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Dyslexia: A Practitioner's Handbook, 5th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-98012-5
504 pages
January 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Dyslexia: A Practitioner

Description

Newly updated, Gavin Reid’s best-selling handbook remains an essential resource for those helping dyslexic individuals of all ages, from preschoolers to adults in the workplace.

  • Combines theoretical explanations, the latest research, and practical solutions with a focus on inclusion and meeting the individual’s needs
  • New and expanded coverage includes: multilingualism; the use of technology; co-existing conditions such as dyspraxia, dyscalculia, and ADHD; and positive dyslexia
  • Assembles the latest policies and best practices for dyslexia from around the world, and makes  current debates regarding education and literacy accessible to trainees and practitioners
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Table of Contents

About the Author xiv

Other Books by Gavin Reid xvi

Foreword xviii

Preface xxi

Chapter 1 Defining Dyslexia 1

Defining Dyslexia 2

Purpose of Definitions 4

How Should We Define Dyslexia? 5

Definitions 7

Barriers to Implementing Policy 11

Rose Review and Dyslexia 11

Education for Learners with Dyslexia 12

Different Perspectives and Agenda 14

Points for Reflection 15

Chapter 2 Explaining Dyslexia: The Range of Research 17

Causal Modelling Framework 18

Genetic Factors 19

Neurobiological Factors 20

Visual and Temporal Processing 20

Magnocellular Visual System 20

Procedural Timing 22

Hemispheric Symmetry 23

Processing Speed 24

Phonological Processing 25

Phonological Awareness and Multisensory Programmes 25

Morphological Processing 26

Glue Ear 27

Cognitive Skills 29

Metacognition 29

Environmental Factors 29

Additional Language Learning 30

Dyslexia in Different Orthographies 31

Self?]disclosure in Adults 33

Points for Reflection 34

Chapter 3 Assessment: Issues and Considerations 35

The Context 35

Assessment Aims 37

Discrepancy Criteria 37

Listening Comprehension 38

Componential Model of Reading 38

Curriculum Focus 39

Why an Assessment? 40

How? The Assessment Process 40

Effect of an Assessment 42

Assessment—Points to Consider 42

Some Other Considerations 42

Assessment and Inclusion 46

The Bilingual Learner 46

Points for Reflection 47

Chapter 4 Identifying Needs 48

The Context 48

Information Processing 49

Factors That Can Prompt Concern 50

Linking Assessment with Intervention and Support 52

Key Aspects of an IEP 52

The Overlap 53

Assessing Performances 53

Criteria: Summary 54

Whose Responsibility? 57

Early Identification 57

Models of Identification 59

Expert/Intervention—Attainment 59

Barriers to Learning 63

Whole?]School Involvement 64

Points for Reflection 65

Chapter 5 Assessment: Approaches and Resources 66

The Use of Tests—Points to Ponder 67

Assessment and Information Processing 67

Cognitive Measures 68

Assessment of Processing Skills 69

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP?]2) 70

Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests 71

Gray Oral Reading Tests (GORT?]5) 71

Standardised/Psychometric Criteria 71

Standardisation 72

Psychometric 73

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT?]II and III) 74

Comment 74

Phonological Representation and Assessment 75

Screening 76

Curriculum Assessment 79

Miscue Analysis 80

Assessment in Context 81

Assessment for Learning 82

Metacognitive Assessment 83

Multiple Intelligences Approaches 85

A Components Approach 86

Observational Assessment 88

Observational Framework 88

Systematic Observation 92

Summary 93

Points for Reflection 94

Chapter 6 Reading—Social, Cultural and Government Perspectives 95

The Social Context for Literacy 95

Literacy and Culture 95

Defining Literacy 96

Critical Literacy 98

Challenging Assumptions 101

