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Concise Encyclopedia of High Performance Silicones

Atul Tiwari (Editor), Mark D. Soucek (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-93844-7
434 pages
April 2014
Concise Encyclopedia of High Performance Silicones (1118938445) cover image

Description

The encyclopedia will be an invaluable source of information for researchers and students from diverse backgrounds including physics, chemistry, materials science and surface engineering, biotechnology, pharmacy, medical science, and biomedical engineering.

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Table of Contents

1 Room Temperature Vulcanized Silicone Rubber Coatings: Application in High Voltage Substations 3
Kiriakos Siderakis and Dionisios Pylarinos

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Pollution of High Voltage Insulators 4

1.3 Silicone Coatings for High Voltage Ceramic Insulators 5

1.4 RTV SIR Coatings Formulation 6

1.5 Hydrophobicity in RTV SIR 10

1.6 Electrical Performance of RTV SIR Coatings 13

1.7 Conclusions 13

References 13

2 Silicone Copolymers: Enzymatic Synthesis and Properties 19
Yadagiri Poojari

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Polysiloxanes 20

2.3 Silicone Aliphatic Polyesters 20

2.4 Silicone Aliphatic Polyesteramides 21

2.5 Silicone Fluorinated Aliphatic Polyesteramides 21

2.6 Silicone Aromatic Polyesters and Polyamides 21

2.7 Silicone Polycaprolactone 22

2.8 Silicone Polyethers 23

2.9 Silicone Sugar Conjugates 24

2.10 Stereo-Selective Esterification of Organosiloxanes 24

2.11 Conclusion and Outlook 25

Acknowledgments 25

References 25

3 Phosphorus Containing Siliconized Epoxy Resins 27
S. Ananda Kumar, M. Alagar and M. Mandhakini

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 Preparation of Siliconized Epoxy-Bismaleimide Intercrosslinked Matrices 29

3.3 Phosphorus-Containing Siliconized Epoxy Resin as Thermal and Flame Retardant Coatings 31

3.4 High Functionality Resins for the Fabrication of Nanocomposites 33

3.5 Anticorrosive and Antifouling Coating Performance of Siloxane- and Phosphorus-Modified Epoxy Composites 39

3.6 Summary and Conclusion 46

Acknowledgement  48

References 49

4 Nanostructured Silicone Materials 51
Joanna Lewandowska-Lañcucka, Mariusz Kepczynski and Maria Nowakowska

4.1 Introduction 51

4.2 Solid Particles 52

4.3 Nanocapsules 56

4.4 Ultra-Thin Silicone Films 60

4.5 Conclusion and Outlook 61

References 62

5 High Refractive Index Silicone 65
Zulkifli Ahmad

5.1 Introduction 65

5.2 Theory of RI 66

5.3 High Refractive Index Silicone 69

5.4 Applications 71

5.5 Conclusion and Outlook 74

6 Irradiation Induced Chemical and Physical Effects in Silicones 75
R. Huszank

6.1 Introduction 75

6.2 Sources of Irradiation 76

6.3 Irradiation-Induced Chemical Effects in Silicones 77

6.4 Irradiation-Induced Physical Effects in Silicones 81

6.5 Conclusion and Outlook 83

7 Developments and Properties of Reinforced Silicone Rubber Nanocomposites 85
Suneel Kumar Srivastava and Bratati Pradhan

7.1 Introduction 85

7.2 Different Types of Nanofillers Used in Silicone Rubber (SR) 86

7.3 Preparation of Silicone Rubber (SR) Nanocomposites 89

7.4 Morphology of Silicone Rubber (SR) Nanocomposites 90

7.5 Properties of Silicone Rubber Nanocomposites 94

7.6 Conclusion and Outlook 105

References 105

8 Functionalization of Silicone Rubber Surfaces towards Biomedical Applications 111
Lígia R. Rodrigues and Fernando Dourado

8.1 Introduction 111

8.2 Silicone Rubber – Material of Excellence for Biomedical Applications? 111

8.3 Surface Modification of Silicone Rubber 113

8.4 Conclusion and Outlook 119

References 120

9 Functionalization of Colloidal Silica Nanoparticles and Their Use in Paint and Coatings 123
Peter Greenwood and Anders Törncrona

