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Gas Injection for Disposal and Enhanced Recovery

ISBN: 978-1-118-93856-0
400 pages
September 2014
Gas Injection for Disposal and Enhanced Recovery (1118938569) cover image

Description

This is the fourth volume in a series of books focusing on natural gas engineering, focusing on two of the most important issues facing the industry today: disposal and enhanced recovery of natural gas. This volume includes information for both upstream and downstream operations, including chapters on shale, geological issues, chemical and thermodynamic models, and much more.

 

Written by some of the most well-known and respected chemical and process engineers working with natural gas today, the chapters in this important volume represent the most cutting-edge and state-of-the-art processes and operations being used in the field.  Not available anywhere else, this volume is a must-have for any chemical engineer, chemist, or process engineer working with natural gas.   

 

There are updates of new technologies in other related areas of natural gas, in addition to disposal and enhanced recovery, including sour gas, acid gas injection, and natural gas hydrate formations.  Advances in Natural Gas Engineering is an ongoing series of books meant to form the basis for the working library of any engineer working in natural gas today.  Every volume is a must-have for any engineer or library.

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Table of Contents

Section 1: Data and Correlations

1
Densities of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Mixtures Part I: Comparison with Pure CO2 1
Erin L. Roberts and John J. Carroll

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Density 2

1.3 Literature Review 2

1.4 Calculations 4

1.5 Discussion 19

1.6 Conclusion 27

References 27

2 Densities of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Mixtures Part II: Comparison with Thermodynamic Models 29
Erin L. Roberts and John J. Carroll

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Literature Review 30

2.3 Calculations 30

2.4 Lee Kesler 31

2.5 Benedict-Webb- Rubin (BWR) 37

2.6 Peng-Robinson 43

2.7 Soave-Redlich-Kwong 49

2.8 AQUAlibrium 54

2.9 Discussion 60

2.10 Conclusion 62

References 63

3 On Transferring New Constant Pressure Heat Capacity Computation Methods to Engineering Practice 65
Sepideh Rajaeirad and John M. Shaw

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Materials and Methods 66

3.3 Results and Discussion 67

3.4 Conclusions 70

References 70

4 Developing High Precision Heat Capacity Correlations for Solids, Liquids and Ideal Gases 73
Jenny Boutros and John M. Shaw

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Databases and Methods 75

4.3 Results and Discussion 77

4.4 Conclusion 77

References 77

5 Method for Generating Shale Gas Fluid Composition from Depleted Sample 79
Henrik Sorensen, Karen S. Pedersen and Peter L. Christensen

5.1 Introduction 79

5.2 Theory of Chemical Equilibrium Applied to Reservoir Fluids 80

5.3 Reservoir Fluid Composition from a Non-Representative Sample 83

5.4 Numerical Examples 87

5.5 Discussion of the Results 94

5.6 Conclusions 96

5.7 Nomenclature 97

Greek letters 97

Sub and super indices 97

References 98

6 Phase Equilibrium in the Systems Hydrogen Sulfi de + Methanol and Carbon Dioxide + Methanol 99
Marco A. Satyro and John J. Carroll

6.1 Introduction 100

6.2 Literature Review 101

6.3 Modelling With Equations Of State 102

6.4 Summary 107

6.5 Nomenclature 108

Greek 109

Subscripts 109

References 109

7 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium, Viscosity and Interfacial Tension Modelling of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol or Triethylene Glycol in the Presence of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide 111
Shu Pan, Na Jia, Helmut Schroeder, Yuesheng Cheng, Kurt A.G. Schmidt and Heng-Joo Ng

7.1 Introduction 111

7.2 Results and Discussion 112

7.3 Conclusions 122

7.4 Nomenclature 122

7.5 Acknowledgement 125

References 124

Appendix 7.A 125

Section 2: Process Engineering

8 Enhanced Gas Dehydration using Methanol Injection in an Acid Gas Compression System 129
M. Rafay Anwar, N. Wayne McKay and Jim R. Maddocks

8.1 Introduction 129

8.2 Methodology 130

8.3 CASE I: 100 % CO2 132

8.4 CASE II: 50 Percent CO2, 50 Percent H2S 140

8.5 CASE III: Enhanced Oil Recovery Composition 142

8.6 Conclusion 150

8.7 Additional Notes 151

References 151

9 Comparison of the Design of CO2-capture Processes using Equilibrium and Rate Based Models 153
A.R.J. Arendsen, G.F. Versteeg, J. van der Lee,R. Cota and M.A. Satyro

9.1 Introduction 155

9.2 VMG Rate Base 155

9.3 Rate Based Versus Equilibrium Based Models 157

9.4 Process Simulations 162

9.5 Conclusions 173

References 174

10 Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Using Aqueous Amines: A Mass-Transfer Study 177
Ray A. Tomcej

10.1 Introduction 178

10.2 Mass Transfer Basics 179

10.3 Factors Infl uencing Mass Transfer 182

10.4 Examples 188

10.5 Summary 190

References 191

11 BASF Technology for CO2 Capture and Regeneration 193
Sean Rigby, Gerd Modes, Stevan Jovanovic, John Wei, Koji Tanaka, Peter Moser and Torsten Katz

11.1 Introduction 195

11.2 Materials and Methods 197

11.3 Results 206

11.4 Conclusions 223

11.5 Acknowledgements and Disclaimer 225

References 226

12 Seven Deadly Sins of Filtration and Separation Systems in Gas Processing Operations 227
David Engel and Michael H. Sheilan

