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Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-97056-0
600 pages
November 2017
Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives, 2nd Edition (111897056X) cover image

Description

The latest developments in the field of hybrid electric vehicles

Hybrid Electric Vehicles provides an introduction to hybrid vehicles, which include purely electric, hybrid electric, hybrid hydraulic, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric, and off-road hybrid vehicular systems. It focuses on the power and propulsion systems for these vehicles, including issues related to power and energy management. Other topics covered include hybrid vs. pure electric, HEV system architecture (including plug-in & charging control and hydraulic), off-road and other industrial utility vehicles, safety and EMC, storage technologies, vehicular power and energy management, diagnostics and prognostics, and electromechanical vibration issues.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Second Edition is a comprehensively updated new edition with four new chapters covering recent advances in hybrid vehicle technology. New areas covered include battery modelling, charger design, and wireless charging. Substantial details have also been included on the architecture of hybrid excavators in the chapter related to special hybrid vehicles. Also included is a chapter providing an overview of hybrid vehicle technology, which offers a perspective on the current debate on sustainability and the environmental impact of hybrid and electric vehicle technology.

  • Completely updated with new chapters
  • Covers recent developments, breakthroughs, and technologies, including new drive topologies
  • Explains HEV fundamentals and applications
  • Offers a holistic perspective on vehicle electrification

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives, Second Edition is a great resource for researchers and practitioners in the automotive industry, as well as for graduate students in automotive engineering.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors xvii

Preface to the First Edition xxi

Preface to the Second Edition xxv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Sustainable Transportation 2

