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Pharmaceutical Calculations, 5th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-97853-5
552 pages
February 2017
Pharmaceutical Calculations, 5th Edition (1118978536) cover image

Description

Retaining the successful previous editions' programmed instructional format, this book improves and updates an authoritative textbook to keep pace with compounding trends and calculations – addressing real-world calculations pharmacists perform and allowing students to learn at their own pace through examples.

  • Connects well with the current emphasis on self-paced and active learning in pharmacy schools
  • Adds a new chapter dedicated to practical calculations used in contemporary compounding, new appendices, and solutions and answers for all problems
  • Maintains value for teaching pharmacy students the principles while also serving as a reference for review by students in preparation for licensure exams
  • Rearranges chapters and rewrites topics of the previous edition, making its content ideal to be used as the primary textbook in a typical dosage calculations course for any health care professional
  • Reviews of the prior edition: "...a well-structured approach to the topic..." (Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy) and "...a perfectly organized manual that serves as a expert guide..." (Electric Review)
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Table of Contents

PREFACE XIII

CHAPTER 1 REVIEW OF BASIC MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES 1

1.1. Significant Figures 2

1.2. Rounding Off 4

1.3. Fractions 5

1.4. Exponents and Powers 8

1.5. Estimation 10

1.6. Units 12

1.7. Ratio 15

1.8. Proportion 15

1.9. Dimensional Analysis 18

Practice Problems 21

CHAPTER 2 SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 31

2.1. Metrology 31

2.2. The Metric System 32

2.3. The English Systems 33

2.4. Measurement of Weight 33

2.5. Measurement of Volume 38

2.6. Measurement of Length 41

2.7. Intersystem Relationships 43

2.8. Household Equivalents and Metric Estimation 44

Practice Problems 49

CHAPTER 3 PRESCRIPTIONS AND MEDICATION ORDERS 54

3.1. Prescribing Authority 55

3.2. Components 57

3.3. Practices To Prevent Medication Errors 58

3.4. Common Abbreviations 60

3.5. Outpatient Prescription Drug Orders 69

3.6. Inpatient Medication Orders 72

3.7. Interpretation 77

3.8. Calculations To Check “DEA” Numbers 77

3.9. Reducing and Enlarging Formulas 80

3.10. Parts Formulas 87

Practice Problems 90

CHAPTER 4 WEIGHING AND MEASURING IN PHARMACY PRACTICE 103

4.1. Measurement Errors 103

4.2. Indication of Error 104

4.3. Tolerance In Prescription Compounding and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing 108

4.4. Weighing and Measuring 109

4.5. Aliquot Method and Triturations 119

4.6. Density 142

4.7. Specific Gravity 144

Practice Problems 145

CHAPTER 5 DOSAGE CALCULATIONS 160

5.1. Calculations Involving Dose, Size, Number of Doses, Amount Dispensed, and Quanity of a Specific Ingredient in a Dose 161

5.2. Dosage Measured By Drops 169

5.3. Dosage Based on Body Weight 171

5.4. Dosage Based on Body Surface Area (BSA) 174

5.5. Pediatric and Geriatric Dose Calculations 181

5.6. Chemotherapy Dose Calculations 184

Practice Problems 187

CHAPTER 6 DRUG CONCENTRATION EXPRESSIONS 203

6.1. Concentration 204

6.2. Percentage Strength Expressions 204

6.3. Stock Solutions, Concentrates, and Triturations 218

6.4. Saturated Solutions 222

6.5. Ratio Strength Expressions 224

6.6. Other Pharmaceutical Expressions of Drug Concentration 230

Practice Problems 235

CHAPTER 7 DILUTION AND CONCENTRATION 257

7.1. Problem-Solving Methodologies 258

7.2. So, Which Method Should I Use? 291

Practice Problems 296

CHAPTER 8 ISOTONICITY 310

8.1. Principles 310

8.2. Sodium Chloride Equivalent Values 312

8.3. Isotonicity by the Sodium Chloride Equivalent Method 315

8.4. Other Tonicity Agents 319

8.5. Isotonicity When One Ingredient is Already Isotonic 321

8.6. Isotonic Buffered Solutions 323

8.7. Other Methods 326

8.8. Determination of the Tonicity of a Solution (Hypotonic, Isotonic, or Hypertonic) 329

Practice Problems 330

CHAPTER 9 DOSAGE CALCULATIONS OF ELECTROLYTES 340

9.1. Molarity and Molality 341

9.2. Electrolyte Dissociation, Valence, Equivalent, and Equivalent Weight 344

9.3. Milliequivalents, mEq/mL, mEq/L 347

9.4. Osmolarity (Osmolar Strength) 354

Practice Problems 366

CHAPTER 10 CALCULATIONS FOR INJECTABLE MEDICATIONS AND STERILE FLUIDS 378

10.1. Reconstitution of Dry Powders 378

10.2. Calculations Related to Units/ml (Insulin, Heparin) and Other Units of Potency 386

10.3. Intravenous Admixtures 392

10.4. Extemporaneous IV Fluids 395

10.5. Flow Rates in Intravenous Sets 397

Practice Problems 399

CHAPTER 11 ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION 413

11.1. Screening and Assessment of Nutritional Needs 414

11.2. Enteral Nutrition 416

11.3. Parenteral Nutrition (PN): 2-in-1 and 3-in-1 Formulations 418

11.4. Calculation of Nutritional Requirements 420

11.5. Calculations for Compounding Parenteral Nutrition 429

11.6. Calculations Related to the Design of a PN 444

Practice Problems 446

CHAPTER 12 MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICAL CALCULATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY COMPOUNDING 458

12.1. Compounding with Manufactured Dosage Forms 459

12.2. Suppository Calculations 465

12.3. Determination of Amount of Base/powder Occupied by the Drug(s): Solid Dosage Forms 466

12.4. Lozenges and Lollipops 479

12.5. Selecting a Capsule Size 480

12.6. Primary Emulsion Calculations (4:2:1 Ratio) 485

12.7. A Little Touch of Veterinary Compounding 487

Practice Problems 489

APPENDICES 499

APPENDIX 1 Systems of Measurement 500

APPENDIX 2 Chemical Elements and Atomic Weights 502

APPENDIX 3 Calibration of Medicinal Dropper 503

APPENDIX 4 Solutions Used to Compound PN 504

APPENDIX 5 Conversions: Temperature, Time, Proof Strength 507

APPENDIX 6 HLB System 511

APPENDIX 7 Drug as a Base Versus Salt or Ester 514

APPENDIX 8 pH, Buffers, and Buffer Capacity 517

APPENDIX 9 Normal Concentration 525

APPENDIX 10 Biologics for Immunization 527

LITERATURE CONSULTED 529

INDEX 531

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Author Information

Maria Glaucia Teixeira, PhD, is Associate Professor Emeritus in the School of Pharmacy at the University of Wyoming, where she retired after 23 years on the faculty, following 10 years as Professor at the Federal University of Ceará in Fortaleza, Brazil. She has received numerous recognitions for her teaching, including the Top Prof and Excellence in Teaching awards at Wyoming. She received her PhD in Pharmacology at Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France.

Joel L. Zatz, PhD, is Professor Emeritus at Rutgers University, New Jersey.

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