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Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-97877-1
592 pages
May 2016, Wiley-IEEE Press
Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems, 2nd Edition (1118978773) cover image

Description

Provides a systems approach to sustainable green energy production and contains analytical tools to aid in the design of renewable microgrids

This book discusses the fundamental concepts of power grid integration on microgrids of green energy sources. In each chapter, the author presents a key engineering problem, and then formulates a mathematical model of the problem followed by a simulation testbed in MATLAB, highlighting solution steps. The book builds its foundation on design of distributed generating system, and design of PV generating plants by introducing design- efficient smart residential PV microgrids. These include energy monitoring systems, smart devices, building load estimation, load classification, and real-time pricing. The book presents basic concepts of phasor systems, three-phase systems, transformers, loads, DC/DC converters, DC/AC inverters, and AC/DC rectifiers, which are all integrated into the design of microgrids for renewable energy as part of bulk interconnected power grids. Other topics of discussion include the Newton formulation of power flow, the Newton—Raphson solution of a power flow problem, the fast decoupled solution for power flow studies, and short circuit calculations.

  • Focuses on the utilization of DC/AC inverters as a three-terminal element of power systems for the integration of renewable energy sources
  • Presents basic concepts of phasor systems, three-phase systems, transformers, loads, DC/DC converters, DC/AC inverters, and AC/DC rectifiers
  • Contains problems at the end of each chapter
  • Supplementary material includes a solutions manual and PowerPoint presentations for instructors

Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems, Second Edition is a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in electric power systems engineering, researchers, and industry professionals.

ALI KEYHANI, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The Ohio State University. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and a recipient of The Ohio State University, College of Engineering Research Award for 1989, 1999, and 2003. He has worked for Columbus and Southern Electric Power Company, Hewlett-Packard Co., Foster Wheeler Engineering, and TRW. He has performed research and consulting for American Electric Power, TRW Control, Liebert, Delphi Automotive Systems, General Electric, General Motors, and Ford. Dr. Keyhani has authored many articles in IEEE Transactions in energy conversion, power electronics, and power systems engineering.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE XV

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS XVII

ABOUT THE COMPANION WEBSITE XIX

1 GLOBAL WARMING AND MITIGATION 1

1.1 Introduction—Motivation 1

1.2 Fossil Fuel 1

1.3 Energy Use and Industrialization 2

1.4 New Oil Boom–Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) 3

1.5 Nuclear Energy 3

1.6 Global Warming 3

1.7 Estimation of Future CO2 7

1.8 Green and Renewable Energy Sources 9

1.8.1 Hydrogen 9

1.8.2 Solar and Photovoltaic 10

1.8.3 Wind Power 11

1.8.4 Geothermal 11

1.8.5 Biomass 12

1.8.6 Ethanol 12

1.9 Energy Units and Conversions 12

1.10 Estimating the Cost of Energy 16

1.11 Conclusion 19

Problems 19

References 21

Additional Resources 23

Energy Quest 23

2 DESIGN OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MICROGRID GENERATING STATION 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Photovoltaic Power Conversion 30