1.1.1 Population, Energy, and Transportation 3

1.1.2 Environment 4

1.1.3 Economic Growth 7

1.1.4 New Fuel Economy Requirement 7

1.2 A Brief History of HEVs 7

1.3 Why EVs Emerged and Failed in the 1990s, and What We Can Learn 10

1.4 Architectures of HEVs 11

1.4.1 Series HEVs 12

1.4.2 Parallel HEVs 13

1.4.3 Series–Parallel HEVs 14

1.4.4 Complex HEVs 15

1.4.5 Diesel Hybrids 15

1.4.6 Other Approaches to Vehicle Hybridization 16

1.4.7 Hybridization Ratio 16

1.5 Interdisciplinary Nature of HEVs 17

1.6 State of the Art of HEVs 17

1.6.1 Toyota Prius 21

1.6.2 The Honda Civic 21

1.6.3 The Ford Escape 21

1.6.4 The Two ]Mode Hybrid 21

1.7 Challenges and Key Technology of HEVs 24

1.8 The Invisible Hand–Government Support 25

1.9 Latest Development in EV and HEV, China’s Surge in EV Sales 27

References 29

2 Concept of Hybridization of the Automobile 31

2.1 Vehicle Basics 31

2.1.1 Constituents of a Conventional Vehicle 31

2.1.2 Vehicle and Propulsion Load 31

2.1.3 Drive Cycles and Drive Terrain 34

2.2 Basics of the EV 36

2.2.1 Why EV? 36

2.2.2 Constituents of an EV 36

2.2.3 Vehicle and Propulsion Loads 38

2.3 Basics of the HEV 39

2.3.1 Why HEV? 39

2.3.2 Constituents of an HEV 40

2.4 Basics of Plug ]In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) 40

2.4.1 Why PHEV? 40

2.4.2 Constituents of a PHEV 41

2.4.3 Comparison of HEV and PHEV 42

2.5 Basics of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) 42

2.5.1 Why FCV? 42

2.5.2 Constituents of a FCV 43

2.5.3 Some Issues Related to Fuel Cells 43

Reference 43

3 HEV Fundamentals 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Vehicle Model 46

3.3 Vehicle Performance 49

3.4 EV Powertrain Component Sizing 52

3.5 Series Hybrid Vehicle 55

3.6 Parallel Hybrid Vehicle 60

3.6.1 Electrically Peaking Hybrid Concept 61

3.6.2 ICE Characteristics 66

3.6.3 Gradability Requirement 66

3.6.4 Selection of Gear Ratio from ICE to Wheel 67

3.7 Wheel Slip Dynamics 68

References 71

4 Advanced HEV Architectures and Dynamics of HEV Powertrain 73

4.1 Principle of Planetary Gears 73

4.2 Toyota Prius and Ford Escape Hybrid Powertrain 76

4.3 GM Two ]Mode Hybrid Transmission 80

4.3.1 Operating Principle of the Two ]Mode Powertrain 80

4.3.2 Mode 0: Vehicle Launch and Backup 81

4.3.3 Mode 1: Low Range 82

4.3.4 Mode 2: High Range 83

4.3.5 Mode 3: Regenerative Braking 84

4.3.6 Transition between Modes 0, 1, 2, and 3 84

4.4 Dual ]Clutch Hybrid Transmissions 87

4.4.1 Conventional DCT Technology 87

4.4.2 Gear Shift Schedule 87

4.4.3 DCT ]Based Hybrid Powertrain 88

4.4.4 Operation of DCT ]Based Hybrid Powertrain 90

4.4.4.1 Motor ]Alone Mode 90

4.4.4.2 Combined Mode 90

4.4.4.3 Engine ]Alone Mode 90

4.4.4.4 Regenerative Braking Mode 90

4.4.4.5 Power Split Mode 91

4.4.4.6 Standstill Charge Mode 91

4.4.4.7 Series Hybrid Mode 92

4.5 Hybrid Transmission Proposed by Zhang et al. 92

4.5.1 Motor ]Alone Mode 92

4.5.2 Combined Power Mode 93

4.5.3 Engine ]Alone Mode 94

4.5.4 Electric CVT Mode 94

4.5.5 Energy Recovery Mode 94

4.5.6 Standstill Mode 94

4.6 Renault IVT Hybrid Transmission 95

4.7 Timken Two ]Mode Hybrid Transmission 96

4.7.1 Mode 0: Launch and Reverse 96

