, 25

Chapter 3 Soil, 28

3.1 Soil requirements of the grape vine, 28

3.1. Good drainage, 31

3.1.2 Fertility, 31

3.1.3 Nutrients and minerals, 31

3.2 Influence of soils upon wine style and quality, 31

3.3 Soil types suitable for viticulture, 32

3.3.1 Limestone, 32

3.3.2 Chalk, 32

3.3.3 Clay, 32

3.3.4 Marl, 32

3.3.5 Granite, 33

3.3.6 Gravel, 33

3.3.7 Greywacke, 33

3.3.8 Sand, 33

3.3.9 Schist, 33

3.3.10 Slate, 33

3.3.11 Basalt and other volcanic soils, 34

3.4 Soil compatibility, 34

3.5 Terroir, 35

Chapter 4 The vineyard, 36

4.1 Vineyard location and site selection, 36

4.2 Density of planting of vines, 37

4.3 Training systems, 38

4.3.1 Main types of vine training, 38

4.3.2 Other training systems, 42

4.4 Pruning methods and canopy management, 42

4.4.1 Pruning methods, 45

4.4.2 Canopy management, 45

4.5 Irrigation, 45

4.6 The vineyard cycle and work in the vineyard, 47

4.6.1 Winter, 47

4.6.2 Spring, 48

4.6.3 Summer, 48

4.6.4 Autumn, 49

4.7 Grape ]berry development, 50

Chapter 5 Pests and diseases, 51

5.1Important vineyard pests, 51

5.1.1Insects, mites and worms, 52

5.1.2Animals and birds, 53

5.2 Diseases, 54

5.2.1 Fungal diseases, 54

5.2.2 Bacterial diseases, 56

5.2.3 Virus diseases, 57

5.3 Prevention and treatments, 58

Chapter 6 Environmentally sensitive vineyard practices, 59

6.1 Conventional viticulture, 59

6.2 IPM, 60

6.3 Organic viticulture, 61

6.4 Biodynamic viticulture, 63

6.4.1 Rudolf Steiner, 65

6.4.2 Biodynamic preparations, 65

6.4.3 Certification, 67

6.5 Natural wine, 68

Chapter 7 The harvest, 69

7.1 Grape ripeness and the timing of picking, 69

7.2 Harvesting methods, 70

7.2.1 Hand picking, 70

7.2.2 Machine picking, 72

7.3 Style and quality, 74

Chapter 8 Vinification and winery design, 75

8.1 Basic principles of vinification, 75

8.2 Winery location and design, 76

8.3 Winery equipment, 78

8.3.1 Fermentation vats, 78

Chapter 9 Red winemaking, 82

9.1 Sorting, destemming and crushing, 82

9.2 Must analysis, 83

9.3 Must preparation, 84

9.3.1 Sulfur dioxide (SO2), 84

9.3.2 Must enrichment (chaptalisation), 84

9.3.3 Acidification, 85

9.3.4 De ]acidification, 85

9.3.5 Yeast, 85

9.3.6 Yeast nutrients, 85

9.3.7 Tannin, 86

9.4 Fermentation, temperature control and extraction, 86

9.4.1 Fermentation, 86

9.4.2 Temperature control, 86

9.4.3 Extraction, 87

9.4.4 Fermentation monitoring, 88

9.5 Maceration, 89

9.6 Racking, 89

9.7 Pressing, 89

9.8 Malolactic fermentation, 90

9.9 Blending, 90

9.10 Maturation, 90

Chapter 10 Dry white winemaking, 92

10.1 Crushing and pressing, 92

10.1.1 Crushing, 92

10.1.2 Pressing, 93

10.2 Must preparation, 93

10.3 Fermentation, 93

10.4 MLF, 94

10.5 Lees ageing, 94

10.6 Maturation, 95

Chapter 11 Red and white winemaking – detailed processes, 96

11.1 Must concentration, 96

11.1.1 Must concentrators and reverse osmosis, 96

11.1.2 Cryoextraction, 98

11.2 Methods of extraction, 98

11.2.1 Cold soaking (pre ]fermentation maceration), 98

11.2.2 Pump overs – remontage, 98

11.2.3 Rack and return (délestage), 99

11.2.4 Punching down – pigeage, 100

11.2.5 Rotary vinifiers, 100

11.2.6 Thermo ]vinification – heat extraction, 100

11.2.7 Flash détente, 100

11.2.8 Whole grape fermentation, carbonic and semi ]carbonic maceration, 101

11.2.9 Fixing colour, 101

11.2.10 Post ]fermentation maceration, 101

11.3 Macro ], micro ] and hyper ]oxygenation, 101

11.3.1 Hyper ]oxygenation, 102

11.3.2 Macro ]oxygenation, 102

11.3.3 Micro ]oxygenation, 103

11.4 Removal of excess alcohol, 103

11.5 The choice of natural or cultured yeasts, 103

11.6 De ]stemming, 104

11.7 Fermenting high ]density musts to dryness, 105