2.3 Photovoltaic Materials 31

2.4 Photovoltaic Characteristics 32

2.5 Photovoltaic Efficiency 35

2.6 PV Generating Station 35

2.7 Design of Photovoltaic Grids 39

2.7.1 Three-Phase Power 42

2.8 Design Examples for of PV Generating Stations 44

2.9 Modeling of a Photovoltaic Module 73

2.10 Measurement of Photovoltaic Performance 74

2.11 Maximum Power Point of a Photovoltaic Plant 76

2.12 Control of Maximum Power Point of Photovoltaic Plants 78

2.13 Battery Storage Systems 82

2.14 Storage Systems Based on a Single-Cell Battery 84

2.15 The Energy Yield of a Photovoltaic Module and the Angle of Incidence 94

2.16 Photovoltaic Generation Technology 95

2.17 The Estimation of Photovoltaic Module Model Parameters 95

2.18 Conclusion 97

Problems 98

References 105

Additional Resources 107

3 FUNDAMENTALS OF POWER CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 109

3.1 Introduction 109

3.2 Batteries 110

3.3 DC Circuits and Ohms Law 110

3.4 Common Terms 112

3.5 Elements of Electrical Circuits 112

3.5.1 Inductors 113

3.5.2 Capacitors 116

3.6 Calculating Power Consumption 119

3.6.1 Complex Domain 119

3.6.2 Diodes 127

3.6.3 Controllable Switch 127

3.6.4 The DC–DC Converters in Green Energy Grids 128

3.6.5 The Step-Up Converter 129

3.6.6 The Step-Down Converter 132

3.6.7 The Buck–Boost Converter 138

3.7 Solar and Wind Power Grids 143

3.8 Single-Phase DC–AC Inverters with Two Switches 144

3.9 Single-Phase DC–AC Inverters with a Four-Switch Bipolar Switching Method 154

3.10 Pulse Width Modulation with Unipolar Voltage Switching for a Single-Phase Full-Bridge Inverter 158

3.11 Three-Phase DC–AC Inverters 160

3.12 Microgrid of Renewable Energy 167

3.13 The Sizing of an Inverter for Microgrid Operation 170

Problems 172

References 177

4 SMART DEVICES AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY MONITORING SYSTEMS 178

4.1 Introduction 178

4.2 Measurement Methods 179

4.2.1 Kilowatt-Hours Measurements 179

4.2.2 Current and Voltage Measurements 180

4.2.3 Power Measurements at 60 or 50 Hz 180

4.2.4 Analog-to-Digital Conversions 181

4.2.5 Root Mean Square (RMS) Measurement Devices 182

4.3 Energy Monitoring Systems 182

4.4 Smart Meters: Concepts, Features, and Roles in Smart Grid 183

4.4.1 Power Monitoring and Scheduling 183

4.4.2 Communication Systems 185

4.4.3 Network Security and Software 187

4.4.4 Smart Phone Applications 190

4.5 Summary 190

Problems 191

References 191

5 LOAD ESTIMATION AND CLASSIFICATION 193

5.1 Introduction 193

5.2 Load Estimation of a Residential Load 193

5.3 Service Feeder and Metering 210

5.3.1 AssumedWattages 210

Problems 213

References 216

6 ENERGY SAVING AND COST ESTIMATION OF INCANDESCENT AND LIGHT EMITTING DIODES 217

6.1 Lighting 217

6.2 Comparative Performance of LED, Incandescent, and LFC Lighting 218

6.3 LED Energy Saving 224

6.4 Return on Investment on LED Lighting 225

6.5 The Annual Carbon Emissions 226

References 226

7 THREE-PHASE POWER AND MICROGRIDS 228

7.1 Introduction 228

7.2 The Basic Concept of AC Generator 228

7.3 Three-Phase AC Generator 229

7.4 The Synchronization of Generator to Power Grids 232

7.5 Power Factor and Active and Reactive Power Concepts 233

7.6 Three-Phase Power Grids 236

7.7 Calculating Power Consumption 239

7.8 One-Line Diagram Representation of Three-Phase Power Grids 241

7.9 Load Models 245

7.10 Transformers in Electric Power Grids 249

7.10.1 A Short History of Transformers 249

7.10.2 Transmission Voltage 250

7.10.3 Transformers 251

7.11 Modeling a Microgrid System 255

7.11.1 The Per Unit System 255

7.12 Modeling Three-Phase Transformers 265

7.13 Tap Changing Transformers 268

7.14 Modeling Transmission Lines 270

7.15 The Construction of a Power Grid System 282

7.16 Microgrid of Renewable Energy Systems 289

Problems 294

References 302

8 MICROGRID WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS 304

8.1 Introduction 304

8.2 Wind Power 305

8.3 Wind Turbine Generators 309

8.4 The Modeling of Induction Machines 313