Government Initiatives 102

Literacy Standards and International Comparisons 104

PISA Study 106

Literacy Initiatives 106

Points for Reflection 107

Chapter 7 The Acquisition of Literacy 108

What is Reading? 108

Factors to Consider 109

Reading as a Process 110

Reading Skills 111

Reading Practice 112

Developing Reading Skills 112

Key Factors 112

The Development of Reading 114

Stages of Reading Development 117

Limitations of the Stage Model of Reading 119

Reading and Memory 120

Relationship Between Phonology and Orthography 120

Dyslexia and Different Orthographies 121

Points for Reflection 122

Chapter 8 Reading Models and Methods 123

Bottom?]Up and Top?]Down Models 123

Connectionist Models 125

Balance Model of Reading 126

Method of Teaching Reading 127

Developing Reading Skills 131

Teaching Reading—the Debate 132

Reading Interventions 135

Methodological Issues in Reading Intervention Research 137

Factors to Consider in Developing and Using Reading

Approaches 138

The Literacy Experience 141

Framework for Teaching 142

Summary 143

Points for Reflection 144

Chapter 9 The Acquisition of Literacy: Spelling 145

Why is Spelling Difficult? 145

Systems Involved in Spelling 146

Spelling Skills 148

Spelling Development 149

Spelling Policy 150

Spelling Strategies 150

Spelling Materials 156

Points for Reflection 157

Chapter 10 Expressive Writing 158

The Importance of Writing 158

Relationship Between Writing and Spelling 159

Expressive Writing: The Process 160

Cognitive Skills Associated with Writing 160

Writing in the Curriculum 161

Developing Metacognitive Skills through Writing 162

Metacognitive Strategies for Writing 163

Strategies for Writing 165

Motivation and Writing 166

Planning 167

Pre?]writing Framework 167

Developing Ideas 169

Handwriting 171

Summary 172

Points for Reflection 173

Chapter 11 Teaching Approaches: Points to Consider 174

Overview of Approaches 175

The Context 176

Assessment and the Curriculum 177

The Learner 178

Programmes and Approaches—Some Considerations 179

Overlearning 182

Principles 183

Issues 183

Points for Reflection 186

Chapter 12 Supporting Literacy: Individualised Programmes 188

Criteria for Selection 189

Orton–Gillingham (OG) 192

The Hickey Multisensory Language Course 194

Bangor Dyslexia Teaching System 195

Letterland 197

Reading Recovery 198

Toe by Toe: Multisensory Manual for Teachers and Parents 202

Alternative Approaches 203

Comment—Issues to Consider 209

Points for Reflection 210

Chapter 13 Supporting Literacy: Approaches and Strategies 211

Phonics Instructional Approaches 211

Language Experience 215

Other Support Approaches 216

Phonological Approaches 218

High?]Interest Books—History 219

Barrington Stoke (www.barringtonstoke.com) 220

Start to Finish Books 220

Differentiated Texts 221

Visual Factors 221

Motor Aspects 224

Assisted Learning 225

Summary 229

Points for Reflection 230

Chapter 14 Supporting Learning 231

Effective Learning 231

Key Points about Learning 233

The Learning Process 233

Realising Potential 236

Zone of Proximal Development 237

Developing Learning Skills 237

Learning Strategies 238

Multiple Intelligences 241

Study Skills 244

Set Goals 246

Feedback 246

Memory—Some Strategies 247

The Role of Self?]esteem 249

Creativity and the ‘Gifted’ Dyslexic Student 249

Summary 250

Points for Reflection 251

Chapter 15 Inclusion: Curriculum Access 252

The Context 252

Responding to the Diverse Needs of Students 254

The Challenges 255

Meeting Curriculum Objectives 257

Index for Inclusion 257

Tensions and Contradictions 259

Assessment, Need and Accountability 260

Removing Barriers to Achievement 261

Interventions and Inclusion 261

Making the School Inclusive 264

Equity 265

Principles of Inclusion 266

An Inclusive School 268

Healthy Schools 268

Supporting Inclusion 269

Staff Support and Training 270

Student Advocacy 272

Dyslexia and Self?]advocacy 273