4.7.2 Mode 1: Low ]Speed Operation 97

4.7.3 Mode 2: High ]Speed Operation 97

4.7.4 Mode 4: Series Operating Mode 97

4.7.5 Mode Transition 98

4.8 Tsai’s Hybrid Transmission 99

4.9 Hybrid Transmission with Both Speed and Torque Coupling Mechanism 100

4.10 Toyota Highlander and Lexus Hybrid, E ]Four ]Wheel Drive 102

4.11 CAMRY Hybrid 103

4.12 Chevy Volt Powertrain 104

4.13 Non ]Ideal Gears in the Planetary System 106

4.14 Dynamics of the Transmission 107

4.15 Conclusions 108

References 108

5 Plug ]In Hybrid Electric Vehicles 111

5.1 Introduction to PHEVs 111

5.1.1 PHEVs and EREVs 111

5.1.2 Blended PHEVs 112

5.1.3 Why PHEV? 112

5.1.4 Electricity for PHEV Use 114

5.2 PHEV Architectures 115

5.3 Equivalent Electric Range of Blended PHEVs 115

5.4 Fuel Economy of PHEVs 116

5.4.1 Well ]to ]Wheel Efficiency 116

5.4.2 PHEV Fuel Economy 117

5.4.3 Utility Factor 118

5.5 Power Management of PHEVs 119

5.6 PHEV Design and Component Sizing 121

5.7 Component Sizing of EREVs 122

5.8 Component Sizing of Blended PHEVs 123

5.9 HEV to PHEV Conversions 123

5.9.1 Replacing the Existing Battery Pack 123

5.9.2 Adding an Extra Battery Pack 125

5.9.3 Converting Conventional Vehicles to PHEVs 126

5.10 Other Topics on PHEVs 126

5.10.1 End ]of ]Life Battery for Electric Power Grid Support 126

5.10.2 Cold Start Emissions Reduction in PHEVs 126

5.10.3 Cold Weather/Hot Weather Performance Enhancement in PHEVs 127

5.10.4 PHEV Maintenance 127

5.10.5 Safety of PHEVs 128

5.11 Vehicle ]to ]Grid Technology 129

5.11.1 PHEV Battery Charging 129

5.11.2 Impact of G2V 131

5.11.3 The Concept of V2G 135

5.11.4 Advantages of V2G 136

5.11.5 Case Studies of V2G 137

5.12 Conclusion 140

References 140

6 Special Hybrid Vehicles 143

6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles 143

6.1.1 Regenerative Braking in HHVs 146

6.2 Off ]Road HEVs 148

6.2.1 Hybrid Excavators 151

6.2.2 Hybrid Excavator Design Considerations 157

6.3 Diesel HEVs 163

6.4 Electric or Hybrid Ships, Aircraft, and Locomotives 164

6.4.1 Ships 164

6.4.2 Aircraft 167

6.4.3 Locomotives 170

6.5 Other Industrial Utility Application Vehicles 172

References 173

Further Reading 174

7 HEV Applications for Military Vehicles 175

7.1 Why HEVs Can Be Beneficial for Military Applications 175

7.2 Ground Vehicle Applications 176

7.2.1 Architecture – Series, Parallel, Complex 176

7.2.2 Vehicles that Are of Most Benefit 178

7.3 Non ]Ground ]Vehicle Military Applications 180

7.3.1 Electromagnetic Launchers 181

7.3.2 Hybrid ]Powered Ships 181

7.3.3 Aircraft Applications 183

7.3.4 Dismounted Soldier Applications 183

7.4 Ruggedness Issues 185

References 186

Further Reading 187

8 Diagnostics, Prognostics, Reliability, EMC, and Other Topics Related to HEVs 189

8.1 Diagnostics and Prognostics in HEVs and EVs 189

8.1.1 Onboard Diagnostics 189

8.1.2 Prognostics Issues 192

8.2 Reliability of HEVs 195

8.2.1 Analyzing the Reliability of HEV Architectures 196

8.2.2 Reliability and Graceful Degradation 199

8.2.3 Software Reliability Issues 201

8.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Issues 203

8.4 Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH), Electromechanical, and Other Issues 205