11.8 Wine presses and pressing, 105

11.8.1 Continuous press, 105

11.8.2 Batch press, 106

11.8.3 Horizontal plate press, 106

11.8.4 Horizontal pneumatic press, 106

11.8.5 Vertical basket press, 107

11.9 Technology and the return to tradition, 109

Chapter 12 Barrel maturation and oak treatments, 110

12.1 History of barrel usage, 110

12.2 Oak and oaking, 111

12.3 The influence of the barrel, 111

12.3.1 Size of the barrel, 112

12.3.2 Type and origin of oak (or other wood), 112

12.3.3 Manufacturing techniques including toasting, 113

12.3.4 Stave thickness, 113

12.3.5 Amount of time spent in barrel, 113

12.3.6 Where barrels are stored, 114

12.4 Oak treatments, 115

Chapter 13 Preparing wine for bottling, 116

13.1 Fining, 116

13.2 Filtration, 117

13.2.1 Traditional methods in common use, 117

13.2.2 Sheet filtration (sometimes called plate filtration), 119

13.2.3 Membrane filtration and other methods of achieving biological stability, 120

13.3 Stabilisation, 121

13.4 Adjustment of sulfur dioxide levels, 123

13.5 Choice of bottle closures, 123

Chapter 14 Making other types of still wine, 126

14.1 Medium ]sweet and sweet wines, 126

14.1.1 Medium ]sweet wines, 127

14.1.2 Sweet wines, 127

14.2 Rosé wines, 130

14.2.1 Blending, 130

14.2.2 Skin contact, 130

14.2.3 Saignée, 131

14.3 Fortified (liqueur) wines, 131

14.3.1 Sherry production, 131

14.3.2 Port production, 133

14.3.3 Other well ]known fortified wines, 134

Chapter 15 Sparkling wines, 136

15.1 Fermentation in a sealed tank, 136

15.2 Second fermentation in bottle, 137

15.3 Traditional method, 138

15.3.1 Pressing, 138

15.3.2 Débourbage, 138

15.3.3 First fermentation, 138

15.3.4 Assemblage, 139

15.3.5 Addition of liqueur de tirage, 139

15.3.6 Second fermentation, 139

15.3.7 Maturation, 139

15.3.8 Rémuage, 140

15.3.9 Stacking sur pointes, 141

15.3.10 Dégorgement, 141

15.3.11 Dosage (liqueur d’expedition), 142

15.3.12 Corking and finishing, 142

15.4 Styles, 142

Part 2 Introduction to part 2 – wine quality, 143

Chapter 16 wine Tasting, 147

16.1 Wine tasting and laboratory analysis, 148

16.2 What makes a good wine taster?, 149

16.3 Where and when to taste – suitable conditions, 150

16.4 Appropriate equipment, 151

16.4.1 Tasting glasses, 151

16.4.2 Water, 155

16.4.3 Spittoons, 155

16.4.4 Tasting sheets, 156

16.4.5 Use of tasting software, 156

16.4.6 Tasting mats, 157

16.5 Tasting order, 158

16.6 Temperature of wines for tasting, 159

16.7 Tasting for specific purposes, 159

16.8 Structured tasting technique, 160

16.8.1 Appearance, 160

16.8.2 Nose, 161

16.8.3 Palate, 161

16.8.4 Conclusions, 162

16.9 The importance of keeping notes, 163

Chapter 17 Appearance, 164

17.1 Clarity and brightness, 164

17.2 Intensity, 165

17.3 Colour, 167

17.3.1 White wines, 167

17.3.2 Rosé wines, 167

17.3.3 Red wines, 168

17.3.4 Rim/core, 170

17.4 Other observations, 171

17.4.1 Bubbles, 171

17.4.2 Legs, 172

17.4.3 Deposits, 173

Chapter 18 Nose, 175

18.1 Condition, 176

18.2 Intensity, 176

18.3 Development, 176

18.3.1 Primary aromas, 177

18.3.2 Secondary aromas, 177

18.3.3 Tertiary aromas, 177

18.4 Aroma characteristics, 178

Chapter 19 Palate, 181

19.1 Sweetness/bitterness/acidity/saltiness/umami, 182

19.2 Dryness/sweetness, 182

19.3 Acidity, 184

19.4 Tannin, 184

19.5 Alcohol, 186

19.6 Body, 187

19.7 Flavour intensity, 187

19.8 Flavour characteristics, 188

19.9 Other observations, 188

19.10 Finish, 191

Chapter 20 Tasting conclusions, 192

20.1 Assessment of quality, 192

20.1.1 Quality level, 192

20.1.2 Reasons for assessment of quality, 192

20.2 Assessment of readiness for drinking/potential for ageing, 193