9.1 Introduction to Colloidal Silica 123

9.2 Chemistry of Silica Surface Functionalization by Organosilanes 124

9.3 Characterization and Product Properties of Silane-Modified Silica Dispersions 125

9.4 Applications for Silanized Silica Nanoparticles in Paint and Coatings 130

9.5 Conclusion and Outlook 139

References 139

10 Surface Modification of PDMS in Microfluidic Devices 141
Wenjun Qiu, Chaoqun Wu and Zhigang Wu

10.1 Introduction 141

10.2 PDMS Surface Modification Techniques 142

10.3 Characterization Techniques 147

10.4 Discussion and Perspectives 148

Part 2: Characterization 151

11 The Development and Application of NMR Methodologies for the Study of Degradation in Complex Silicones 153
Robert S. Maxwell, James Lewicki, Brian P. Mayer, Amitesh Maiti and Stephen J. Harley

11.1 Introduction 153

11.2 Applications of NMR for Characterizing Silicones 155

11.3 Highlights of Recent Advances in NMR Methodology 159

11.4 Conclusions and Outlook 173

Acknowledgements 173

12 Applications of Some Spectroscopic Techniques on Silicones and Precursor to Silicones 177
Atul Tiwari

12.1 Introduction 177

12.2 Fourier Transformation Infrared and Spectroscopy of Silicones 178

12.3 Raman Spectroscopy of Silicones 181

12.4 FTIR-Assisted Chemical Component Analysis in Thermal Degradation of Silicones 182

12.5 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Silicones 183

12.6 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy 187

12.7 Conclusion and Outlook 187

Acknowledgement 187

References 188

13 Degradative Thermal Analysis of Engineering Silicones 191
James P. Lewicki and Robert S. Maxwell

13.1 Degradative Thermal Analysis of Engineering Silicones 191

13.2 Conclusions and Outlook 209

Acknowledgments 209

References 209

14 High Frequency Properties and Applications of Elastomeric Silicones 211
Charan M. Shah, Withawat Withayachumnankul, Madhu Bhaskaran and Sharath Sriram

14.1 Introduction 211

14.2 Silicone Microdevice Fabrication 212

14.3 Properties of Silicone at Radio Frequencies (1–20 GHz) 213

14.4 Properties of Silicone at Terahertz Frequencies (0.2 THz – 4.0 THz) 220

14.5 Conclusion and Outlook 223

Acknowledgements 223

References 223

15 Mathematical Modeling of Drug Delivery from Silicone Devices Used in Bovine Estrus Synchronization 225
Ignacio M. Helbling, Juan C.D. Ibarra and Julio A. Luna

15.1 Introduction 225

15.2 Bovine Estrous Cycle 226

15.3 Bovine Estrus Synchronization 228

15.4 Controlled Release Silicone Devices 230

15.5 Mathematical Modeling 232

15.6 Conclusion and Outlook 237

References 238

16 Safety and Toxicity Aspects of Polysiloxanes (Silicones) Applications 243
Krystyna Mojsiewicz-Pieñkowska

16.1 Introduction 243

16.2 Business Strategy for Manufacturing and Sale of Polysiloxanes 243

16.3 Chemical Aspects 244

16.4 Speciation Analysis 245

16.5 Application Areas and Direct Human Contact with Polysiloxanes (Silicones) 246

16.6 Toxicological Aspects 247

16.7 Conclusion and Outlook 249

References 249

17 Structure Properties Interrelations of Silicones for Optimal Design in Biomedical Prostheses 253
Petroula A. Tarantili

17.1 Introduction 253

17.2 Materials and Methods 259

17.3 Discussion of Results 260

17.4 Conclusions and Outlook 267

References 269

Part 3: Applications 273

18 Silicone-Based Soft Electronics 275
Shi Cheng

18.1 Introduction 275

18.2 Silicone-Based Passive Soft Electronics 276

18.3 Silicone-Based Integrated Active Soft Electronics 284

18.4 Conclusion 292

Acknowledgements 292

References 292

19 Silicone Hydrogels Materials for Contact Lens Applications 293
José M. González-Meijome, Javier González-Pérez, Paulo R.B. Fernandes, Daniela P. Lopes-Ferreira, Sergio Mollá and Vicente Compañ