8.4.1 Calculation of Slip 320

8.4.2 The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Machine 321

8.5 Power Flow Analysis of an Induction Machine 325

8.6 The Operation of an Induction Generator 329

8.7 Dynamic Performance 342

8.8 The Doubly Fed Induction Generator 349

8.9 Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator Systems 351

8.10 Variable-Speed Permanent Magnet Generators 352

8.11 A Variable-Speed Synchronous Generator 353

8.12 A Variable-Speed Generator With A Converter Isolated from the Grid 354

Problems 356

References 358

9 MARKET OPERATION OF SMART POWER GRIDS 361

9.1 Introduction—Classical Power Grids 361

9.2 Power Grid Operation 362

9.3 Vertically And Market-Structured Power Grid 368

9.3.1 Who Controls the Power Grids? 369

9.4 The Operation Control of a Power Grid 371

9.5 Load-Frequency Control 372

9.6 Automatic Generation Control 378

9.7 Operating Reserve Calculation 383

9.8 Basic Concepts of a Smart Power Grid 383

9.9 The Load Factor 392

9.10 The Load Factor and Real-Time Pricing 394

9.11 A Cyber-Controlled Smart Grid 397

9.12 Smart Grid Development 400

9.13 Smart Microgrid Renewable and Green Energy Systems 401

9.14 The Impact Of Renewable Power on Voltage Stability and Reactive Power Supply 408

Problems 409

References 410

Additional Resources 411

10 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS OF POWER GRIDS AND MICROGRIDS 413

10.1 Introduction 413

10.2 Voltage Calculation in Power Grid Analysis 414

10.3 The Power Flow Problem 417

10.4 Load Flow Study as a Power System Engineering Tool 418

10.5 Bus Types 419

10.6 General Formulation of the Power Flow Problem 423

10.7 The Bus Admittance Model 426

10.8 The Bus Impedance Matrix Model 427

10.9 Formulation of the Load Flow Problem 429

10.10 The Gauss–Seidel YBus Algorithm 432

10.11 The Gauss–Seidel ZBus Algorithm 437

10.12 Comparison of the YBus and ZBus Power Flow Solution Methods 443

10.13 The Synchronous and Asynchronous Operation of Microgrids 444

10.14 An Advanced Power Flow Solution Method: The Newton–Raphson Algorithm 445

10.14.1 The Newton–Raphson Algorithm 449

10.15 General Formulation of the Newton–Raphson Algorithm 455

10.16 The Decoupled Newton–Raphson Algorithm 458

10.17 The Fast Decoupled Load Flow Algorithm 460

10.18 Analysis of a Power Flow Problem 461

Problems 473

References 485

Additional Resources 486

11 POWER GRID AND MICROGRID FAULT STUDIES 488

11.1 Introduction 488

11.2 Power Grid Fault Current Calculation 489

11.3 Symmetrical Components 492

11.4 Sequence Networks for Power Generators 498

11.5 The Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Generating Station 501

11.6 Sequence Networks for Balanced Three-Phase Transmission Lines 501

11.7 Ground Current Flow in Balanced Three-Phase Transformers 504

11.8 Zero Sequence Network 506

11.8.1 Transformers 506

11.8.2 Load Connections 508

11.8.3 Power Grid 508

11.9 Fault Studies 512

11.9.1 Balanced Three-Phase Fault Analysis 514

11.9.2 Unbalanced Faults 531

11.9.3 Single Line-to-Ground Faults 532

11.9.4 Double Line-to-Ground Faults 534

11.9.5 Line-to-Line Faults 536

Problems 550

References 555

INDEX 000

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Author Information

Ali Keyhani, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The Ohio State University. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and a recipient of The Ohio State University, College of Engineering Research Award for 1989, 1999, and 2003. He has worked for companies such as Columbus and Southern Electric Power Company, Hewlett-Packard Co., Foster Wheeler Engineering, and TRW. He has performed research and consulting for American Electric Power, TRW Control, Liebert, Delphi Automotive Systems, General Electric, General Motors, and Ford. Dr. Keyhani has authored many articles in IEEE Transactions in Energy Conversion, Power Electronics, and Power Systems Engineering.

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