20.2.1 Level of readiness for drinking/potential for ageing, 194

20.2.2 Reasons for assessment, 195

20.3 The wine in context, 195

20.3.1 Origins/variety/theme, 195

20.3.2 Price category, 195

20.4 Grading wine – the award of points, 196

20.4.1 Grading on a 20 ]point scale, 197

20.4.2 Grading on a 100 ]point scale, 197

20.5 Blind tasting, 198

20.5.1 Why taste blind?, 198

20.5.2 Blind or sighted?, 199

20.5.3 Tasting for quality, 199

20.5.4 Practicalities, 199

20.5.5 Examination tastings, 199

Chapter 21 Wine faults and flaws, 201

21.1 Chloroanisoles and bromoanisoles, 202

21.2 Fermentation in the bottle and bacterial spoilage, 203

21.3 Protein haze, 204

21.4 Oxidation, 204

21.5 Excessive volatile acidity, 205

21.6 Excessive sulfur dioxide, 205

21.7 Reductivity, 206

21.8 Brettanomyces, 207

21.9 Dekkera, 208

21.10 Geraniol, 208

21.11 Geosmin, 208

21.12 Ethyl acetate, 208

21.13 Excessive acetaldehyde, 209

21.14 Candida acetaldehyde, 209

21.15 Smoke taint, 209

Chapter 22 Quality – assurances and guarantees, 210

22.1 Compliance with PDO and PGI legislation as an assurance of quality?, 210

22.1.1 The EU and third countries, 210

22.1.2 PDO, PGI and wine, 211

22.1.3 The concept of AOP (AC), 213

22.2 Tasting competitions and critical scores as an assessment of quality?, 215

22.3 Classifications as an official assessment of quality?, 216

22.4 ISO 9001 certification as an assurance of quality?, 218

22.5 Established brands as a guarantee of quality?, 219

22.6 Price as an indication of quality?, 221

Chapter 23 The natural factors and a sense of place, 223

23.1 Conceptual styles, 223

23.2 Typicity and regionality, 224

23.3 The impact of climate upon quality wine production, 225

23.4 The role of soils, 226

23.5 Terroir, 226

23.6 The Vintage factor, 231

Chapter 24 Constraints upon quality wine production, 233

24.1 Financial, 233

24.1.1 Financial constraints upon the grower, 234

24.1.2 Financial constraints upon the winemaker, 236

24.2 Skills and diligence, 238

24.3 Legal, 240

24.4 Environmental, 240

Chapter 25 Production of quality wines, 242

25.1 Yield in vineyard, 242

25.2 Density of planting, 243

25.3 Age of vines, 244

25.4 Winter pruning and vine balance, 245

25.5 Stressing the vines, vine and nutrient balance., 246

25.6 Green harvesting, 248

25.7 Harvesting, 248

25.7.1 Mechanical harvesting, 249

25.7.2 Hand picking, 249

25.8 Delivery of fruit, 250

25.9 Selection and sorting, 250

25.10 Use of pumps/gravity, 251

25.11 Control of fermentations and choice of fermentation vessel, 254

25.12 Use of gases, 256

25.13 Barrels, 257

25.14 Selection from vats or barrels, 258

25.15 Storage, 259

Chapter 26 Selection by buyers, 260

26.1 Supermarket dominance, 262

26.2 Price point/margin, 263

26.3 Selecting wines for market and customer base, 264

26.4 Styles and individuality, 264

26.5 Continuity, 265

26.6 The place of individual wines in the range, 267

26.7 Exclusivity, 267

26.8 Specification, 267

26.9 Technical analysis, 268

Appendix WSET Diploma Systematic Approach to Tasting Wine®, 271

Glossary, 273

Bibliography, 285

Useful websites, 288

Wine and vineyard & winery equipment exhibitions, 291

Index, 000

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Reviews

The 22nd International Gourmand Awards were  held at Yantai, in China’s Shandong province on 27th and 28th May. Wine, drinks, food and cook books from some 211 counties were entered in the competition. The award for No. 1 Best Wine Book in the World for Professionals was given to Circle and AWE members Keith Grainger and Hazel Tattersall for 'Wine Production and Quality'.
  