19.1 Introduction 293

19.2 Synthesis and Development of Materials 294

19.3 Surface Properties 295

19.4 Bulk Properties 298

19.5 Biological Interactions 301

19.6 Load and Release of Products from Contact Lenses 304

19.7 Conclusions 305

Disclosure 306

References 306

20 Silicone Membranes for Gas, Vapor and Liquid Phase Separations 309
Paola Bernardo, Gabriele Clarizia, Johannes Carolus Jansen

20.1 Introduction 309

20.2 Material 309

20.3 Membrane Type and Configuration 310

20.4 Membrane Unit Operations Based on Silicones 314

20.5 Conclusions and Outlook 318

References 318  

21 Polydimethyl Siloxane Elastomers in Maxillofacial Prosthetic Use 321
H. Serdar Çötert

21.1 Introduction 321

21.2 Facial Prostheses 322

21.3 Polydimethyl Siloxane Elastomers 328

21.4 Reinforcement 333

21.5 Biocompatibility and the Microbiological Features 334

21.6 Future Studies 335

Acknowledgements 335

References 335

22 Silicone Films for Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensing
Guillermo Orellana, Juan López-Gejo and Bruno Pedras

22.1 Introduction 339

22.2 Silicone Chemistry and Technology Related to Optical Chemical Sensing 340

22.3 Gas Permeability and Optical Sensing 342

22.4 Optical Properties of Silicone Thin Films 345

22.5 Silicone Films for Optical Oxygen Sensing 346

22.6 Silicone Films for Optical Sensing of Other Species 349

22.7 Conclusion 350

Acknowledgements 350

References 350

23 Surface Design, Fabrication and Properties of Silicone Materials for Use in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 355
Nisarg Tambe, Jing Cao, Kewei Xu and Julie A. Willoughby

23.1 Introduction 355

23.2 Silicone Biomaterials 357

23.3 Silicones in Tissue Engineering 359

23.4 Surface Characterization Techniques 366

23.5 Conclusion and Outlook 368

Acknowledgement 368

References 369

24 Silicones for Microfluidic Systems 371
Anna Kowalewska and Maria Nowacka

24.1 Introduction 371

24.2 Fabrication of Microfluidic Devices 372

24.3 Application of PDSM-Based Microfluidic Devices 376

24.4 Summary and Outlook 376

References 376

25 Silicone Oil in Biopharmaceutical Containers: Applications and Recent Concerns 381
Nitin Dixit and Devendra S. Kalonia

25.1 Introduction 381

25.2 Lubrication of Pharmaceutical Containers and Devices 381

25.3 Silicone Oil: A Molecular Perspective 382

25.4 Silicone Oil Coatings in Pharmaceutical Devices 383

25.5 Protein Adsorption to Hydrophobic Interfaces 386

25.6 Physical Stability of Biologics in the Presence of Silicone Oil 389

25.7 Conclusions and Outlook 392

List of Abbreviations 392

References 392

Index

 

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Author Information

Atul Tiwari received his PhD in Polymer Science from the Macromolecular Research Centre, R.D. University, Jabalpur, India, and his second master degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA. In 2004, Dr. Tiwari was invited as a postdoctoral fellow by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, where he developed five technologies that were later patented by the university and transferred to companies. He currently works as a Research Faculty Member in the College of Engineering at the university. He has been actively engaged as a consultant to companies working in various fields of polymer science, engineering, and technology. As an academician, Dr. Tiwari has published more than 60 peer-reviewed research articles related to material science and has co-authored and edited 10 books. He has been bestowed with Chartered Chemist and Chartered Scientist status from the Royal Society of Chemistry, UK, and is a member of several other professional bodies in the UK, USA, and India.

Mark D. Soucek is a Professor in the Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Akron. In 2003, Dr. Soucek was selected as a Gordon Award Finalist for his work in UV-Curable Bio-based polymers. In 2004, Dr. Soucek was awarded the Radtech Innovation Award for his work in UV-curable coatings. In 2004 and 2005, he received an honorable mention for the Gordon Award for Core-Shell latex work, and UV-curing of Unsaturated Polyesters. In 2009, Professor Soucek won his second Roon Award for a developing a new class of alkyd coatings. He presently has more than 100 research papers published all in coating science.

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