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Synthesized Transmission Lines: Design, Circuit Implementation, and Phased Array Applications

ISBN: 978-1-118-97575-6
216 pages
November 2016, Wiley-IEEE Press
Synthesized Transmission Lines: Design, Circuit Implementation, and Phased Array Applications (1118975758) cover image

Description

An original advanced level reference appealing to both the microwave and antenna communities

  • An overview of the research activity devoted to the synthesis of transmission lines by means of electrically small planar elements, highlighting the main microwave applications and the potential for circuit miniaturization
  • Showcases the research of top experts in the field
  • Presents innovative topics on synthesized transmission lines, which represent fundamental elements in microwave and mm-wave integrated circuits, including on-chip integration
  • Covers topics that are related to the microwave community (transmission lines), and topics that are related to the antenna community (phased arrays), broadening the readership appeal
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 Introduction to Synthesized Transmission Lines 1
C. W. Wang and T. G. Ma

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Propagation Characteristics of a TEM Transmission Line 2

1.2.1 Wave Equations 2

1.2.2 Keys to Miniaturization 5

1.3 Analysis of Synthesized Transmission Lines 7

1.3.1 Bloch Theorem and Characterization of a Periodic Synthesized Transmission Line 7

1.3.2 Characterization of a Non?-Periodic Synthesized Transmission Line 9

1.3.3 Extraction of Line Parameters from S?-Parameters 10

1.4 Lumped and Quasi?-Lumped Approaches 11

1.4.1 Lumped Networks 11

1.4.2 Shunt?-Stub Loaded Lines 14

1.5 One?-Dimensional Periodic Structures 16

1.5.1 Complementary?-Conducting?-Strip Lines 19

1.6 Photonic Bandgap Structures 20

1.7 Left?-Handed Structures 21

References 24

2 Non?-Periodic Synthesized Transmission Lines for Circuit Miniaturization 26
C. W. Wang and T. G. Ma

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Non?-Periodic Synthesized Microstrip Lines and Their Applications 27

2.2.1 Design Details and Propagation Characteristics 27

2.2.2 90° and 180° Hybrid Couplers 30

2.2.3 Application to Butler Matrix as Array Feeding Network 32

2.3 Non?-Periodic Synthesized Coplanar Waveguides and Their Applications 34

2.3.1 Synthesis and Design 34

2.3.2 180° Hybrid Using Synthesized CPWs 37

2.3.3 Dual?-Mode Ring Bandpass Filters 38

2.4 Non?-Periodic Quasi?-Lumped Synthesized Coupled Lines 42

2.4.1 Basics of Coupled Transmission Lines 42

2.4.2 Miniaturization of Coupled Lines and the Directional Couplers 44

2.4.3 Marchand Baluns Using Synthesized Coupled Lines 49

2.4.4 Lumped Directional Coupler and the Phase Shifter 53

2.5 Non?-Periodic Synthesized Lines Using Vertical Inductors 55

References 60

3 Dual/Tri?-Operational Mode Synthesized Transmission Lines: Design and Analysis 62
C. H. Lai and T. G. Ma

3.1 Introduction 62

3.2 Equivalent Circuit Models and Analysis 63

3.2.1 Ladder?-Type Approximation in the Passband 63

3.2.2 Half?-Circuit Model at Resonance 64

3.3 Dual?-Operational Mode Synthesized Transmission Lines 65

3.3.1 Design Concept 65

3.3.2 Dual?-Mode Synthesized Line Using a Series Resonator 66

3.3.3 Dual?-Mode Synthesized Line Using Open-Circuited Stubs 70

3.3.4 Dual?-Mode Synthesized Line Using Parallel Resonators 72

3.4 Tri?-Operational Mode Synthesized Lines Using Series Resonators 74

3.4.1 Design Concept 74

3.4.2 Tri?-Mode Synthesized Line as Category?-1 Design 75

3.4.3 Tri?-Mode Synthesized Line as Category?-2 Design 79

3.4.4 Tri?-Mode Synthesized Line as Category?-3 Design 83

3.5 Multi?-Operational Mode Synthesized Lines as Diplexer and Triplexer 87

3.5.1 Diplexer 87

3.5.2 Triplexer 89

References 94

4 Applications to Heterogeneous Integrated Phased Arrays 95
C. H. Lai and T. G. Ma

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Dual?-Mode Retrodirective Array 96

