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Pesticides: Health, Safety and the Environment, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-97602-9
296 pages
January 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Pesticides: Health, Safety and the Environment, 2nd Edition (1118976029) cover image

Description

Crop protection continues to be an important component of modern farming to maintain food production to feed an expanding human population, but considerable changes have occurred in the regulation of pesticides in Europe in the last decade.  The aim has been to reduce their impact on people and the environment.  This has resulted in a major reduction in the number of chemicals approved for application on crops.  In other parts of the world, a continuing expansion in the growing of genetically modified crops has also changed the pattern of pesticide use.

In this second edition, Graham Matthews, updates how pesticides are registered and applied and the techniques used to mitigate their effects in the environment.  Information on operator safety, protection of workers in crops treated with pesticides and spray drift affecting those who live in farming areas is also discussed.

By bringing together the most recent research on pesticides in a single volume, this book provides a vital up to date resource for agricultural scientists, agronomists, plant scientists, plant pathologists, entomologists, environmental scientists, public health personnel, toxicologists and others working in the agrochemical industry and governments.  It should assist development of improvements in harmonising regulation of pesticides in countries with limited resources for registration of pesticides.
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Table of Contents

Preface to the first edition vii

Preface to second edition ix

Acknowledgements x

1 Pesticides and agricultural development 1

Principal pesticides 5

Insecticides 6

Herbicides 9

Fungicides 11

Rodenticides 12

Crop distribution 12

Major crops 13

2 Approval of pesticides 33

Retrospective assessment 43

Environmental aspects 44

Endocrine disrupters 48

Approval in relation to efficacy 49

Operator proficiency 50

Storage and waste management 51

3 Application of pesticides 57

Hydraulic sprayers 57

Hydraulic nozzles 65

Sprayer testing 73

Rotary atomisers 73

Compression sprayers 75

Knapsack sprayers 77

Home and garden use 80

Weed wipers 80

Space treatment equipment 81

Granule application 84

Seed treatment 85

Storage of pesticides and equipment 86

Timing and number of spray applications 87

4 Operator exposure 92

Methodology of measuring exposure 102

Exposure of hands 107

Inhalation exposure 108

Biomonitoring 110

First aid 112

Periods of exposure 114

5 Spray drift, bystander, resident and worker exposure 129

What is drift? 131

How is drift measured? 132

Bystander exposure 137

Residential exposure 143

Worker exposure 150

6 Environmental aspects of spray drift 159

Protecting water 159

Protecting vegetation 174

Overall environmental impact assessments 184

Pesticide misuse affecting wildlife 190

7 Residues in food 201

8 The future of pesticides 225

Weed management 227

Disease management 229

Insect management 229

IPM 232

Traditional plant breeding 234

Present day pesticides 236

Herbicides 236

Fungicides 236

Insecticides 237

Other insecticides 239

Biopesticides 240

More selective applications 242

Pheromones 243

GM crops 244

Perceptions and hopes for the future 246

Appendix 1 – Standard terms and abbreviations 253

Appendix 2 – Checklist of important actions for pesticide users 264

Index 266

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