8.5 End ]of ]Life Issues 207

References 208

Further Reading 209

9 Power Electronics in HEVs 211

9.1 Introduction 211

9.2 Principles of Power Electronics 212

9.3 Rectifiers Used in HEVs 214

9.3.1 Ideal Rectifier 214

9.3.2 Practical Rectifier 215

9.3.3 Single ]Phase Rectifier 216

9.3.4 Voltage Ripple 218

9.4 Buck Converter Used in HEVs 221

9.4.1 Operating Principle 221

9.4.2 Nonlinear Model 222

9.5 Non ]Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter 223

9.5.1 Operating Principle 223

9.5.2 Maintaining Constant Torque Range and Power Capability 225

9.5.3 Reducing Current Ripple in the Battery 226

9.5.4 Regenerative Braking 228

9.6 Voltage Source Inverter 229

9.7 Current Source Inverter 229

9.8 Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter 231

9.8.1 Basic Principle and Steady State Operations 231

9.8.1.1 Heavy Load Conditions 232

9.8.1.2 Light Load Condition 234

9.8.1.3 Output Voltage 234

9.8.1.4 Output Power 236

9.8.2 Voltage Ripple 236

9.9 PWM Rectifier in HEVs 242

9.9.1 Rectifier Operation of Inverter 242

9.10 EV and PHEV Battery Chargers 243

9.10.1 Forward/Flyback Converters 244

9.10.2 Half ]Bridge DC–DC Converter 245

9.10.3 Full ]Bridge DC–DC Converter 245

9.10.4 Power Factor Correction Stage 246

9.10.4.1 Decreasing Impact on the Grid 246

9.10.4.2 Decreasing the Impact on the Switches 247

9.10.5 Bidirectional Battery Chargers 247

9.10.6 Other Charger Topologies 249

9.10.7 Contactless Charging 249

9.10.8 Wireless Charging 250

9.11 Modeling and Simulation of HEV Power Electronics 251

9.11.1 Device ]Level Simulation 251

9.11.2 System ]Level Model 252

9.12 Emerging Power Electronics Devices 253

9.13 Circuit Packaging 254

9.14 Thermal Management of HEV Power Electronics 254

9.15 Conclusions 257

References 257

10 Electric Machines and Drives in HEVs 261

10.1 Introduction 261

10.2 Induction Motor Drives 262

10.2.1 Principle of Induction Motors 262

10.2.2 Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor 265

10.2.3 Speed Control of Induction Machine 267

10.2.4 Variable Frequency, Variable Voltage Control of Induction Motors 269

10.2.5 Efficiency and Losses of Induction Machine 270

10.2.6 Additional Loss in Induction Motors Due to PWM Supply 271

10.2.7 Field ]Oriented Control of Induction Machine 278

10.3 Permanent Magnet Motor Drives 287

10.3.1 Basic Configuration of PM Motors 287

10.3.2 Basic Principle and Operation of PM Motors 290

10.3.3 Magnetic Circuit Analysis of IPM Motors 295

10.3.3.1 Unsaturated Motor 300

10.3.3.2 Saturated Motor 301

10.3.3.3 Operation under Load 303

10.3.3.4 Flux Concentration 303

10.3.4 Sizing of Magnets in PM Motors 304

10.3.4.1 Input Power 306

10.3.4.2 Direct ]Axis Armature Reaction Factor 306

10.3.4.3 Magnetic Usage Ratio and Flux Leakage Coefficient 306

10.3.4.4 Maximum Armature Current 307

10.3.4.5 Inner Power Angle 307

10.3.5 Eddy Current Losses in the Magnets of PM Machines 308

10.4 Switched Reluctance Motors 310

10.5 Doubly Salient Permanent Magnet Machines 311

10.6 Design and Sizing of Traction Motors 315

10.6.1 Selection of A and B 315

10.6.2 Speed Rating of the Traction Motor 316

10.6.3 Determination of the Inner Power 316

10.7 Thermal Analysis and Modeling of Traction Motors 316

10.7.1 The Thermal Resistance of the Air Gap, Rag 317

10.7.2 The Radial Conduction Thermal Resistance of the Rotor Core, Rrs 318

10.7.3 The Radial Conduction Thermal Resistance of the Poles, Rmr 319

10.7.4 The Thermal Resistance of the Shaft, Rshf 319

10.7.5 The Radial Conduction Thermal Resistance of Stator Teeth, Rst 320

10.7.6 The Radial Conduction Thermal Resistance of the Stator Yoke, Rsy 320

10.7.7 The Conduction Thermal Resistance between the Windings and Stator, Rws 320

10.7.8 Convective Thermal Resistance Between Windings External to the Stator and Adjoining Air, Rwa 321

10.8 Conclusions 323

References 323

11 Electric Energy Sources and Storage Devices 333

11.1 Introduction 333

11.2 Characterization of Batteries 335

11.2.1 Battery Capacity 335

11.2.2 Energy Stored in a Battery 335

11.2.3 State of Charge in Battery (SOC) and Measurement of SOC 335

11.2.3.1 SOC Determination 336

11.2.3.2 Direct measurement 336

11.2.3.3 Amp ]hr Based Measurement 337

11.2.3.4 Some Better Methods 337

11.2.3.5 Initialization Process 338

11.2.4 Depth of Discharge (DOD) of a Battery 339

11.2.5 Specific Power and Energy Density 339

11.2.6 Ampere ]Hour (Charge and Discharge) Efficiency 339

11.2.7 Number of Deep Cycles and Battery Life 340

11.2.8 Some Practical Issues About Batteries and Battery Life 341

11.2.8.1 Acronyms and Definitions 344

11.2.8.2 State of Health Issue in Batteries 348

11.2.8.3 Two ]Pulse Load Method to Evaluate State of Health of a Battery [4, 6] 349

11.2.8.4 Battery Management Implementation 352

11.2.8.5 What to Do with All the Above Information 353

11.3 Comparison of Energy Storage Technologies 355

11.3.1 Lead Acid Battery 355

11.3.2 Nickel Metal Hydride Battery 356

11.3.3 Lithium ]Ion Battery 356

11.4 Ultracapacitors 356

11.5 Electric Circuit Model for Batteries and Ultracapacitors 358

11.5.1 Battery Modeling 358

11.5.2 Electric Circuit Models for Ultracapacitors 359

11.6 Flywheel Energy Storage System 361

11.7 Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Vehicular Systems 364

11.7.1 Introduction to Fuel Cells 364

11.7.1.1 Types of Fuel Cells 364

11.7.2 System Level Applications 364

11.7.3 Fuel Cell Modeling 366

11.8 Summary and Discussion 368

References 369

Further Reading 369

12 Battery Modeling 371