4.2.1 Design Goal 96

4.2.2 System Architecture 97

4.2.3 Circuit Realization 98

4.2.4 Bistatic Radiation Patterns 102

4.2.5 Alternative Architecture 103

4.3 Dual?-Mode Integrated Beam?-Switching/Retrodirective Array 106

4.3.1 Design Goal 106

4.3.2 System Architecture 106

4.3.3 Circuit Realization 109

4.3.4 Radiation Characteristics 111

4.3.5 Complementary Design 111

4.4 Tri?-Mode Heterogeneous Integrated Phased Array 115

4.4.1 Design Goal 115

4.4.2 System Architecture 116

4.4.3 Operation and System Implementation 117

4.4.4 Circuit Responses and Radiation Patterns 119

4.4.4.1 Beam?-Switching Mode 120

4.4.4.2 Van Atta Mode 122

4.4.4.3 PCA Mode 122

4.5 Simplified Dual?-Mode Integrated Array Using Two Elements 122

References 124

5 On?-Chip Realization of Synthesized Transmission Lines Using IPD Processes 126
Y. C. Tseng and T. G. Ma

5.1 Introduction 126

5.2 Integrated Passive Device (IPD) Process 127

5.3 Tight Couplers Using Synthesized CPWs 128

5.3.1 Quadrature Hybrid 128

5.3.2 Wideband Rat?-Race Coupler 129

5.3.3 Dual?-Band Rat?-Race Coupler 132

5.3.4 Coupled?-Line Coupler 137

5.3.5 Butler Matrix 139

5.4 Bandpass/Bandstop Filters Using Synthesized CPWs 142

5.4.1 Bandpass Filter Using Synthesized Stepped?-Impedance Resonators 143

5.4.2 Transformer?-Coupled Bandpass Filter 146

5.4.3 Bridged T?-Coils as Common?-Mode Filter 147

5.5 Chip Designs Using Multi?-Mode Synthesized CPWs 151

5.5.1 Diplexer 151

5.5.2 Dual?-Mode Rat?-Race Coupler 154

5.5.3 Triplexer 157

5.5.4 On?-Chip Liquid Detector 161

References 166

6 Periodic Synthesized Transmission Lines with Two?-Dimensional Routing 168
T. G. Ma

6.1 Introduction 168

6.2 Design of the Unit Cells 169

6.2.1 Formulation 169

6.2.2 Quarter?-Wavelength Lines 172

6.3 Power Divider and Couplers 174

6.4 Broadside Directional Coupler 178

6.4.1 Design Principle 178

6.4.2 Circuit Realization 180

6.5 Common?-Mode Rejection Filter 184

6.5.1 Design Principle 184

6.5.2 Circuit Realization 187

6.6 On?-Chip Implementation 189

6.6.1 Unit Cells and Quarter?-Wavelength Lines 189

6.6.2 Circuit Implementations and Compensation 192

References 194

Index 196

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Author Information

Prof. Tzyh-Ghuang Ma - Distinguished Professor, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology.
Professor Ma received his Ph.D.in Communication Engineering from National Taiwan University in 2005. From 2005-2013, Dr. Ma has published 36 SCI journal papers and more than 45 peer-reviewed international conference papers, which include some invited talks. Most papers are published in the top IEEE journals, with citations reaching over 400. The majority of his work in the past five years is associated with the designs and applications of synthesized transmission lines, which include some innovative thoughts on the feeding networks of phased arrays. He has become one of the most active researchers in the field. His other research interests include miniaturized self-oscillating active antennas, radio frequency identification, and ultra-wideband antennas and front-end circuits. He is a senior member of IEEE.

Dr. Chao-Wei Wang - Principal Engineer, MediaTek Inc.
Dr. Wang is the co-inventor of the quasi-lumped synthesized transmission line in Dr. Ma's group. He received his Ph.D. in Communication Engineering from National Taiwan University.

Dr. Chi-Hui Lai - Senior Engineer, ASUSTeK
.
Dr. Lai is the main contributor of a number of innovative circuits for heterogeneous integrated phased array using synthesized transmission lines. He received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from National Taiwan University of Science and Technology.

Mr.Ying-Cheng Tseng - Phd. Candidate, National Taiwan University
.
Mr. Tseng focuses on the chip realizations and applications of synthesized transmission lines. He is currently working toward his Ph.D. in Telecommunication Engineering, National Taiwan University.

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