12.1 Gas Processing and Contamination Control 228

12.2 The Seven Deadly Sins of Filtration and Separation Systems in Gas Processing Operations 231

12.3 Concluding Remarks 240

Section 3: Acid Gas Injection

13 Development of Management Information System of Global Acid Gas Injection Projects 243
Qi Li, Guizhen Liu and Xuehao Liu

13.1 Background 243

13.2 Architecture of AGI-MIS 244

13.3 Data management 246

13.4 Data mining and information visualization 248

13.5 Interactive program 251

13.6 Conclusions 252

13.7 Acknowledgements 252

References 253

14 Control and Prevention of Hydrate Formation and Accumulation in Acid Gas Injection Systems During Transient Pressure/Temperature Conditions 255
Alberto A. Gutierrez and James C. Hunter

14.1 General Agi System Considerations 255

14.2 Composition And Properties Of Treated Acid Gases 256

14.3 Regulatory And Technical Restraints On Injection Pressures 258

14.4 Phase Equilibria, Hydrate Formation Boundaries And Prevention Of Hydrate Formation In Agi Systems 259

14.5 Formation, Remediation And Prevention Of Hydrate Formation During Unstable Injection Conditions – Three Case Studies 263

14.6 Discussion And Conclusions 272

References 273

15 Review of Mechanical Properties Related Problems for Acid Gas Injection 275
Qi Li, Xuehao Liu, Lei Du and Xiaying Li

15.1 Introduction 276

15.2 Impact Elements 276

15.3 Coupled Processes 285

15.4 Failure Criteria 286

15.5 Conclusions 286

15.6 Acknowledgements 287

References 287

16 Comparison of CO2 Storage Potential in Pyrolysed Coal Char of different Coal Ranks 293
Pavan Pramod Sripada, MM Khan, Shanmuganathan Ramasamy, VajraTeji Kanneganti, Japan Trivedi and Rajender Gupta

16.1 Introduction 294

16.2 Apparatus, Methods, & Materials 295

16.3 Results And Discussion 298

16.4 Conclusion 302

References 302

Section 4: Carbon Dioxide Storage

17 Capture of CO2 and Storage in Depleted Gas Reservoirs in Alberta as Gas Hydrate 305
Duo Sun, Nagu Daraboina, John Ripmeester and Peter Englezos

17.1 Experimental 306

17.2 Results And Discussion 307

17.3 Conclusions 310

Reference 310

18 Geological Storage of CO2 as Hydrate in a McMurray Depleted Gas Reservoir 311
Olga Ye. Zatsepina, Hassan Hassanzadeh and Mehran Pooladi-Darvish

18.1 Introduction 312

18.2 Fundamentals 313

18.3 Reservoir 314

18.4 Sensitivity Studies 322

18.5 Long-term storage 326

18.6 Summary and conclusions 327

18.7 Acknowledgements 329

References 329

Section 5: Reservoir Engineering

19 A Modified Calculation Method for the Water Coning Simulation Mode in Oil Reservoirs with Bottom Water Drive 331
Weiyao Zhu, Xiaohe Huang and Ming Yue

19.1 Introduction 331

19.2 Mathematical Model 332

19.3 Solution 334

19.4 Results and Discussion 335

19.5 Conclusions 336

19.6 Nomenclature 336

References 337

20 Prediction Method on the Multi-scale Flow Patterns and the Productivity of a Fracturing Well in Shale Gas Reservoir 339
Weiyao Zhu, Jia Deng and M.A. Qian

20.1 Introduction 340

20.2 Multi-scale flow state analyses of the shale gas reservoirs 340

20.3 Multi-scale seepage non-linear model in shale gas reservoir 343

20.4 Productivity prediction method of fracturing well 348

20.5 Production Forecasting 351

20.6 Conclusions 354

20.7 Acknowledgements 354

References 355

21 Methane recovery from natural gas hydrate in porous sediment using gaseous CO2, liquid CO2, and CO2 emulsion 357
Sheng-li Li, Xiao-Hui Wang, Chang-Yu Sun,Qing-Yuan and Guang-Jin Chen

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Experiments 359

21.3 Results and Discussion 361

21.4 Conclusion 368

21.5 Acknowledgements 369

References 369

Section 6: Hydrates

22 On the Role of Ice-Solution Interface in Heterogeneous Nucleation of Methane Clathrate Hydrates 371
PaymanPirzadeh and Peter G. Kusalik

22.1 Introduction 371

22.2 Method Summary 373

22.3 Results and Discussion 373

22.4 Summary 378

References 379

23 Evaluating and Testing of Gas Hydrate Anti-Agglomerants in (Natural Gas + Diesel Oil + Water) Dispersed System 381
Chang-Yu Sun, Jun Chen, Ke-Le Yan, Sheng-Li Li, Bao-ZiPeng and Guang-Jin Chen

23.1 Introduction 381

23.2 Experimental Apparatus And Analysis 382

23.3 Results And Discussion 382

23.4 Conclusion 385

Section 7: Biology

24 “Is That a Bacterium in Your Trophosome, or Are You Just Happy to See Me?” - Hydrogen Sulfide, Chemosynthesis, and the Origin of Life 387
Neil Christopher Griffin

24.1 Introducing the extremophiles 387

24.2 Tempted by the guts of another 388

24.3 Chemosynthesis 101 389

24.4 Chemosynthetic bacteria and the origins of life 391

References 392

Index 399

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