12.1 Introduction 371

12.2 Modeling of Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery 372

12.2.1 Chemistry of an NiMH Battery 372

12.3 Modeling of Lithium ]Ion (Li ]Ion) Battery 374

12.3.1 Chemistry in Li ]Ion Battery 374

12.4 Parameter Estimation for Battery Models 375

12.5 Example Case of Using Battery Model in an EV System 377

12.6 Summary and Observations on Modeling

and Simulation for Batteries 382

References 383

Further Reading 383

13 EV and PHEV Battery Charger Design 385

13.1 Introduction 385

13.2 Main Features of the LLC Resonant Charger 387

13.2.1 Analysis in the Time Domain 387

13.2.2 Operation Modes and Distribution Analysis 389

13.3 Design Considerations for an LLC Converter for a PHEV Battery Charger 393

13.4 Charging Trajectory Design 396

13.4.1 Key Design Parameters 396

13.4.2 Design Constraints 399

13.5 Design Procedures 401

13.6 Experimental Results 401

13.7 Conclusions 407

References 407

14 Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 409

14.1 Introduction 409

14.2 Fundamentals of Vehicle System Modeling 410

14.3 HEV Modeling Using ADVISOR 412

14.4 HEV Modeling Using PSAT 416

14.5 Physics ]Based Modeling 416

14.5.1 RCF Modeling Technique 417

14.5.2 Hybrid Powertrain Modeling 418

14.5.3 Modeling of a DC Machine 418

14.5.4 Modeling of DC–DC Boost Converter 419

14.5.5 Modeling of Vehicle Dynamics 420

14.5.6 Wheel Slip Model 421

14.6 Bond Graph and Other Modeling Techniques 424

14.6.1 Bond Graph Modeling for HEVs 424

14.6.2 HEV Modeling Using PSIM 425

14.6.3 HEV Modeling Using Simplorer and V ]Elph 427

14.7 Consideration of Numerical Integration Methods 428

14.8 Conclusion 428

References 428

15 HEV Component Sizing and Design Optimization 433

15.1 Introduction 433

15.2 Global Optimization Algorithms for HEV Design 434

15.2.1 DIRECT 434

15.2.2 Simulated Annealing 438

15.2.2.1 Algorithm Description 438

15.2.2.2 Tunable Parameters 439

15.2.2.3 Flow Chart 440

15.2.3 Genetic Algorithms 441

15.2.3.1 Flow Chart 441

15.2.3.2 Operators and Selection Method 441

15.2.3.3 Tunable Parameters 443

15.2.4 Particle Swarm Optimization 443

15.2.4.1 Algorithm Description 443

15.2.4.2 Flow Chart 444

15.2.5 Advantages/Disadvantages of Different Optimization Algorithms 444

15.2.5.1 DIRECT 444

15.2.5.2 SA 445

15.2.5.3 GA 445

15.2.5.4 PSO 446

15.3 Model ]in ]the ]Loop Design Optimization Process 446

15.4 Parallel HEV Design Optimization Example 447

15.5 Series HEV Design Optimization Example 452

15.5.1 Control Framework of a Series HEV Powertrain 454

15.5.2 Series HEV Parameter Optimization 454

15.5.3 Optimization Results 456

15.6 Conclusion 459

References 459

16 Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Applications 461

16.1 Introduction 461

16.2 Fundamental Theory 464

16.3 Magnetic Coupler Design 468

16.3.1 Coupler for Stationary Charging 469

16.3.2 Coupler for Dynamic Charging 471

16.4 Compensation Network 473

16.5 Power Electronics Converters and Power Control 475

16.6 Methods of Study 477

16.7 Additional Discussion 479

16.7.1 Safety Concerns 479

16.7.2 Vehicle to Grid Benefits 481

16.7.3 Wireless Communications 481

16.7.4 Cost 481

16.8 A Double ]Sided LCC Compensation Topology and its Parameter Design 482

16.8.1 The Double ]Sided LCC Compensation Topology 482

16.8.2 Parameter Tuning for Zero Voltage Switching 486

16.8.3 Parameter Design 491

16.8.4 Simulation and Experiment Results 495

16.8.4.1 Simulation Results 495

16.8.4.2 Experimental Results 497

16.9 An LCLC Based Wireless Charger Using Capacitive Power Transfer Principle 502

16.9.1 Circuit Topology Design 504

16.9.2 Capacitance Analysis 506

16.9.3 A 2.4 kW CPT System Design 506

16.9.4 Experiment 507

16.10 Summary 511

References 511

17 Vehicular Power Control Strategy and Energy Management 521

17.1 A Generic Framework, Definition, and Needs 521

17.2 Methodology to Implement 523

17.2.1 Methodologies for Optimization 528

17.2.2 Cost Function Optimization 531

17.3 Benefits of Energy Management 536

References 536

Further Reading 537

18 Commercialization and Standardization of HEV Technology and Future Transportation 539

18.1 What Is Commercialization and Why Is It Important for HEVs? 539

18.2 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Enablers of Commercialization 539

18.3 Standardization and Commercialization 540

18.4 Commercialization Issues and Effects on Various Types of Vehicles 541

18.5 Commercialization of HEVs for Trucks and Off ]Road Applications 542

18.6 Commercialization and Future of HEVs and Transportation 543

Further Reading 543

19 A Holistic Perspective on Vehicle Electrification 545

19.1 Vehicle Electrification – What Does it Involve? 545

19.2 To What Extent Should Vehicles Be Electrified? 545

19.3 What Other Industries Are Involved or Affected in Vehicle Electrification? 547

19.4 A More Complete Picture Towards Vehicle Electrification 548

19.5 The Ultimate Issue: To Electrify Vehicles or Not? 551

Further Reading 553

Index 555

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Author Information

Chris Mi, PhD, is the Professor and Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Director of DTE Power Electronics Laboratory at San Diego State University.

M. Abul Masrur, PhD, is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Detroit Mercy, where he has been teaching courses on Advanced Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vehicular Power Systems, Electric Drives, and Power Electronics. 

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