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Mastering the Instructional Design Process: A Systematic Approach, 5th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-94713-5
432 pages
December 2015, Pfeiffer
Mastering the Instructional Design Process: A Systematic Approach, 5th Edition (1118947134) cover image

Description

A comprehensive framework for effective real-world instructional design

Mastering the Instructional Design Process provides step-by-step guidance on the design and development of an engaging, effective training program. The focus on core competencies of instructional system design helps you develop your skills in a way that's immediately applicable to real-world settings, and this newly updated fifth edition has been revised to reflect the new IBSTPI Competencies and Standards for Instructional Design. With a solid foundation of researched and validated standards, this invaluable guide provides useful insight and a flexible framework for approaching instructional design from a practical perspective. Coverage includes the full range of design considerations concerning the learners, objectives, setting, and more, and ancillaries include design templates, PowerPoint slides, lecture notes, and a test bank help you bring these competencies to the classroom.

Instructional design is always evolving, and new trends are emerging to meet the ever-changing needs of learners and exploit the newest tools at our disposal. This book brings together the latest developments and the most effective best practices to give you a foolproof framework for successfully managing instructional design projects.

  • Detect and solve human performance problems
  • Analyze needs, learners, work settings, and work
  • Establish performance objectives and measurements
  • Deliver effective instruction in a variety of scenarios

Effective training programs don't just happen. Instructional design is a complex field, and practitioners must be skilled in very specific areas to deliver a training program that engages learners and makes the learning 'stick.' Mastering the Instructional Design Process is a comprehensive handbook for developing the skillset that facilitates positive training outcomes.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Fifth Edition xiii

Acknowledgments xix

About the International Board of Standards for Training, Performance, and Instruction xxi

Advance Organizer xxiii

About This Book xxvii

PART ONE: OVERVIEW 1

1 An Overview of Instructional Design 3

Instructional Design: An Emerging Profession 4

Instructional Design: Focused on Establishing and Maintaining Efficient and Effective Human Performance 5

Instructional Design: Guided by a Model of Human Performance 7

Instructional Design: Carried Out Systematically 11

Instructional Design: Based on Open Systems Theory 11

Instructional Design: Oriented to Finding and Applying the Most Cost-Effective

Solutions to Human Performance Problems 13

Criticisms of Traditional Instructional Approaches 14

PART TWO: PLANNING AND ANALYZING FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 17

2 Conducting a Needs Assessment 19

Defining Terms 23

Steps in Developing Needs Assessment 29

Developing a Needs Assessment Plan: A Case Study 35

Solving Problems in Conducting Needs Assessments 36

Identifying Instructional Problems 38

Ethical Issues in Needs Assessment 38

3 Collecting and Analyzing Data for Instructional Design Projects 41

The Nature of Data 41

The Data Collection Process 45

Data Analysis 58

4 Identifying the Target Population and Environmental Characteristics 61

Selecting Learner Characteristics for Assessments 62

Selecting Learner Characteristics: A Case Study Example 71

When Should Learner Characteristics Be Assessed? 73

5 Using Analytical Techniques to Determine Instructional Content 90

Identify Content Aligned with Needs Assessment Findings 91

Elicit, Synthesize, and Validate Content from Subject Matter Experts 91

Analyze Instructional Products to Determine the Adequacy of Content, Instructions, and Learning to Determine Content Coverage 92

Determine Subordinate and Prerequisite Skills and Knowledge 93

Analyze Content 97

6 Analyzing the Potential Use of Existing and Emerging Technologies 98

E-Learning 100

The Effectiveness of Today’s Instructional Technology 110

PART THREE: DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 117

7 Using an Instructional Design Process Appropriate for a Project 119

Selecting or Creating an Instructional Design Process Based on the Project 123

Modifying the Instructional Design Process as Project Parameters Change 123

Describing a Rationale for the Selected, Created, or Modified Instructional Design Process 124

8 Organizing Instructional Programs and/or Products 125

Determine the Overall Scope of Instructional Programs 125

Specify and Sequence the Anticipated Learning and Performance Outcomes 138

9 Designing Instructional Interventions 145

Identifying Instructional Strategies Aligned with Instructional Goals and Anticipated Learning Outcomes 149

Choosing an Appropriate Instructional Strategy 155

Choosing Media and Delivery Methods 159

Selecting Delivery Modes 162

Appreciating the Learner’s Perspective: A Brief Overview of Cognitive Strategies 164