The book is a comprehensive guide which explores the techniques of wine production in the vineyard and winery, and considers their impact upon the taste, style and quality of wine in the bottle. At the awards ceremony Edouard Cointreau, president of the awards jury, described the book as, "the one that I will buy  for friends and colleagues." Keith Grainger comments, "It’s great that the book has been universally so well received, and this award really is a fantastic reward for all the work that went into it." Hazel Tattersall says, "Although written primarily for professionals, I am pleased that wine loving consumers are regularly telling me that the book is incredibly readable. I am so happy that this has been recognised by the Gourmand jury." International Gourmand Awards- May 17

"Wine Production and Quality brings together previous books that Keith and Hazel had each written separately. Now expanded and revised, it is a modern addition given that the world of wine continues to change rapidly.
It also fills a gap in the literature. While there are many books on wine, the connections between winemaking and its resultant quality, price and profit are not always explicit. In so doing, this book is essential reading for anyone undertaking the WSET Diploma wine trade qualification, which is the gold standard for industry professionals worldwide. However, it’s appeal is far broader than an industry textbook. It’s a fascinating read for anyone curious about the wine in their glass. It covers the art, science and business of wine...The writing is clear and concise. Technical jargon is minimal, and there are lots of anecdotes and examples. Hence you can read it as the journey from vineyard to glass, or dip into it for reference and reminder....These days, wine tourism is big business. If you’ve ever visited a winery, then this book explains what winegrowers do, and why each one does it their way. Moreover, it highlights all the factors and decisions which make every winery unique. You’ll get a lot more from a winery visit if you read this book first.....The book divides into easily manageable sections. Part 1 is about wine production. It begins with nature; vines, climate and the soil. Then it covers the impact of terroir and the work undertaken during the vineyard year. You’ll meet different grape varieties, vineyard techniques, pests and diseases and how all these interrelate. From the harvest, it moves on to how the winery processes the grapes into wine. It explains Red, white, rosé and sparkling wine making, then maturation and bottling. It also has some of the main variations used in these processes that create different styles. There’s a real insight into what happens when things go wrong and need intervention.

Part 2 discusses how both tasting and analysis evaluates wine quality. Even in these days of hi-tech, tasting is essential. Hence the book uses the WSET Diploma tasting technique to explain how to do it and what it reveals. I believe I can teach you the basics of this tasting technique in an hour, but you’ll spend the rest of your life practising!You’ll see how technically excellent wine can still be dull. It describes how wine faults occur and their remedies. You’ll see how some “flaws” if present in small amounts can add interest and identity. While the best wine communicates a sense of place, that is not always its role. At every stage, producers need to take decisions. Their operating context and the winemakers’ values will constrain what is practicable. The book makes weather, chemistry, tradition, regulation, finance and customer influences easily understandable. Obviously, different sections of the book may have particular appeal depending on personal preference. For example, I am at my happiest in the vineyard because without ripe, healthy grapes the winery faces an uphill struggle. You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear, though it is amazing what wineries can achieve with manipulation, though at extra cost. As a frequent winery visitor, I sometimes feel that if I’ve seen enough wine presses and bottling lines for one lifetime. This book reminds me that such machinery is not only hugely expensive, but they are also the wineries visible and proud badges of quality. I promise to be more forgiving in future! So in conclusion, this book is scholarly without being dull, it’s fascinating without getting over-technical. It shows that wine quality is really about making a product that has “fitness for function” in its target market. And it never forgets that winegrowing is a business and needs to make a profit to be successful. Making wine is, in essence, a simple activity. However, making quality wines that people will pay for, want to drink and then buy again is anything but....As such this book comes highly recommended, a masterclass in communicating the diversity of wine" (Wine Alchemy- Jan 17)

"
Apart from being an author, Grainger is one of the founding members of the Association of Wine Educators, a wine consultant, presenter and tutor. Hazel Tattersall has a background in food and beverage education and takes both trade and consumer wine classes. The book has been divided into two parts: wine production and wine quality. The first seven chapters are on all things viticultural, including soil, climate, the vine, the vineyard, pests and diseases, vineyard management and harvest. The next eight chapters move from winery design through to winemaking (red and white), maturation, bottling and then a couple of chapters on other types of wine, eg rosé, sweet, fortified and sparkling.

Part 2 starts with wine tasting and proceeds very much along the WSET model of the four-part approach (appearance, nose, palate, conclusions). Each of these steps is discussed in great detail. The language and structure espoused for each also echoes the WSET Systematic Approach to Tasting. After a chapter on tasting conclusions, the authors move on to wine faults and quality assurance (organisations and legislation). They then tackle the less tangible topic of terroir, followed by constraints on and factors affecting quality. The final chapter looks at the wine market, with a UK focus. A lot of information has been assembled in a generally logical and orderly fashion. It's a textbook, first and foremost, designed for students studying wine as they prepare for exams rather than for wine lovers. And for its purpose, it's very good. The language is clear, it is dry but concise, and there are very good quality colour photographs to illustrate some of the chapters. What it lacks (significantly, for me as a visual learner) is graphic illustrations of things such as winemaking processes, pruning and training, grafting, etc. For some students this can be the difference between 'getting it' or not, and thereby pass or fail. Tables, charts, graphs and technical diagrams bring flat text to life and give the learner pegs to hang knowledge on.........MW students could use this as a basic viti/vini refresher, but would need to use other materials for their more in-depth studies" (Jancis Robinson Jan 17)

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