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Perspectives on Complex Global Challenges: Education, Energy, Healthcare, Security, and Resilience

ISBN: 978-1-118-98409-3
232 pages
July 2016
Perspectives on Complex Global Challenges: Education, Energy, Healthcare, Security, and Resilience (1118984099) cover image

Description

Examines current and prospective challenges surrounding global challenges of education, energy, healthcare, security, and resilience

This book discusses issues in large-scale systems in the United States and around the world. The authors examine the challenges of education, energy, healthcare, national security, and urban resilience. The book covers challenges in education including America's use of educational funds, standardized testing, and the use of classroom technology.  On the topic of energy, this book examines debates on climate, the current and future developments of the nuclear power industry, the benefits and cost decline of natural gases, and the promise of renewable energy. The authors also discuss national security, focusing on the issues of nuclear weapons, terrorism and cyber security. Urban resilience is addressed in the context of natural threats such as hurricanes and floods.

  • Studies the usage of a globalized benchmark for both student and pedagogical performance
  • Covers topics such as surveillance, operational capabilities, movement of resources, and the pros and cons of globalization
  • Examines big data, evolving medical methodologies and effects on the medical educational curriculum, and the positive effects of electronic records in healthcare data

Perspectives on Complex Global Challenges: Education, Energy Healthcare, Security, and Resilience serves as a reference for government officials, personnel in security, business executives and system engineers.

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Table of Contents

Contributors xiii

Introduction and Overview 1
Elisabeth Paté-Cornell William B. Rouse and Charles M. Vest

Can America Still Compete? 17
Norman R. Augustine

SECTION I EDUCATION 21

1 Introduction 23

Overview of Contributions 28

References 30

2 K-12 Education Reform in the United States 33
Craig R. Barrett

Great Teachers 35

High Expectations 36

Tension in the System 36

Intelligent use of Technology in the Classroom 37

Make Education Relevant for the Student 38

3 Secure America’s Economic Future by Investing in Young Children 41
Deborah J. Stipek

Reference 43

Recommended Readings 43

4 The Future of Teaching in the United States 45
Linda Darling-Hammond

References 48

5 The Conundrum of Controlling College Costs 49
Lawrence S. Bacow

References 52

6 Military Education 53
William J. Perry

SECTION II ENERGY 59

7 Introduction 61

Energy Demand 62

The Electric Grid 64

Nuclear Power 65

Renewable Energy 66

Role of Consumers 67

Overview of Contributions 69

References 71

8 The Future of the US Electric Grid 73
Richard Schmalensee

System Organization 73

Bulk Power 74

Distribution 76

Cybersecurity 78

Concluding Observations 78

9 The Revolution in Natural Gas 81
John Deutch

10 The Future of Nuclear Power in the United States 85
Richard A. Meserve

11 Renewable Energy: Balancing Risk and Reward 89
Richard H. Truly and Michal C. Moore

SECTION III HEALTHCARE 93

12 Introduction 95

Driving Forces 96

Complexity of Decision Making 98

Value and Healthcare Delivery 98

Overview of Contributions 100

References 102

13 How to Move Toward Value-Based Healthcare? 105
Denis A. Cortese and Robert K. Smoldt

Recommended Readings 107

14 Delivering on the Promise to Reduce the Cost of Healthcare with Electronic Health Records 109
William W. Stead

Recommended Readings 112

15 Big Data in Health and Healthcare: Hopes and Fears for the Future 113
Elizabeth A. McGlynn

16 Medical Education: One Size Does not Fit All 117
Lloyd B. Minor and Michael M.E. Johns

SECTION IV SECURITY 121

17 Introduction 123

Emergence of Non-State Powers and Terrorist Groups 123

Resizing the US Nuclear Arsenal 124

Cybersecurity 125

Intelligence 126

Biological Weapons 126

US Defense Budget 127

Overview of Contributions 128

References 132

18 Vigilance in an Evolving Terrorism Landscape 133
Michael E. Leiter

19 The Market’s Role in Improving Cybersecurity 139
Herbert Lin

References 144

20 On Nuclear Weapons 145
George P. Shultz

21 The Nuclear Security Challenge: It is International 147
Siegfried S. Hecker

22 Nuclear Weapon Reductions Must be Part of Strategic Analysis 151
Henry A. Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft

23 Maintaining us Leadership in Science Technology and Innovation for National Security 155
Jacques S. Gansler

SECTION V RESILIENCE 159

24 Introduction 161

Framework for Urban Resilience 162

Potential Approaches 163

Overview of Contributions 164

References 167

25 Urban Resilience: How Cities need to Adapt to Unanticipated and Sudden Change 169
Michael Batty

References 171

26 Buying Down Risks and Investing in Resilience 173
Richard Reed

References 177

27 Resilience from the Perspective of a Chief Urban Designer 179
Alexandros Washburn

28 Engineering for Resilience: Ten Commandments of the Dutch Approach 183
Theo Toonen

System of Systems 186

Public Expertise 187

Crowded House 188

Co-Governance 188

Clear Direction 189

Executive Leadership 190

International Bat Strategy 191

Implementation Democracy 191

Shared Service 193

Checks and Balances 193

References 194

Conclusions 195

Index 197

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Author Information

Elisabeth Paté-Cornell, PhD, is the Burt and Deedee McMurtry Professor of Engineering at Stanford University in the department of Management Science and Engineering, which she chaired from its creation in 2000 to 2011. She is a past president of the Society for Risk Analysis. She served as a member of the President’s (Foreign) Intelligence Advisory Board from 2001 to 2008. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and of several boards including InQtel, Draper Laboratory and Aerospace Corporation.

William B. Rouse, PhD, is the Alexander Crombie Humphreys Chair of Economics in Engineering at Stevens Institute of Technology, and Director of the university-wide Center for Complex Systems and Enterprises. He is also Professor Emeritus of Industrial and Systems Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Dr. Rouse is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Charles M. Vest, PhD, was president emeritus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and president emeritus of the National Academy of Engineering.  A mechanical engineer, he previously was dean of engineering and provost at the University of Michigan, and was a trustee of several universities and non-profit organizations devoted to education, research, and national security.

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