Using Appropriate Message, Visual, and Motivational Design Principles 165

Accommodating Social, Cultural, Political, and Other Individual Factors Influencing Learning 169

10 Planning Noninstructional Interventions 171

Identifying Appropriate Noninstructional Interventions 172

Feedback Options 173

Job Performance Aids 176

Reward Systems 179

Employee Selection Practices 181

Organizational Redesign 184

Justifying Appropriate Noninstructional Interventions 187

Creating Design Specifications for Noninstructional Interventions 188

11 Selecting or Modifying Existing Instructional Materials 189

Selecting, Developing, or Modifying Instructional Materials 189

Conducting Cost-Benefit Analyses to Decide Whether to Use or Modify Existing Materials 194

Validating Selection or Modification of Existing Instruction 195

12 Developing Instructional Materials 196

Developing Media Specifications 196

Producing Instructional Materials in Various Delivery Formats 213

Developing Materials Aligned with Content Analysis, Proposed Technologies, Delivery Methods, and Instructional Strategies 214

Collaborating with Production Specialists 214

13 Designing Learning Assessments 215

Introduction 215

An Overview of Steps in Preparing Instruments 221

Constructing Reliable and Valid Methods of Assessing Learning and Performance 228

Ensuring the Assessment Is Aligned with Instructional Goals, Anticipated Learning Outcomes, and Instructional Strategies 229

PART FOUR: EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 231

14 Evaluating Instructional and Noninstructional Interventions 233

Purpose and Definitions of Evaluation 234

Formative Evaluation 239

Developing a Formative Evaluation Plan 240

Four Major Approaches to Conducting Formative Evaluation 246

Summative Evaluations 251

Reporting Evaluation Results 259

Creating the Report 261

Disseminating the Report 262

15 Revising Instructional and Noninstructional Solutions Based on Data 263

Types of Revisions 264

Gaining Stakeholder Support for Revisions 267

Implementing Revisions to Delivery of Products/Programs 269

16 Implementing Instructional and Noninstructional Interventions 271

Creating a Vision for Change 272

Planning for the Implementation and Dissemination of the Intervention 276

Planning for Diffusion of the Intervention 285

Encouraging and Achieving Adoption and Buy-In 285

Compliance versus Gaining Commitment 286

Monitoring Implementation, Dissemination, and Diffusion to Identify Potential Adjustments 287

Taking Action on Deviations or Problems Surfaced through Monitoring 288

PART FIVE: MANAGING INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 289

17 Applying Business Skills to Managing the Instructional Design Function 291

Where Instructional Design Fits into the Larger Organization 292

Contributing to the Organizational Purpose and Strategy 295

Implementing Standards 299

Leveraging Internal and External Resources to Accomplish Project Goals and Objectives 301

Managing Instructional Design Talent 303

Marketing and Communicating about Instructional Design 313

Navigating Organizational Culture, Structure, Politics, and Processes 314

18 Managing Partnerships and Collaborative Relationships 317

Identifying and Engaging Stakeholders 318

Building Relations between Instructional Designers and Individuals or Group Members 322

Managing Cross-Functional Teams 327

Securing Commitment 331

Conducting Project Reviews 333

19 Planning and Managing Instructional Design Projects 334

Unique Challenges Posed by Project Management 335

Allocating Resources to Support the Project Plan 338

PART SIX: PREDICTING THE FUTURE OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 341

20 Predicting the Future of Learning and Instructional Design 343

Technological Advances to Improve Delivery and Design 343

The Impact of Neuroscience Research on Instructional Systems Design 357

A Final Word 361

About the Authors 363

References 367

Index 382

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Author Information

WILLIAM J. ROTHWELL, PHD, SPHR, CPLP FELLOW, is a professor of Workforce Education and Development at Penn State University. An editor for the International Journal of Training and Development, he has authored, coauthored, edited, and coedited more than 93 books.

G.M. (BUD) BENSCOTER, PHD, is the owner of GMB Performance Group and author of several articles and books on instructional design and talent development.

MARSHA KING, PHD, is the president of SkillPoint Consulting where she coaches leaders on management and leadership best practices.

STEPHEN B. KING, PHD, is vice president of Talent & Leadership Effectiveness at Allstate Insurance Company.

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