Staff Support 274

Key Factors 275

Points for Reflection 275

Chapter 16 Inclusion in Secondary Education: Accessing the the Curriculum 276

Responsibility 277

Features of Secondary Schools 277

Differentiation and Curricular Development 280

Differentiation and Assessment 281

Subject Areas 281

Multiple Intelligences in Secondary Schools 294

Physical Education 295

Staff Development 296

Challenges: Key Areas 297

Points for Reflection 299

Chapter 17 Inclusion: Further and Higher Education and the Workplace 300

Further and Higher Education 301

The Workplace 313

Concluding Comment 315

Points for Reflection 316

Chapter 18 The Role of Parents 317

Parental Concerns 318

Parental Support 320

Parents’ Challenges 322

Parents as Partners 324

Points for Reflection 324

Chapter 19 Multilingualism: Challenges and Responses 325

Background and Context 325

Cultural Factors 326

Culture?]fair Assessment 330

Teaching 331

Key Principles 332

Metacognitive Awareness/Schema 333

Concluding Points 334

Points for Reflection 334

Chapter 20 The Overlap—Dyslexia: Attention, Coordination, Auditory Processing and Numeracy 335

Introduction 335

The Overlap Dilemma 336

Attention Issues 337

Identifying and Defining Attention Difficulties 340

Intervention 342

ADHD and Creativity 345

Coordination, Movement and Handwriting 346

Intervention Strategies—15 Tasks to Try 347

Handwriting 348

Dysgraphia Strategies 349

Early Intervention 350

Auditory Processing 351

Intervention 352

Difficulty with Numbers 354

Reading in Mathematics 356

Diagnosing Dyscalculia 356

Intervention 357

Points for Reflection 359

Chapter 21 The Use of Computers and Technology 360

Introduction 360

Approaches Using New Technology 363

Resources—Computer Programs 364

British Dyslexia Association New Technologies Committee (BDA NTC) 365

Comment 366

Points for Reflection 366

Chapter 22 Positive Dyslexia 367

The Background 367

Five Key Factors 368

How Dyslexia Affects Children’s Learning 370

Metacognition 370

Encourage Creativity 371

Provide Feedback to Students About Their Own

Personal Progress 371

Encourage Self?]assessment 371

Develop Student Responsibility 372

Enhancing Creativity 372

Concluding Comment 374

Points for Reflection 374

Appendix 1 Some Popular Tests for Dyslexia that Can Be Used by Teachers 375

Test of Phonological Awareness, Second Edition: Plus (TOPA-2+) (2004) 375

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2) (2013) 375

Launch Into Reading Success—Test of Phonological Awareness (1997) 376

GORT-5: Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fifth Edition (2012) 376

TOWRE-2—Test of Word Reading Efficiency,

Second Edition (2012) 377

WIST (Word Identification and Spelling Test) (2004) 377

DIBELS 378

Bangor Dyslexia Screening Test 378

Dyslexia Screening Test—Junior (DST-J) (2004) 379

Dyslexia Screening Test—Secondary (DST-S) (2004) 379

Dyslexia Screener (2004) 380

Cognitive Profiling System (CoPS) Version 5.1 (2010) 381

Special Needs Assessment Profile 381

WIAT-II UK for Teachers (2006) 382

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II)

(UK Norms and III US and Canada Norms Only) 382

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II)

(UK Norms and III US and Canada Norms Only) 382

Phonological Assessment Battery Revised (PhAB-2 ) 383

HAST-2 Helen Arkell Spelling Test 383

Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4) 384

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning,

Second Edition (WRAML-2) (2003) 384

Test of Auditory Processing Skills—3 (TAPS-3) 384

Appendix 2 Further Contacts 385

International 385

North and South America and Canada 385

Australia and New Zealand 387

Europe 387

Middle East 388

Asia 389

Africa 389

Other Websites 390

Organisations 391

Articles and Reviews About Dyslexia 392

Literacy 393

References 394

Index 437

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